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Linguistic situation in the US now
Linguistic situation in the US now
Is English the Official Language of the USA
Is English the Official Language of the USA
Percent of People 5 Years and Over Who Speak a Language Other Than
Percent of People 5 Years and Over Who Speak a Language Other Than
Percent of People 5 Years and Over Who Speak a Language Other Than
Percent of People 5 Years and Over Who Speak a Language Other Than
Percent of People 5 Years and Over Who Speak Spanish at Home: 2005
Percent of People 5 Years and Over Who Speak Spanish at Home: 2005
Percent of People 5 Years and Over Who Speak Spanish at Home: 2005
Percent of People 5 Years and Over Who Speak Spanish at Home: 2005
The History of American English
The History of American English
merican english
merican english
merican english
merican english
The Northern Dialects
The Northern Dialects
The West
The West
merican english

: . , . , merican english.ppt zip- 271 .

merican english

merican english.ppt
1merican english. 23The Northern Dialects. The ND
2Linguistic situation in the US now. stretches from New England and New York
Speakers of American English outnumber all westward to Oregon and Washington (North,
native speakers of English outside the US New York, New England).
by about 2 to 1 and those of British 24Northern pronunciation. The most
English by nearly 4 to 1 About 28 mil noticeable difference within the region is
people or about 1 in 9, of the inhabitants that New York and New England areas are
of the US have a language other that non-rhotic while the western portion of
English as their mother tongue. In the North is rhotic. Merger of vowels in
descending order for numbers of speakers, cot and cought [o:] ? [?] might be
the main languages of the US are: English, observed in New England Matter and
Spanish, Italian, German, French, Polish, Madder are often near-homophones in the
Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean and North.
Vietnamese. 25Rhotic area. Non-Rhotic Area.
3Is English the Official Language of 26The Southern dialects. SD centers on
the USA? English is the national language the Atlantic port cities of the states of
of the US It is not the official language Virginia, the Carolinas, Georgia, blending
because it is not legally prescribed as westward along the Gulf Coast into Texas.
the language of gov. operations. Non-Rhotic.
4Rapid English Language Aquisition. . 27The Southern Dialects This area is
5 characterized by a strong African
6Percent of People 5 Years and Over Who influence on AE especially on the islands
Speak a Language Other Than English at of South Carolina and Georgia where Gullah
Home: 2005. is spoken.
7Percent of People 5 Years and Over Who 28Southern pronunciation. non-rhotic;
Speak Spanish at Home: 2005. Diphthongs into monophthongs: hide [h?d]
8 is a near rhyme of both hod and
9The English-only movement. The non-rhotic hard[ai > ?]; Monophthongs
English-only activism has its roots in into diphthongs: loft [lauft] which
1980s when 23 states declared English to results is a near rhyme with lout [?
be their official language In 1996, for >au]; Merger of vowels in pin and
the first time, Congress voted on a bill- pen [ i ] > [ e ];
The English Language Empowerment Act of 29Southern vocabulary. Archaic
1996- designating English as the federal expressions: branch- a brook;
governments sole language of official all-overs- feelings of uneasiness;
business. The targets of the English-only hull- the shell of a nut; kinfolk-
movement were linguistic minorities, relatives; Scat!- Bless you! Other
bilingual educators and Indian tribes. languages have contributed to Southern:
10The English-only movement arguments. Amerindian languages: terrapin a turtle;
English has been social glue in the the French of Louisiana: armoire
United States Because of wardrobe, bayou a small river; Spanish
government-sponsored bilingual programs influence: vaquero cowboy African
new immigrants are reluctant to learn languages.
English Language diversity is dangerous 30The Midland. Rhotic. North Midland -
for the whole nation because it leads to Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, Iowa;
ethnic hostility, language conflict and South Midland - Kentucky, Tennessee
political separatism like in Quebec. Missouri and Arkansas, West Virginia.
11The English-only movement. America is 31Midland pronunciation. Midland is
made up of individuals. As Woodrow Wilson rhotic The merger of vowels - tot and
said, as long as you consider yourself a taught [O: >?] In the Ohio River
part of a group, you are still not valley the vowel of itch rhymes with
assimilated into American society, because each (in both cases [i:]) [ i >i:] ,
America, like other nations, is made up of so that fish and television have the
individuals and not made up of groups. sound of the vowel in meet [i:].
Toby Roth Debate on English-only 32The West. Rhotic. the West is a source
Legislation. Aug 1996. of linguistic innovation It is a
12The English-only movement. According coherent-dialect region.
to Chicago Tribune, in 1996 there were 91 33Western pronunciation. The merger of
charge filings on language discrimination, long and short vowels in "don"
in 2001 that number rose to 441 Such and "dawn" is universal [o:] ?
complaints seldom make it to court It is [^]. The vowel in "measure";
impossible to track how many workers are "fresh" is pronounced as a
negatively impacted by these policies. diphthong [ei], so such words as
13English-Plus Concept. LULAC (League of "edge" and "age" are
United Latin American Citizens) is the homophones [e] ? [ei] Vowels in
organization that advocates the "seal" and "sill" are
English-Plus Concept About 175 almost identical [i:]?[i].
indigenous languages survive today but 34Western vocabulary.
only 20 of these are still being learned "parking" a band of grass
by children. It celebrates the cultural between sidewalk and curb;
and linguistic diversification of America "chesterfield" a sofa.
and treats this nation's multiethnic and Borrowings from Mexican Spanish: adios -
multilingual communities as national goodbye, bronco - wild, hombre - guy.
resources. Other languages have contributed words:
14The English-Plus Movement Arguments. aloha - farewell (Hawaiian), kung fu
Immigrants have much to offer from their (Chinese), nisei - a person of Japanese
diversified languages and cultural descent born in the US (Japanese).
backgrounds Additive bilingualism creates 35Cow. time. Cot/ caught. men.
a language competent society: both Seal/sill. [r]. [au]. [ai]. [?]-[o : ].
limited English proficient individuals and [e]. [i:]-[i]. [?]. [? u]. [? i]. [? ].
native English speakers will be able to [e]. [i:]-[i]. [? ]. [? u]. [? i]. [? ]-[
develop fluency in a second language o: ]. [e]. [i:]-[i]. [? ]. [? u]. [?]. [?
Bilingual students develop a mental ]-[ o: ]. [i]. [i:]-[i]. [r]. [? u]. [?].
agility and flexibility For bilingual [? ]-[o : ]. [i]. [i]. [r]. [? u]. [? i].
students it is easier to study another [? ]-[o : ]. [e]. [i]. [r]. [? u]. [? i].
foreign language. [? ]. [e]. [i]. Car rhotic/ non-rhotic.
15The English-Plus Movement Arguments A North. New England. New York city. South.
study at the University of Miami (1990). South Midland. North Midland. West. .
Linguistic knowledge among Hispanic 36Other influences on US dialects. The
families drastically affects family usage of all Americans, regardless of
income. Families who spoke: only Spanish dialect, is influenced by such factors as:
had an average income of $ 18,000; those ethnic background; gender; age; social
with only English, $32,000; and those with class; occupation or profession.
Spanish and English, $50,376. 37Ethnic varieties in A E. Black English
16The History of American English. The or Ebonics or Vernacular English; Hispanic
Colonial Period (1607-1776), birth of English; Indian English, Jewish English,
distinctive American English; The National Pennsylvania Dutch English; The Cajun
Period (1776-1898) establishment and English of Louisiana and some others.
consolidation of American English; The 38Black English. Pidgin compromise
International Period (from 1898) AE has commu- nication system. Creole languages.
influenced other varieties of English and Modern Black English.
other languages. 39Black English pronunciation.
17The Colonial Period. Divergent non-rhotic; [n] is commonly replaced [?]
features leveled inside a single colony. in ing comin, runnin; final
The barrier of the Atlantic began the consonant clusters are reduced: des for
process of divergence of American from desk, tes for test, [d] takes the place
British usage almost immediately. Changes of the initial [?] dat day for that day;
in the motherland were slow to reach the dis house etc; [f] often replaces [? ]
colonies Colonists adapted old uses to new in south; shift of stress in disyllabic
purposes and borrowed from other groups : words: p`olice, define.
the Amerindians, the Dutch, the French. 40BE Grammar. Multiple negation is
18The National Period. Linguistically, common: No way no girl cant wear no
this period faced two related challenges: platform shoes to no amusement park.
the evolution and recognition of a Inflected forms such as plural, possessive
separate standard English for the USA; the ed, -s are omitted; Question inversion:
extension of that standard over the whole What it is? It replaces there: It
nation as it expanded westward (Noah aint no food here. Been is used to
Webster Federal English). express long-standing events with remote
19The International period. The USA past: I been see dat movie. = I saw that
extended its overseas interests: an Open movie long ago. Come functions as a
Door policy for China; the Panamanian semi-auxiliary: He come tellin me some
revolution against Colombia, intervention story = He told me a lie.
in Latin American affairs,etc. The USA 41BE Vocabulary. The influence of West
played an increasing role in world African languages (yam - sweet potato;
politics and economics with a consequent tote to carry). Significant changes of
effect on AE usage. Spread of AE and words are common: bad is used to mean
American pop culture throughout the world. good and vice versa. Many expressions
20Major Varieties of AE. Varieties of AE have crossed over into mainstream of
are more determined by region than by any colloquial AE: boom box tape recorder;
other factors such as ethnicity, gender, hip someone who is very knowledgeable
age, social class. AE Dialects are treated about popular culture, dude as a
under four broad geographical headings: reference for any male.
the North, the Coastal South, Midland and 42Black English Vernacular. Non-standard
the West. Black to Black. Standard. BEV of the
21 North. BEV of the South. Chicago BEV.
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merican english.ppt
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merican english

merican english

The english-speaking countries - The English-speaking countries. Scotland. Great Britain. USA. Disneyland. Australia.

Success English - . . , . . Success English. . Success English. . . . .

Happy English - Worry, worry keeps me awake: Hurry, hurry, dont make mistakes! . Happy english.Ru 3 . . . , , . . Education is not a preparation for life; education is life itself..

English for you - EuroTalk. . . . You are welcome! ? . .

English words - Words. 1) FALSE watch 2) FALSE disco 3) TRUE 4) TRUE 5) FALSE sightseeing 6) FALSE friend 7) TRUE 8) FALSE terrible 9) TRUE 10) FALSE meal. That is all! 1) Go and wotch a match 2) Go to a disko 3) Go shopping 4) Go for a picnic 5) Go sightseeng 6) Go and see a frend 7) Go to a party 8)I had a terible time 9) Go skiing 10) Go for a meel in a restaurant.

English speaking countries - THE IRISH SEA. Ireland. English-speaking countries. FARMING. Ireland: Listening-Reading-Speaking-Test. SHIPBUILDING. WHAT ARE THE MAIN SIGHTS OF BELFAST? Northern Ireland The Irish Republic. WHAT IS IRELAND FAMOUS FOR? IRISH. PATRICK`S CATHEDRAL. Great Britain. THE ATLANTIC OCEAN. WHAT IS IRELAND WASHED BY?

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