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Education at a Glance 2007 Key results for Hungary
Education at a Glance 2007 Key results for Hungary
Quantity and quality challenges
Quantity and quality challenges
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Education at a Glance 2007 Key results for Hungary

содержание презентации «Education at a Glance 2007 Key results for Hungary.ppt»
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1Education at a Glance 2007 Key results 14on expectations to complete tertiary
for Hungary. Michael Davidson Senior education Odds ratio that students expect
Analyst, OECD Education Directorate 18 to complete tertiary education, after
September 2007. Organisation for Economic adjusting for student performance (2003).
Co-operation and Development (OECD). Even after allowing for differences in
2Quantity and quality challenges. academic ability, Hungarian students from
Education systems continue to expand at a higher socio-economic backgrounds are 2.7
rapid pace; more and more of the times more likely to have higher
population are educated to the tertiary educational expectations than those from
level Hungary has advanced but not as fast low socio-economic groups. A4.4. %.
as some other countries Is there scope for 15Resource and efficiency challenges.
further expansion of tertiary education? Trends in educational expenditure Factors
Is there a risk of over–supply of the affecting spending levels Has expenditure
highly qualified? kept pace with expansion of tertiary
3Growth in university-level education? How should further expansion be
qualifications Approximated by the funded?
percentage of persons with ISCED 5A/6 16Expenditure on educational
qualification born in the age groups shown institutions as a percentage of GDP for
below (2005). Tertiary attainment has all levels of education (1995, 2004). OECD
increased in Hungary …but not as fast as countries spend 6.2 % of their collective
in some other countries…so that Hungary is GDP on educational institutions. Unlike a
now below the OECD average. %. A1.3a. 5. number of countries, the increase in
4. 13. 27. Year of reference 2004. Year of spending on education in Hungary between
reference 2003. 1. 25. 1995 and 2004 exceeded the growth in
4University graduation rates (2004, national income but remains below the OECD
2005) Percentage of tertiary type A average. B2.1.
graduates to the population at the typical 17Annual expenditure on educational
age of graduation. But current graduation institutions per student In equivalent USD
rates suggest that Hungary is making converted using PPPs, based on full time
progress. University graduates increased equivalents. On a per student basis,
sharply in the last year and are now at Hungary spends well below the OECD and EU
the OECD average, though drop out is averages. However, taking account of
relatively high and the the number of countries’ relative wealth, Hungarian
science graduates relative to population spending per student is closer to or in
is lower in Hungary than in any other OECD fact exceeds the OECD average. US dollars.
country. A3.1. %. B1.1.
5Relative earnings premium from having 18Influences on primary and secondary
a university degree (2005 or latest spending.
available year) For 25-to-64-year-olds 19Changes in the number of students as
(upper secondary education= 100). The well as changes in expenditure on
earnings benefits from holding a educational institutions per student, by
university degree are positive and strong level of education (1995,2004) Index of
among OECD countries. In Hungary they are change between 1995 and 2004 (1995=100,
particularly strong- males aged 25-64 with 2004 constant prices). Expenditure per
a univeristy degree earn on average 153% primary and secondary students increased
more than someone with only upper in every country between 1995 and 2004. In
secondary education. A9.2. % of index. 1. 18 out of the 25 OECD countries and
Year of reference 2002. 3. Year of partner economies for which data are
reference 2004. 2. Year of reference 2003. available, changes exceed 20 % between
4. Year of reference 2005. 1995 and 2004 .In Hungary this increase
6Private internal rates of return was more than 50 %. B1.7a. Index of change
obtaining a university-level degree, ISCED (1995=100).
5/6 (2003). When offsetting the costs to 20Teachers’ salaries (minimum, after 15
the individual of studying (including years experience, and maximum) in lower
foregone earnings) against the benefits to secondary education Annual statutory
be gained, the rates of return to teachers’ salaries in public institutions
individual students in Hungary are in lower secondary education, in
particularly strong. A9.6b. %. equivalent USD converted using PPs, and
7Is there a danger in producing too the ratio of salary of 15 years of
many highly qualified people? Analysis of experience to GDP per capita. Teacher
this year’s indicators show that: In salaries are a major influence on spending
countries that have expanded tertiary levels. In Hungary low spending per
education the labour market benefits of student goes hand in hand with low teacher
attaining a tertiary degree are still salaries. Statutory salaries in Hungary
strong No evidence that tertiary expansion are the lowest of OECD countries and even
damages the labour market prospects of the when compared with per capita GDP, are low
less qualified (no “crowding out”) On the by OECD standards…. And this is after a
contrary, it seems that the least educated doubling of teacher salaries between 1996
individuals benefit in terms of better and 2005. D3.2. Equivalent USD converted
unemployment opportunities when more using PPPs.
people go into higher education. 21Average class sizes and student to
8Equity challenges. Achieving strong teacher ratios in primary education.
baseline qualifications is a cornerstone Although average class sizes are similar
of equity. Strong expansion of secondary to OECD and EU averages at the primary
education in Hungary But penalties for level, there are more teachers employed in
those who miss out are significant Equity schools relative to the student numbers
concerns in the Hungarian education than in almost any other OECD country,
system. raising questions about the efficiency of
9Population that has attained at least primary education in particular. Students
upper secondary education (2005) per class/teacher. D2.
Percentage by age group. Achieving 22Number of teaching hours per year, by
baseline qualifications is a crucial level of education (2005) Net contact time
foundation for equity. The proportion of in hours per year in public institutions.
the population that has completed upper The teaching load of teachers in Hungary
secondary education has been rising in is below average and particularly low for
almost all OECD countries, and rapidly in lower secondary teachers, where annual
some. In Hungary 85% of people aged 25-34 hours of teaching is 555 hours compared
years have attained upper secondary with the OECD average of 707 hours.
qualifications- above the OECD average of Alongside this, the number of hours of
77%. %. A1.2. 3. 1. 12. 24. 12. 10. 1. instruction that students can expect to
Excluding ISCED 3C short programmes 2. receive in Hungary are well below the OECD
Year of reference 2004 3. Including some averages. Hours per year. D4.2.
ISCED 3C short programmes 3. Year of 23Influences on tertiary spending.
reference 2003. 24Changes in the number of students as
10Enrolment rates of 15-19 year olds well as changes in expenditure on
(1995, 2000, 2005) Percentage of 15-19 educational institutions per student
year old population who are enrolled in (1995,2004) Index of change between 1995
education. Increasing participation in and 2004 (1995=100, 2004 constant prices).
secondary education in Hungary is evident At the tertiary level of education,
through trends in enrolment rates of 15-19 expenditure in Hungary rose by 59% between
year olds. Whereas these rates were below 1995 and 2004 but a much faster rise in
the OECD and EU averages in 1995, they now student numbers (118%) meant that Hungary
comfortably exceed the OECD and EU was one of six countries in which
averages. A3.1. %. expenditure on tertiary education per
11Relative earnings penalty from not student fell between 1995 and 2004. B1.7b.
completing upper secondary education (2005 25Share of private expenditure on
or latest available year) For educational institutions (1995, 2004)
25-to-64-year-olds (upper secondary and Tertiary education. Some countries have
post-secondary non-tertiary education= increasingly looked to private sources to
100). The earnings disadvantage for not help fund expansion of tertiary education.
completing upper secondary education is In more than one-half of the OECD
significant and for some countries has countries and partner economies with
worsened over time. Such penalties are comparable data in 1995 and 2004, the
relatively high in Hungary: those without private share increased by 3 percentage
upper secondary qualifications earn only points or more. At 21% the share of
73% of those that have these private funding in Hungary is below the
qualifications. A9.2. % of index. 1. Year OECD average of 24%. %. B3.3c.
of reference 2002. 3. Year of reference 26Summary for Hungary. Improvements are
2004. 2. Year of reference 2003. 4. Year evident over time More and more qualified
of reference 2005. people in the population Expansion of
12Participation of the labour force in tertiary education and increased
non-formal job-related continuing participation at the secondary level
education and training (2004). Non-formal Significant growth in expenditure on
job-related training can provide 2nd education including a sharp rise in
chance opportunities With only 4 % of the teacher salaries.
population in this type of education and 27Main challenges for Hungary. Tertiary
training, adults in Hungary seem not to education Potential for further expansion
have these opportunitites. %. C5.1a. Sharing of costs between public and
13Previous evidence from the private sources should reflect the
international assessment of skills and benefits gained Equity Improve higher
knowledge of 15-year-olds (PISA). 15 education prospects for students from
year-olds in Hungary tend to perform at or poorer socio-economic backgrounds Address
below the OECD average. Performance varies large variations in performance between
significantly between schools and is schools and sub-populations of students
strongly related to the socio-economic Efficiency Teacher demand and supply
background of the students – more so than issues; efficient use of teacher
in most countries. Features of Hungarian resources.
education system (e.g. early selection and 28Thank you for listening !
tracking) tend to accentuate rather than www.oecd.org/edu/eag2007 www.pisa.oecd.org
mitigate these differences Effective All national and international
integration of the Roma population is also publications The complete micro-level
a major challenge. database Michael.Davidson@OECD.org.
14Influence of socio-economic background
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