Курсы английского
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AMERICAN SIGN LANGUAGE: PLACE (Emmorey 82) (cf Fromkin Rodman Hyams
AMERICAN SIGN LANGUAGE: PLACE (Emmorey 82) (cf Fromkin Rodman Hyams
AMERICAN SIGN LANGUAGE: MOVEMENT (Emmorey 82) (cf Fromkin Rodman Hyams
AMERICAN SIGN LANGUAGE: MOVEMENT (Emmorey 82) (cf Fromkin Rodman Hyams
BEES’ ROUND DANCE (Kemp & Smith 663)
BEES’ ROUND DANCE (Kemp & Smith 663)
BEES’ TAIL-WAGGING DANCE (Kemp and Smith 664)
BEES’ TAIL-WAGGING DANCE (Kemp and Smith 664)
SARAH’S SYMBOLS (Kemp and Smith 672)
SARAH’S SYMBOLS (Kemp and Smith 672)
YERKISH LEXIGRAMS (Kemp and Smith 672)
YERKISH LEXIGRAMS (Kemp and Smith 672)
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1CHAPTER 1: WHAT IS LANGUAGE? 30cross-over, A over A, etc.). 6. There is a
PowerPoint by Don L. F. Nilsen to critical age for foreign-language
accompany An Introduction to Language (8th acquisition (around puberty). 7. There is
or 9th edition 2007/2011) by Victoria a sequence in language acquisition
Fromkin, Robert Rodman and Nina Hyams. 45. (holophrastic, pivot-open, telegraphic,
1. adult). Note also color acquisition in
2LANGUAGE PLAY & MAPPING. The both phylogeny and ontogeny. (Fromkin
primary function of language is not to Rodman Hyams [2011] 1-37). 45. 30.
communicate, but is rather to think 318. Human language is rule-governed
creatively or analogically. Language play (like mathematics). It is not memorized.
allows humans to map an infinite number of 9. Human language is very creative. Except
real-world details onto a small finite for small-talk, almost all sentences are
number of sounds, letters and words. (cf. novel. Language can adjust to new
Fromkin Rodman Hyams [2011] 8-11). 45. 2. situations (unlike bee-language for
3And the exciting thing is that this unexpected placing of honey source).
mapping happens not only for the infinite (Fromkin Rodman Hyams [2011] 1-37). 45.
details of the real world, but of all 31.
possible worlds whether real, discovered, 3210. Human language has duality. A
invented, postulated, fictionalized, or limited number of symbols are reused in
imagined. 45. 3. many different ways. 11. Human language
4THE CONTINUITY PARADOX. Derek has displacement in Time, Place, and
Bickerton states it as follows: “Until we Truth. 12. Human language is not
cease to regard language as primarily predictable. Given a particular stimulus,
communicative and begin to treat it as there is a much wider range of responses
primarily representational, we cannot hope for humans than for animals. (Fromkin
to escape from the Continuity Paradox” Rodman Hyams [2011] 1-37). 45. 32.
(Bickerton 689). 45. 4. 33CONCLUSION. The most important of
5FORM-MEANING CORRELATION. CONTRAST Chomsky’s observations is that “Language
SOUNDS, SPELLINGS AND MEANINGS: Antonyms: is Creative.” Language should not be
tall vs. short Converses: buy vs. sell prescribed, as that would limit its
Cognates: embarrassed vs. embarazada creativity. Rather, language should be
Heteronyms: minute vs. minute Homographs: allowed to adapt to social situations. In
bank vs. bank Homonyms: Homographs or other word language VARIES in the
Homophones Homophones: too vs. two vs. to following ways: 45. 33.
Hyponyms: metaphor vs. metaphor Synonyms: 34LANGUAGE VARIATION. V-Vocational
big vs. large (Fromkin Rodman Hyams [2011] Differences A-Age Differences Individual
196-198). 45. 5. (holophrastic vs. adult language) Language
6WORD-LEVEL VS. SENTENCE-LEVEL GRAMMAR (Old English vs. Modern English)
LEXICAL: SYNTACTIC: AMBIGUITY: Take your R-Regional Differences I-Informality
pick! Call me a taxi! ANOMALY: She wanted Differences E-Ethnic Differences S-Sex
a gnepf. John me cow a gave. PARAPHRASE: Differences. 45. 34.
William hit a policeman. Bill hit John. 35The most creative aspect of language
vs. Bill slugged a cop. vs. John was hit is its ability to adapt to new situations,
by Bill. 45. 6. and it does this by using the “Master
7WHAT A GRAMMAR MUST DEAL WITH. Tropes”: Metaphor, Metonymy, Synecdoche,
Analysis vs. Synthesis: Parsing vs. and Irony. METAPHOR, METONYMY, SYNECDOCHE,
Generative Grammar Denotation vs. IRONY AND LANGUAGE PLAY. 45. 35.
Connotation: Pro-Choice vs. Pro-Life views 36HOMO ERECTUS, HOMO SAPIENS, HOMO
of “abortion” Systematic vs. Accidental LOQUENS AND HOMO RIDENS. Humans have been
Gaps: “schplick” vs. “blick”. 45. 7. called “homo erectus” because like
8FORM VS. MEANING. Linguistics is primates, kangaroos and chickens they
concerned with the mapping of meaning onto stand erect. They have been called “homo
form (decoding) and form onto meaning sapiens” because they are the thinking
(encoding). The form is the surface animal. They have been called “home
structure (phonology, graphology, loquens” because they are the talking
morphology and syntax) The meaning is the animal. But they have been called “homo
deep structure (semantics, pragmatics, ridens” because they are the only animal
discourse) (cf. Fromkin Rodman Hyams that laughs appropriately. 45. 36.
[2011] 8-11). 45. 8. 37Language is a tool that allows us to
9LEVELS OF ADEQUACY. Prescriptive deal with the real world. It allows us to
Adequacy: What people should do solve the problems of the real world. It
Descriptive Adequacy: What people do do helps us survive. But as we spend less and
Explanatory Adequacy: Patterns, Trends, less time working to survive and more and
and Predictions Evaluative Adequacy: Based more time thinking and pondering, our
on Elegance Simplicity Completeness language needs to meet these new needs.
Internal Consistency Generative Power (cf. LANGUAGE FOR ENGAGEMENT LANGUAGE FOR
Fromkin Rodman Hyams [2011] 13-18). 45. 9. TRANSCENDENCE. 45. 37.
10SURFACE STRUCTURE. Syntax Allotag 38Exercise 2: *Ungrammatical. A. Robin
Tagmeme Morphology Allomorph Morpheme forced the sherrif go. B. Napoleon forced
Graphology Allograph Grapheme Phonology Josephine to go. C. The devil made Faust
Allophone Phoneme. 45. 10. go. D. He passed by a large pile of money.
11DEEP STRUCTURE. Pragmatics (Context, E. He came by a large sum of money F. He
Deictics, Anaphora, Speech Acts, came a large sum of money by. G. Did in a
Conversational Implicatures, Intent, corner little Jack Horner sit? H.
Felicity Conditions) Pragmatics Elizabeth is resembled by Charles Nancy is
Allobehavior Behavioreme Semantics eager to please. (Fromkin Rodman &
Alloseme Sememe. 45. 11. Hyams [2011] 38-39). 45. 38.
12EVOLUTION. During the past five 39J. It is easy to frighten Emily. K. It
million years, “our forebears became is eager to love a kitten. L. That birds
predominantly right-handed, made use of can fly amazes. M. The fact you are late
increasingly sophisticated tools, and to class is surprising. N. Has the nurse
organized their culture in ever more slept the baby yet? O. I was surprised for
complex ways.” This evolution resulted in you to get married. P. I wonder who and
“a puny, almost hairless animal, with a Mary went swimming. Q. Myself bit John. R.
bent windpipe that reduced breathing What did Alice eat the toadstool with? S.
efficiency to nearly half of its original What did Alice eat the toadstool and?
capacity. The creature’s teeth were (Fromkin Rodman & Hyams [2011] 38-39).
practically useless for chewing.” But we 45. 39.
had an asymetrical brain with the left 40Exercise 3: Onomatopoeia. Animals
hemisphere being efficient at learning across languages: Cows Horses Pigs
language. (Heny 634). 45. 12. Chickens Roosters Chicks Lions Tigers Goat
13M. A. K. Halliday’s 7 Functions of Cats Dogs Turkeys Geese Pigeons Sheep Pigs
Language: Instrumental: To get things done Frogs Donkeys Hens Crows Flies (Fromkin,
Regulatory: To control other people Rodman & Hyams [2011] 39). 45. 40.
Interactional: To define groups and 41Exercise 3: Sound Symbolism. Bang Beep
relationships Personal: To express Bubble Buzz Clap Click Crackle Crunch
feelings and beliefs Heuristic:To test Gong. Groan Gurgle Hiss Kerplop Screech
hypotheses or to learn Imaginative: To Sigh Slap Slurp Smack. Smash Snap Swish
create a world Representational: To give Thump Tinkle Whiz Zing Snap crackle &
information (Clark, 52). 45. 13. pop (Fromkin, Rodman & Hyams [2011]
14In terms of language, Who’s in charge? 39). 45. 41.
“We make language more than language makes 42Exercise 3: Reduplication. Children
us” (Clark, 55). Go to slide 15 to find Bowwow Dada Dingdong Doodoo Mama Peepee
out what Humpty Dumpty said about Weewee. Adults: Hanky Panky Ticktock Tooty
language? 45. 14. Fruity Zig Zag Zsa Zsa. Other Examples:
15In Through the Looking-Glass Humpty (Fromkin, Rodman & Hyams [2011] 92).
Dumpty Says to Alice. “I don’t know what 45. 42.
you mean by ‘glory,’ ” Alice said. 43Exercise 4: Iconicity &
Humpty Dumpty smiled contemptuously. “Of Paralanguage. I II III IV X 1 2 3 0 ? ? ?
course you don’t—till I tell you. I meant ? * ? . ? ! $. Shhh! Shush! Hiss Tsk tsk
‘there’s a nice knock-down argument for Uh Huh! (yes) Uh uh (no) Huh? Giddyup
you!’ ” “But ‘glory’ doesn’t mean ‘a (lateral click). Raspberry (Bronx Cheer)
nice knock-down argument’,” Alice Uchhhhh Yuchhhhh Wolf Whistle Swearing
objected. “When I use a word,” Humpty (*^&%+#@!) (Fromkin, Rodman &
Dumpty said, in a rather a scornful tone, Hyams [2011] 39). 45. 43.
“it means just what I choose it to 44Exercise 12: Pygmalion by George
mean—neither more nor less.” “The question Bernard Shaw. “The rain in Spain is mainly
is,” said Alice, “whether you can make on the plain.” “In Heartford, Herriford
words mean so many different things.” “The and Hartshire, hurricanes hardly ever
question is,” said Humpty Dumpty, “which happen.” “Look at her—a prisoner of the
is to be master. That’s all.”. 45. 15. gutters; Condemned by ev’ry syllable she
16Poem by Maurice Evan Hare. There once utters. By right she should be taken out
was a man who said, “Damn!” It is born in and hung For the cold-blooded murder of
upon me I am An engine that moves In the English tongue!” (Pygmalion, 109). 45.
predestinate grooves, I’m not even a bus; 44.
I’m a tram. --Aitchison 560. 45. 16. 45!My Fair Lady by Lerner and Lowe. An
17THE INNATENESS HYPOTHESIS. Noam Englishman’s way of speaking absolutely
Chomsky claims that language is innate. B. classifies him. The moment he talks he
F. Skinner claims that language is makes some other English despise him, One
learned; it is basically a common language I’m afraid we’ll never
stimulus-response mechanism. 45. 17. get. Oh, why can’t the English learn to
18Noam Chomsky reviewed B. F. Skinner’s Set a good example to people whose English
Verbal Behavior in Language, the journal is painful to your ears? The Scots and the
of the Linguistic Society of America and Irish leave you close to tears. There even
convincingly presented twelve types of are places, where English completely
evidence that language is basically disappears. In America, they haven’t used
innate, not learned. 45. 18. it for years! (110) (Fromkin, Rodman &
19Language is very complex. Consider the Hyams [2011] 40-41). 45. 45.
complexity of any complete English grammar 46!!Exercise 13: English Only vs.
book. 2. The model for language learning Bilingualism. Discuss Queen Elizabeth I’s
is imperfect. Mothers use caregiver outlawing of Celtic dress, music and
language; friends use baby talk; children traditions King James Translation of the
use modified grammar (holophrastic, Bible into English to unite England with
pivot-open, or telegraphic). 3. All humans Ireland, Wales, Cornwall, and Scotland by
learn a spoken language (NOTE: Chomsky an English-Only movement What about the
does not claim that written language is English-only movement today vs.
innate). (Fromkin Rodman Hyams [2011] bilingualism? (Fromkin, Rodman & Hyams
1-34). 45. 19. [2011] 41). 45. 46.
204. No animals learn a human-type 47!!!Animal-Play Web Sites: ANIMAL POWER
language. However, some animal languages MOVES:
are impressive: primates (Vikki-Hayes, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GkYbFr7dcIs
Koko-Patterson, Warshow-Gardners, Lana, CATS VS. DOGS PLAYING:
Nim Chimsky-Terrace, Sarah-Thomas/Church) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3dugipeVZtE
bees (Von Frisch) dolphins (Lilly) birds, ELEPHANTS PLAYING SOCCER:
parrots and cockatiels canines equines http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6sP09MejTcA
bovines felines ants (cf. Fromkin Rodman ELEPHANT PLAYING SOCCER:
Hyams [2011] 21-27). 45. 20. http://www.videovat.com/videos/1419/elepha
21ANIMAL MESSAGES: Come. Go. Food. t-soccer.aspx. 45. 47.
Protection (camouflage, assistance, 48I CAN HAS CHEEZBURGER WEB SITE:
misleading enemies…). Sex. Territory, http://icanhascheezburger.com/ LOLCAT
Dominance, Mimic, Defiance, Friendship, BIBLE:
Attention ANIMAL LANGUAGE: Calls. Body http://www.lolcatbible.com/index.php?title
Coloring and Shape. Tail Slap, Facial Genesis_1 PETCENTRIC WEB SITE:
Expression. Tail Wagging, Baring Throat, http://www.petcentric.com/article/aspx?C=1
Dancing (Round, Tail-wagging, Sickle), amp;OID=180 TAASP: THE ASSOCIATION FOR THE
Whistling, Chuttering, Attacking, Singing, STUDY OF PLAY: http://www.tasplay.org. 45.
Giving Off Pheromones HUMAN-LANGUAGES 48.
AMONG ANIMALS: AMESLAN, Yerkish, 49References: Aitchison, Jean.
Computers, Magnetic Chips, “Sugar Fruit,” “Predestinate Grooves: Is There a
“Finger Bracelet” 2nd-Generation Language Preordained Language ‘Program’?” (Clark
(Planet of the Apes). 45. 21. 560-578). Bickerton, Derek. “The
22WASHOW SIGNING “TICKLE” (KEMP AND Continuity Paradox” (Clark 681-695).
SMITH 671) 671). 45. 22. Bolton, W. F. “Language: An Introduction”
23AMERICAN SIGN LANGUAGE: CONFIGURATION (Clark, 61-73). Clark, Virginia, Paul
(Emmorey 82) (cf Fromkin Rodman Hyams Eschholz, and Alfred Rosa. Language:
[2011] 257-258). 45. 23. Readings in Language and Culture, 6th
24AMERICAN SIGN LANGUAGE: PLACE (Emmorey Edition. New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press,
82) (cf Fromkin Rodman Hyams [2011] 1998. Daniels, Harvey A. “Nine Ideas about
257-258). 45. 24. Language (Clark, 43-60). 45. 49.
25AMERICAN SIGN LANGUAGE: MOVEMENT 50Emmorey, Karen. “Sign Language” (Clark
(Emmorey 82) (cf Fromkin Rodman Hyams 78-94). Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman,
[2011] 257-258). 45. 25. and Nina Hyams. “What is Language?” An
26BEES’ ROUND DANCE (Kemp & Smith Introduction to Language, 9th Edition.
663). 45. 26. Boston, MA: Thomson Wadsworth, 2011, 1-42.
27BEES’ TAIL-WAGGING DANCE (Kemp and Heny, Jeannine. “Brain and Language
Smith 664). 45. 27. (Clark, 634-657). Kemp, William, and Roy
28SARAH’S SYMBOLS (Kemp and Smith 672). Smith. “Signals, Signs, and Words: From
45. 28. Animal Communication to Language” (Clark
29YERKISH LEXIGRAMS (Kemp and Smith 658-679). Nilsen, Alleen Pace, and Don L.
672). 45. 29. F. Nilsen. Encyclopedia of 20th Century
305. There are many human-language American Humor. Westport, CT: Greenwood,
universals, and these are only a small 2000. Nilsen, Don L. F., and Alleen Pace
subset of semiotic possibilities; computer Nilsen. Language Play: An Introduction to
languages don’t have these same Linguistics. Rowley, MA: Newbury House
natural-language constraints (embedding, Publishers, 1978. 45. 50.
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