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European Neighbourhood Policy and the Conflict in Transnistria

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1European Neighbourhood Policy and the 8own constitution, symbols and official
Conflict in Transnistria. By Professor languages (Moldovan, Russian and
Adrian Pop, Ph.D. Faculty of Political Ukrainian) - the representation in the
Sciences “Dimitrie Cantemir” University Conciliation Committee would have favoured
Bucharest, Romania. the blocking of OSCE decisions - rejected
2THE TRANSNISTRIAN CONFLICT. Ethno by Russia but positively received in the
political conflict with a strong West. CONFLICT RESOLUTION PLANS UKRAINE.
ideological component => armed conflict 9Civil society’s 3-D Strategy (2003) -
(1991-1992) => geopolitical frozen demilitarization - decriminalization -
conflict (1992-2006) Its beginning democratization The Status Law (2005) -
coincided with the beginning of Moldovan Transnistria got a special juridical
statehood Has got the West’s attention status as a “territorial administrative
only from 2003 on, against the background unit in form of a republic” - well
of NATO and EU enlargement to the East received by OSCE, rejected by Russia,
From a post-Soviet conflict to a European Ukraine and DMR. CONFLICT RESOLUTION PLANS
RUSSIA. Transnistria, Nagorno-Karabach, Initially a part of the mediation process,
South Ossetia, Abkhazia and Adjaria frozen soon after excluded from it Throughout the
conflicts materialize Russia’s near abroad acting Romanian presidency of OSCE (2001)
concept Transnistria – Russia’s most it decided to transfer the Transnistrian
advanced stronghold to the West, near the issue on the agenda of the incoming
common NATO-EU eastern border of Romania Portuguese presidency Civil society’s
Russia’s involvement in the conflict The recommendations (2005) for a Cyprus
14th Army support in the armed conflict scenario for RM: letting out Transnistria
The signing of the ceasefire agreement and focus on EU accession President Traian
(1992) Peacekeeping role Mediator role. Basescu (2006): “Romanian-Moldovan
4GEOPOLITICAL AND GEO-ECONOMIC ASPECTS: reunification will be made within EU”.
illicit activities; a generator and ENP. ENP’s primary goal: to create a ring
facilitator of asymmetrical risks and of friendly states at the EU periphery The
threats Part of a criminal network within incorporation into the ENP of a soft
CIS; the alliance between DMR, Abkhazia conditionality principle ENP’s focus on
and South Ossetia (2004) Catalyst for forging a common market: not only
secessionist movements; arms producer for economic, but also security benefits ENP’s
conflict areas Important electric energy emphasis on transborder cooperation:
producer and transfer node; RM’s energy forging the interaction with neighbours
dependence on DMR’s Cuciurgani electric The role or regional cooperation: getting
plant (now in Russian hands). closer to the EU; RM’s accession to the
5THE NEGATIVE IMPACT OF THE CONFLICT. SEECP Romania as RM’s natural partner on
Hits RM economy by re-export activities, its road to the EU The EU-Moldova Action
depriving RM of taxes and hampering Plan (till 2008) Priorities set forth in
investments Magnifies the economic the Action Plans: transport, energy,
dependence of RM Prevents control over the justice and home affairs The Transnistrian
whole RM territory and RM borders Prevents conflict gets a special attention The EU
RM government to guarantee social security monitoring mission at the
Blocks RM government’s decisions Hampers Moldovan-Ukrainian border, (2005-2007):
security sector reform in RM Prevents RM the first display of the ENP security
to define its own identity Bars the dimension in the Black Sea region.
6CONFLICT RESOLUTION PLANS OSCE. ESDP. A possible future civilian EU-led
Initial mandate: securing the territorial police monitoring mission which would have
integrity of the state along with a Transnistria as its first implementation
special status for Transnistria Reduction ground in the former Soviet area Following
of Russian armaments and the 14th Army the Bosnian model, the cooperation of
troops but not their full withdrawal, non-EU states, including Russia and
despite commitments taken at the OSCE Ukraine, is desirable and feasible.
Summits in Istanbul (1999) and Porto 13CONFLICT RESOLUTION NEW OPPORTUNITIES
(2002) The OSCE Plan (2002): a federation ROMANIA’S ROLE. Optimizing the management
of “state entities” - Transnistria and of the future EU eastern border Producing
Gagauz-Yeri - with their own constitutions a multidimensional strategy on Romania’s
and laws and a federal parliament with two relations with RM and Ukraine A possible
chambers; it meant the breaching of the 2+2 format of know how transfer from
Moldovan Constitution, of the OSCE mandate Romania and Poland to RM and Ukraine in
and of the ruling party’s programme The the areas of democratization and security
OSCE Washington summit resolution (2005): sector reform Supporting diplomatically
it was agreed upon to combine the Russian the goal of upgrading the status of the EU
and Ukrainian plans into a single and US (currently observers) in the
framework document. current pentagonal framework of
7CONFLICT RESOLUTION PLANS RUSSIA. negotiations on Transnistria.
Kozak Memorandum (2003): recipe for the 14CONFLICT RESOLUTION NEW OPPORTUNITIES
“transnistrianization” of RM - a federal ROMANIA’S ROLE. Participating, after EU
state with 2 entities, DMR and the accession, to the EU monitoring mission of
Gagauz-Yeri - a bicameral Parliament, the the Moldovan-Ukrainian border and also to
federal entities having an a priori 50 per a possible future EU Petersberg mission in
cent of votes and the Senate having the Transnistria Making good use of Romania’s
right to veto any piece of legislation triple status as NATO member, future EU
regarding the federation - official member, and future US military bases host,
languages: Moldovan and Russian - the to facilitate the forging of a consensus
withdrawal of Russian peacekeeping troops: on the international community’s strategy
sometime around the year 2030 - rejected for the Black Sea region Securing a
by President Voronin and the Maastricht follow-up for the Black Sea Forum
OSCE Summit (2003) Belkovski Plan (2004 Launching, after the EU accession, an EU
& 2006): Bessarabia vs. Transnistria - Black Sea Dimension following the model
DMR’s de jure independence and future instituted by Finland with its Northern
unification with Russia in exchange for Dimension.
Bessarabia’s reunification with Romania - 15Conclusions. The need to avoid
partly “legitimized” by the recent transforming Transnistria into a Black Sea
Transnistrian referendum (2006). Kaliningrad Political will for a decisive
8Yuschenko Plan (2005) - DMR action is crucial The opportunities
authorities would have got an implicit presented by ENP and ESDP should be used
recognition as “part of the negotiation at their full potential A sustainable
process” - the Supreme Soviet, would have solution for Transnistria is a
got its legitimacy, as mandatory and precondition for RM’s becoming a
urgent elections for it were called upon, democratic and prosperous EU neigbouring
supervised by OSCE - DMR: “a republic country.
within the Republic of Moldova” with its
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