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Early Civilizations that Framed India
Early Civilizations that Framed India
Early Civilizations that Framed India
Early Civilizations that Framed India
The Mauryan Empire
The Mauryan Empire
The Mauryan Empire
The Mauryan Empire
Gupta Empire
Gupta Empire
Gupta Empire
Gupta Empire
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Classical Civilization: India

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1Classical Civilization: India. Chapter 8and dictated all aspects of life in India
3 EQ: How does Indian civilization Loyalty to caste superseded loyalty to a
progress during its first 2000 years? ruler.
2The Importance of Geography. Major 9Economy and Society. India took
theme: Isolation India is a “subcontinent” advantage of its position (overland and
Mountains and other physical landforms sea) to trade extensively with neighboring
ring the subcontinent providing little societies and even rival China during some
access via land Interaction From the west, periods India had superior innovations
either you came through the Khyber Pass in (Gupta era) in science and steel
the north or traversed the rough deserts production Despite the importance of
to the south The north and east are ringed trade, agriculture remained the firm base
by the Himalayas and rugged hills in of economy in India As for gender, women
Myanmar Later interaction came to India began to see their rights decrease
via the sea. immensely as civilization developed,
3Early Civilizations that Framed India. though male domination over women was
Indus River Valley began around 3000-2500 largely theoretic…some women maintained
BC highly urban culture - Harappa, roles of power in certain parts of India
Mohenjo-Daro Well developed cities with None-the-less, women would still be
high, “skyscraper-like” structures, indoor arranged for marriage (no choice!) and be
plumbing Origin of cow veneration subordinate to their husbands, even, to
Disappearance under debate Aryans some extremes, being required to DIE when
invasions or natural disaster. they DIE!
4Early Civilizations that Framed India. 10RELIGION: Hinduism. Hinduism is unique
ARYANS Between c. 1700-1200 BC Aryans in that no central figure founded the
arrive and destroy remnants of Indus religion nor is any figure central to its
Valley culture Invaders brought with them beliefs First real texts explaining
Vedic oral tradition which was eventually Hinduism are the Upanishads which are part
written in Sanskrit. Eventually this of the Vedas The Upanishads hold
becomes the Vedic literature of the Vedic information on basic Hindu beliefs,
Era, 1200-1000 BC. (Mahabharata, Ramayana, including belief in a world soul, a
Upanishads) Sacred texts, Rig Veda, universal spirit, the Brahman, and an
consists of 1028 sacred hymns dedicated to individual soul, the Atman Other principle
Aryan gods and composed by various beliefs include dharma (ethics, sense of
priests, some are religious in nature, duty), karma (actions) and moksha
some are epic stories of history (basis (salvation) ALL ACTIONS IN TURN LEAD TO
for Hinduism) Early caste system with REINCARNATION People reincarnate until
priests on top found in Vedas. they achieve salvation and become one with
5Patterns in Classical India. By 600 the Brahman.
BC, India was beyond its formative stage, 11RELIGION: Buddhism. Prince Siddhartha
with several organized cultures developing Gautama, warrior of the Kshatriya class,
Unlike China, India did not organize was unhappy with the ritualistic nature
dynasties, instead, several small kingdoms and caste system in Hinduism Set out on a
fought for dominance of the subcontinent journey of self exploration and physical
Most areas were subject to constant torment Buddha discovered 3 things There
invasion from the NW (Alexander 327-325 is no individual self, no soul (unlike
BC) Only 2 major empires emerged in India Hinduism) Pain is a part of life
between 300 BC and 500 AD – Mauryan and Impermanence, nothing stays the same, you
Gupta. do not reincarnate.
6The Mauryan Empire. Founded in 322 BC 12RELIGION: Buddhism. The Four Noble
by Chandragupta Maurya, a warrior who Truths Life is pain and suffering The
fought off Alexander’s armies and cause of pain and suffering is desire
conquered the kingdoms left by him Asoka, Avoiding desire means avoiding pain The
his grandson, was another great ruler way to end suffering is the 8 Fold Path
(video clip). The Eight Fold Path Accept the 4 Noble
7Gupta Empire. Ruled 500 years after Truths Right intention (commitment to
Maurya, 320 CE until around 550 CE No well mental growth) Right speech (no lying, be
known leaders India’s Golden Age, noted honest, say nothing wrong) Right action
for peace and prosperity Developed decimal (do no harm) Right livelihood (your work
system and concept of zero Had herbal helps others) Right effort (constant self
remedies and vaccination Buddhism improvement) Right mindfulness (clear
expanded…many temples were built and a conscience) Right concentration (focus).
major university was established However, 13Reminders…this week… Read Chapter 3
Gupta rulers promoted Hindu beliefs. Dialectical Journal Notes for Friday
8Indian Political Institutions. Despite Tuesday: Compare/Contrast Hinduism &
having kingdoms and empires, India did not Buddhism Wednesday: Lecture/Class activity
develop solid political and cultural on the caste system Thursday: I/O on
institutions like China, nor any real Social Inequality Pages 62-63 and Vol 1
interest in politics like in Greece and #19 & #22, read, take notes, answer
Rome Reasons include cultural and regional the question and prepare to discuss social
diversity and caste differences The caste hierarchies and inequality Friday: Ch. 3
system (more this week on this) dominated TEST NOTES DUE!!!
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