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Celtic and English in contact
Celtic and English in contact
Celtic and English in contact
Celtic and English in contact
Celtic and English in contact
Celtic and English in contact
The development of the English language in Ireland
The development of the English language in Ireland
Celtic and English in contact
Celtic and English in contact
Celtic and English in contact
Celtic and English in contact
Celtic and English in contact
Celtic and English in contact
Suggestions for sources of key features of Irish English
Suggestions for sources of key features of Irish English
Suggestions for sources of key features of Irish English
Suggestions for sources of key features of Irish English
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Celtic and English in contact

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1Celtic and English in contact. 9several features are present which can be
2 traced to the language shift or to the
3Celtic-English contact through the retention of earlier English input to
ages. 1) Old English period Germanic Ireland, e.g. They’re after selling their
invaders of England came into contact with house ‘They have just sold their house’
Celts, speakers of Brythonic, as of the She has the work done ‘She has now
mid 5c AD. As opposed to former views, one finished the work’ He likes the life in
now assumes that the Celts were subjugated Dublin ‘He likes life in Dublin’ Where are
by the Germanic tribes rather than ye going? ‘Where are you [more than one
banished to unpopulated parts of the west person] going?’ Some of these features are
of England and Scotland. They probably got only found in vernacular Irish English,
the Celts to work for them. Consider that e.g. He does be at home in the morning ‘He
the word for Celt in Old English is wealh is always at home in the morning’, What
(cf. Welsh) and that this existed in a are youse up to? ‘What are you [more than
feminine form wielh which was also the one person] doing?’, They didn’t cause no
word for female servant. Although there trouble ‘They didn’t cause any trouble’.
are few loanwords from Celtic, an 10
influence on English pronunciation and 11The English language in Ireland.
grammar may have occurred: (i) the Varieties of Irish English have been
transfer of consonant weakening from transported to many overseas locations
Brythonic to English may have been (the Caribbean, USA, Canada, Australia,
responsible for the loss of inflectional New Zealand) as a result of considerable
endings and the typological realignment of emigration from Ireland during the
English as a SVO language in the following colonial period (17th to 19th centuries).
centuries. (ii) the rise of the Possible influences of Irish English on
progressive in English (e.g. I am visiting varieties of English in other parts of the
Moscow this week) and the use of anglophone world have been identified
possessive pronouns with inalienable (Hickey ed. 2004). Recent varieties of
possession (e.g. I broke my arm, My tooth Dublin English show new developments which
is sore). have arisen during the economic boom which
4Celtic-English contact through the Ireland has experienced in the past 15
ages. 2) Early Modern period The spread of years or so (Hickey 2005). Advanced Dublin
English throughout the British Isles led English has features of pronunciation
in later centuries to a gradual shift from (vowel values and consonant shifts) which
Celtic to English on the part of speakers have spread rapidly to other parts of the
in the Celtic regions, specifically in Republic of Ireland. There is no codified
Wales, Scotland and Ireland. The language standard of Irish English, but
shift which took place caused the transfer supraregional usage, derived from
of many structures from the Celtic middle-class Dublin English, was a de
languages to the varieties of English facto standard during the 20th century.
which emerged in these regions. This is This has been affected by new Dublin
especially true of English in Ireland and English and the latter is quickly
in western, northern Scotland including establishing itself as a model of
the islands off the north-west coast of non-local Irish English usage.
this country. As with the earlier period, 12
the main linguistic levels affected were 13Key features of English in Ireland,
phonology and syntax. This is typical of Phonology & Morphology. Phonology 1)
language transfer from a substrate Lenition of alveolar stops in positions of
language (in this case Irish and Scottish high sonority, e.g. city, cat. 2) Use of
Gaelic) to a superstrate language (in this clear [l] in all positions in a word (only
case English). The remarks which I will in conservative varieties) 3) Retention of
make on English in Ireland apply to a syllable-final /r/ 4) Distinction of short
great extent to the English language in vowels before /r/ (only in conservative
those regions of Scotland where shift from varieties) 5) Retention of the distinction
Gaelic took place in recent centuries. between which and witch. Morphology 1)
5The development of the English Distinction between second singular and
language in Ireland. website: plural personal pronouns 2) Epistemic
www.uni-due.de/IERC. negative must, e.g. He mustn?t be
6Periods in the development of Irish Scottish. 3) Them as demonstrative, e.g.
English. 1) First period Late 12th century Them shoes in the hall.
to 1600 Establishment of English on the 14Key features of English in Ireland,
east coast in a band from Dublin down to Syntax. 1) Perfective aspect with two
Waterford. English is above all present in sub-types: a) Immediate perfective, e.g.
the towns; Anglo-Norman — and of course She is after spilling the milk. b)
Irish — in the countryside. Increasing Resultative perfective, e.g. She has the
Gaelicisation in the centuries after the housework done. (OV word order) 2)
initial invasion led to the demise of Habitual aspect, expressed by do + be or
English outside the major towns. The low bees or inflectional -s in the first
point for English is reached in the 16th person singular a) She does be reading
century with Irish in a correspondingly books. b) They bees up late at night. c) I
strong position. 2) Second period 1600 to gets awful anxious about the kids when
present-day This begins with a decisive they’re away. 3) Reduced number of verb
military defeat for the Irish. The north forms, e.g. seen and done as preterite,
of the country is particularly affected went as past participle 4) Negative
with settlers from Lowland Scotland moving concord, e.g. He’s not interested in no
to Ulster and establishing a firm presence cars. 5) Clefting for topicalisation
there. Later on in the 17th century there purposes, e.g. It’s to Glasgow he’s going.
are vigorous plantations of the south of 6) Greater range of the present tense,
the country (under Cromwell). By the end e.g. I know him for more than six years
of the 17th century, the position of now. 7) Be as auxiliary, e.g. They’re
English is unassailable and the general finished the work now. 8) Till in the
decline of Irish sets in with events like sense of ‘in order that’, e.g. Come here
the Great Famine in the late 1840?s and till I tell you. 9) Singular time
the ensuing mass emigration dealing a reference for never, e.g. She never rang
final blow to the language. yesterday evening. 10) For to infinitives
7 of purpose, e.g. He went to Dublin for to
8The English language in Ireland. After buy a car. 11) Subordinating and
the accession of James VI of Scotland as (frequently concessive), e.g. We went for
James I to the English throne a vigorous a walk and it raining. 12) Preference for
policy of plantation was pursued in that as relative pronoun This is the book
Ulster, filling the geographical and that I read.
political vacuum left by the defeated 15Possible sources of features in Irish
Irish with settlers from Lowland Scotland English. 1) Transfer from Irish 2a)
and also from other parts of Britain, Dialect forms of English 2b) Archaic forms
mainly northern Britain. These settlers of English 3) Features deriving from the
are the ancestors of the current context in which English was learned 4)
Protestant population in Northern Ireland. Features with no recognisable source
The two new groups in 17th century Ulster (independent developments).
led to a linguistic landscape in which 16Suggestions for sources of key
Ulster Scots on the rim of the province features of Irish English.
and Mid-Ulster English further inland 17Suggestions for sources of key
became the dominant varieties of English. features of Irish English.
Ulster Scots has retained its specific 18Recommended literature. Filppula,
profile to this day and has been Markku 1999. The Grammar of Irish English.
strengthened by official recognition in Language in Hibernian style. London:
the European Charter for Regional or Routledge. Hickey, Raymond 2004. A Sound
Minority Languages (1992) which was Atlas of Irish English. Berlin and New
adopted by the government of the United York: Mouton de Gruyter. Hickey, Raymond
Kingdom in 2001. The English language in 2005. Irish English. History and
major cities of Northern Ireland has Present-Day Forms. Cambridge: University
undergone specific developments which have Press. Hickey, Raymond 2005. Dublin
been investigated by sociolinguists, above English. Evolution and Change. Amsterdam:
all by James and Lesley Milroy. John Benjamins. Hickey, Raymond (ed.)
9The English language in Ireland. In 2004. Legacies of Colonial English.
the south of Ireland the development of Cambridge: University Press. Kirk, John M.
English was characterised by the major and D?nall ? Baoill (eds) 2001. Language
language shift which took place Links: the Languages of Scotland and
approximately between the early 17th and Ireland. Belfast Studies in Language,
late 19th century. In this period the Culture and Politics, 2. Belfast: Queen?s
rural population abandoned their native University. Lucas, Angela (ed.) 1995.
Irish and increasingly adopted English as Anglo-Irish Poems of the Middle Ages.
their first, and later their only Dublin: Columba Press. McCafferty, Kevin
language. During this process many 2001. Ethnicity and Language Change.
features, above all in pronunciation and English in (London)Derry, Northern
grammar, were transferred as part of the Ireland. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
new variety of Irish English. Prominent Milroy, James 1981. Regional Accents of
features of the Irish pronunciation of English: Belfast. Belfast: Blackstaff.
English include the lack of interdental Milroy, Lesley 1987 [1980]. Language and
fricatives, a fricative t in open Social Networks. 2nd edition. Oxford:
positions and the continuing presence of Blackwell.
historical r. In the area of grammar
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