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Hispanic Political Participation
Hispanic Political Participation
Political Competition & Diversity
Political Competition & Diversity
Why Study TV News
Why Study TV News
Local News Viewing
Local News Viewing
Local News Viewing
Local News Viewing
Estimating Differentiation
Estimating Differentiation
Estimating Differentiation
Estimating Differentiation
Differentiation & Market Structure
Differentiation & Market Structure
Differentiation & Coverage (Word Shares)
Differentiation & Coverage (Word Shares)
Differentiation & Coverage (Word Shares)
Differentiation & Coverage (Word Shares)
Differentiation & Coverage (Word Deviations)
Differentiation & Coverage (Word Deviations)
Differentiation & Coverage (Word Deviations)
Differentiation & Coverage (Word Deviations)
Differentiation & Politics
Differentiation & Politics
Differentiation & Race
Differentiation & Race
Differentiation & Viewing (All Stations)
Differentiation & Viewing (All Stations)
Differentiation & Viewing (Most Differentiated Station)
Differentiation & Viewing (Most Differentiated Station)
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Джордж кавассилас 2011

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1The Market for Diversity in Television 17210 DMA’s, y=Year={2006, 2008, 2010} D=
News Media Economics Workshop New Economic Day ={M, T, W, Th, F}, T= ? Hour Timeslot
School, Moscow October 28-29, 2011. Lisa {9pm-12am}.
George Hunter College and the Graduate 18Station Cross-Effects. Prime Time.
Center City University of New York. Felix Prime Time. Prime Time. Prime Time. Prime
Oberholzer-Gee Harvard Business School. Time. ABC. CBS. NBC. FOX. Other. Local
2Question. How does competition among News. Local News. Local News. Local News.
local television stations influence Local News. ABC. CBS. NBC. FOX. Other.
diversity in local news programming? Do Average effect of an additional prime-time
viewers value this diversity? Implications viewer on local news viewing. 0.054.
Welfare? Political engagement? Policy? -0.030. -0.038. 0.058. 0.021. -0.006.
3What We Know. Theory Incentive to 0.076. -0.008. -0.054. -0.005. -0.048.
differentiate depends on relative -0.080. 0.151. -0.110. 0.019. 0.013.
importance of price competition & -0.020. -0.020. 0.033. -0.015. NA. NA. NA.
market cannibalization effects Empirical NA. NA. Pairwise effects summed over
Evidence: Radio (Berry & Waldfogel, competing (off-diagonal) stations.
2001; Sweeting 2010) Newspapers (George 19Supply-Side Diversity Measures. Basic
2007) TV (Baker & George 2011) Measure – Word Counts Word share (keyword
Business stealing matters, consumption frequency/total words) Market Deviations
effects less clear. in word shares Issues: “Policy Agenda
4What We Don’t Know. What dimensions of Projects” categories Keywords matched to
differentiation matter to consumers in categories Inductive keywords (next round)
news markets? Politics? Issues? Race? Politics & Race Members of Congress by
Localism? party & race (Shares & Totals)
5Why Diversity Matters. Some Geography & Localism Local place names
illustrations Hispanic political & local titles.
participation Newspaper readership 20Issue Diversity Metrics. . Mean Word
Political competition & turnout. Share (%) (N=1523). Market St. Deviation
6Hispanic Political Participation. (N=398). Crime. 0.976. 0.205. Weather.
Source: Oberholzer-Gee & Waldfogel, 0.615. 0.187. Government. 0.391. 0.091.
AER 2009. Business & Economics. 0.226. 0.045.
7Variety in Newspaper Markets. Per Foreign Affairs & Trade. 0.161. 0.040.
Capita Sales (ABC). Per Capita Sales Education. 0.152. 0.031. Defense. 0.138.
(ABC). (1). (2). -0.0021. -0.0007. 0.035. TV & Media. 0.112. 0.031.
(1.83)+. (0.46). -0.0024. (1.38). 0.0453. Social Welfare. 0.108. 0.021. Health.
0.0483. (17.61)**. (14.27)**. 498. 498. 0.097. 0.029. Traffic. 0.096. 0.044.
249. 249. Distance (DMA). Unique Beats Infrastructure & Environment. 0.087.
(DMA). Topics Covered (DMA). Topics 0.022. Sports. 0.069. 0.018. Ideological
Covered (DMA). (1). (3). (5). (6). Owners. Issues. 0.062. 0.017. Labor &
-0.01. -1.02. -1.84. -1.50. (1.86)+. Employment. 0.054. 0.016. Taxes. 0.041.
(2.36)*. (4.43)**. (2.88)**. Papers. 0.01. 0.016. Agriculture. 0.008. 0.004. Death
-0.23. -0.82. (2.30)*. (0.37). (1.08). Notices. 0.0003. 0.0003.
Constant. 0.20. 16.80. 35.33. 38.87. 21Political Diversity Metrics. Mean Word
(6.70)**. (5.34)**. (18.28)**. (10.22)**. Share (%) N=1523. Market Standard
N. 534. 534. 534. 534. DMA's. 173. 173. Deviation N=398. Ethnicity & Race. All
173. 173. Source: Lisa M. George, Minority. 0.0019. 0.0020. Non-Hispanic
Information Economics and Policy, 2007. White. 0.0320. 0.0102. Party & Office.
8Political Competition & Diversity. Democrats House. 0.0062. 0.0037.
Source: Lisa M. George, Content in Republicans House. 0.0039. 0.0022.
Campaigns, 2011. Democrats Senate. 0.0111. 0.0042.
9Why Study TV News? TV News remains the Republicans Senate. 0.0100. 0.0036.
primary news source for US households. 9. Politician Counts. Mean. St. Dev. Total
Source: Pew Research Center for the People Covered Politicians. 56. 26. Average Share
and the Press, Ideological News Sources: of Stations Covering. 44%. 5.9%.
Who Watches and Why. September 10, 2010. 22Local Diversity Metrics. Mean Word
Sample size about 1500. Share (%) N=1523. Market St. Deviation
10Why TV is Hard to Study. Typical N=398. . . . . . . . Place
empirical strategy Identify changes in Coverage. 0.592. 0.114. Local Government
diversity measures from (exogenous) Titles. 0.086. 0.025. Place Counts. Mean.
changes in market structure TV News Static St. Dev. Total Place References. 1152.
markets with very limited entry & exit 304. Average Share of Stations Covering.
Regulated ownership Need to measure 61%. 5%.
content directly or infer variety from 23Some Results. Diversity and market
demand. 10. structure Diversity and content Issue
11Empirical Approach. Demand-side Diversity Political Diversity Diversity
diversity measures Supply-side diversity and viewership.
measures Issues, Politics, Race, Geography 24Differentiation & Market
How do they relate – To each other? To Structure. Larger markets, more
news viewing? To ownership and other differentiation. More stations (owners),
policy variables? less differentiation. No relationship
12Data. Newsbank Transcripts 40 markets, between racial diversity and
2006-2010 FCC Market Structure Data Number differentiation. Market-level measures do
of stations and owners Nielsen Viewership not get us far.
One month (all 210 markets) in 2006, 2008, 25Differentiation & Coverage (Word
2010 Total viewing by timeslot & Shares). * * *. * * *. * * * *. *. All
program type Black & Hispanic viewing issues included in each specification,
(not used here). split table.
13Demand-Side Diversity Measures. 26Differentiation & Coverage (Word
Lead-in effects are important in TV Cost Deviations). * * *. * *. * *. All issues
of changing the channel Consumer tendency included in each specification, split
to switch channels from prime time table.
programming to local news reveals 27Differentiation & Politics.
programming differentiation. Two Specifications with network interactions
illustrations . . . indicate this is not a FOX effect, but
14Local News Viewing . . . Lead-in rather a CBS effect.
Matters. Local News and Entertainment 28Differentiation & Race. Covering
Viewing -- Station Shares by Network. minority politicians does not contribute
Local News & Lag News Viewing to loyalty.
Population Share. 29Differentiation & Viewing (All
15Local News Viewing . . . Loyalty Stations).
Matters. Local News and Entertainment 30Differentiation & Viewing (Most
Market Shares by Day (2010). Differentiated Station).
16Measuring Differentiation. Other. ABC 31Some Conclusions & Extensions.
Prime. NBC Prime. Other. NBC News. ABC First attempt to measure diversity in
News. local television news Initial evidence on
17Estimating Differentiation. Lagged points of differentiation + Ideology
Viewing (LV) coefficients measure Government + Politicians Differentiation
diversity. Pairwise estimates are summed increases viewing, largest effect for
across competitors for a stations Still to do – Inductive
station-market-year measure. Alternatives differentiation measures Adjusted loyalty
& adjustments. I= Local News Indicator measures Extensions Station loyalty &
for S = {1,0} LV = Lagged Viewing for S the market for advertising Minority
S={ABC, CBS, NBC, FOX, Other}. m=market = coverage & viewership.
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