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Conceptual Holism

содержание презентации «Conceptual Holism.ppt»
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1Conceptual Holism. Concept sharing in 9are changed.
conceptual-role semantics. 10To sum up, it appears we have the
2Conceptual-role Semantics. The content following argument. 1. Intuition and
of a concept is (partially) determined by psychology require concept sharing. 2. CRS
the role the concept plays in inference. implies holism of conceptual content. 3.
Alternatively: The content of a concept is Holism of conceptual content implies
(partially) determined by its inferential concepts are rarely shared across subjects
connections to other concepts. or through time within subjects. ? CRS is
3PLATYPUS. Your concept PLATYPUS might false. Corollary: Josh’s dissertation is a
have an inferential connection to BILL, waste of time.
MAMAL, LAYER-OF-EGGS etc. Each inferential 11In order to satisfy our intuitions and
connection is (loosely) a disposition to to make use of psychology, we need to be
draw an inference from the application of able to say sometimes that C is the same
one concept to the application of another concept as C*. The conclusions that is
concept. (e.g. From PLATYPUS(fred) infer generally drawn at this point is that
MAMAL(fred)) The conceptual-role of there should be a simple precise set of
PLATYPUS consists of all of these conditions that tell us when two concepts
inferential connections taken together. are the same. Those conditions should
4Holism. If CRS is right then concepts satisfy our intuitions and aid in the
are holistic. A property P is holistic if development of psychological
1. For P to be instantiated once it must generalizations. But why think that there
be instantiated many times. 2. How P is is one simple precise set of conditions
instantiated in one case is dependent upon that tell us when two concepts are the
how P is instantiated in other cases. same? This doesn’t seem to be the case for
Example: Being a natural number. If anything else in life.
anything is a number then a whole bunch of 12Car Sharing. Consider two situations
things are numbers. 2. Which number x is in which we want to ask whether one car is
depends, in part, on which numbers all the the same as another. Situation1: You are
other objects are. looking for parts at a junk yard.
5Holism. According to conceptual role Situation2: Your car was stolen and you
semantics an isolated concept cannot have are looking for you car at a junk yard.
content. Since a concept C's content is The notion of sameness you will use in
determined by the inferential connections situation 1 is very different from the
it has with other concepts, there must be notion of sameness you will use in
other concepts for C to have a content. situation 2. Concepts are like cars.
For C's conceptual role to be interesting Whether two concepts are the same depends
many concepts and many connections are on what we are interested in.
necessary. If these other concepts are 13Two-Factor Theories of content. Block,
themselves to have interesting conceptual Rey, and others have suggested that there
roles even more concepts and connections are two determinants of conceptual
are necessary. The upshot is that if an content. Narrow content is internal and is
agent has any interesting concepts, she supposed to say what it is that I have in
likely has a whole bunch of them. common with my Twin-Earth twin. Wide
Furthermore, exactly which conceptual role content is external and is supposed to
a concept has, depends upon the conceptual explain how my concepts hook up to the
roles of the other concepts. Conceptual world. It also would say what is different
role is a holistic property. between my concepts and those of my twin.
6PLATYPUS. The content of PLATYPUS is A complete theory of conceptual content
partially determined by its connection to would explain both narrow and wide
BILL. If you remove that connection (or content.
connect it to a different concept) then 14If we adopt a two-factor theory of
the content of PLATYPUS changes. ? content, then conceptual-role semantics is
Changing BILL changes PLATYPUS. If our a theory of narrow content. Wide content
concepts are massively connected, as they would be handled by a causal theory or a
presumably are if we have interesting telosemantic theory ... If we accept a
concepts, then changing the content of one distinction between narrow and wide
concept can create a ripple effect which content then there are (at least) two ways
changes the content of all of our that one concept can be the same as
concepts. another: 1. They have the same narrow
7Concept Sharing. Intuitively it seems content. 2. They have the same wide
obvious that people sometimes share content.
concepts. We all have a concept PENCIL and 15The Solution: Part 1. Although narrow
it is the same concept. It is also widely content is holistic, wide content is not.
accepted that it is vital for psychology Concept sharing begins by sharing wide
that people sometimes share concepts. content. So, Sally and Tim have the same
(This is a point over which Fodor does concept PLATYPUS because the wide content
much foaming at the mouth.) A good theory of S-PLATYPUS is the same as the wide
of concepts then, should allow that people content T-PLATYPUS.
can sometimes share concepts. Question: Is 16The Disappointment. I have said that
this possible if concepts are holistic. Sally and Tim share PLATYPUS because the
8Concept Sharing in CRS. Sally and Tim wide content of their concepts is the
have two concepts S-DUCK and T-DUCK with same. It seems right to say that their
slightly different conceptual roles (Tim concepts are hooked up to the world in the
thinks ducks can’t fly). S-DUCK is same way, but it also seems like they use
connected to S-BILL which is connected to the concept the same way. In other words,
S-PLATYPUS. T-DUCK is connected to T-BILL Sally and Tim seem to have the same narrow
which is connected to T-PLATYPUS. Since content too. CRS is still leaving
Sally and Tim don’t have the same duck something out if it can’t explain this.
concept, they also don’t have the same 17The Solution: Part 2. Local Conceptual
platypus concept. That is, S-PLATYPUS and Role Two concepts A and B have the same
T-PLATYPUS do not have the same conceptual local conceptual role just in case 1.) A
roles. More generally, if conceptual and B have the same wide content and 2.)
content is massively holistic, then if two for every inferential connection A ? C_a,
agents differ in even one concept, they there is an inferential connection B ? C_b
likely differ in all their concepts. such that C_a and C_b have the same wide
9Concept Sharing in CRS. The problem content.
worsens: After talking to Sally, Tim 18PLATYPUS. Sally and Tim don’t have the
learns that Ducks fly and he modifies the same global conceptual role for their
conceptual role of T-DUCK to incorporate platypus concepts, but they do have the
this information. T-DUCK is connected to same local conceptual role. S-PLATYPUS and
T-BILL which is connected to T-PLATYPUS. T-PLATYPUS have the same wide content.
But T-DUCK isn’t really T-DUCK anymore. So S-PLATYPUS and T-PLATYPUS are connected to
T-BILL is connected to a new concept which S-BILL and T-BILL S-BILL and T-BILL both
means T-PLATYPUS is connected to a new have the same wide content. The result is
concept. The result: Any time an agent a much more robust notion of concept
changes one concept all of her concepts sharing than merely wide content.
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Conceptual Holism

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