Курсы английского
<<  What do you know XML eXtensible Markup Language  >>
Evolution of all Life
Evolution of all Life
Evolution of Language
Evolution of Language
Worldwide Spread of Humans
Worldwide Spread of Humans
Language Evolved as a Substitute for Grooming
Language Evolved as a Substitute for Grooming
Evolution of FOXP2
Evolution of FOXP2
Картинки из презентации «Evolution of Language» к уроку английского языка на тему «Курсы английского»

Автор: . Чтобы познакомиться с картинкой полного размера, нажмите на её эскиз. Чтобы можно было использовать все картинки для урока английского языка, скачайте бесплатно презентацию «Evolution of Language.ppt» со всеми картинками в zip-архиве размером 181 КБ.

Evolution of Language

содержание презентации «Evolution of Language.ppt»
Сл Текст Сл Текст
1Evolution of Language. Language and 22conversational rules Almost always talk
Communication Week 7 Mike Dowman. about immediate wants.
2How does Language Change over Time? 23Tracing Human Evolution. Problem:
Each generation learns a slightly Language doesn’t fossilize No writing
different language. L1. U1. L2. U2. L3. until 5,000 years ago So how can we track
U3. L4. U4. L8. U7. L7. U6. L6. U5. L5. language evolution? Skulls and skeletons
produce. learn. Crafted artefacts Societal organization
3Cultural Evolution. Many factors Art.
affect how language will change from 24Worldwide Spread of Humans.
generation to generation. What people talk 25Catastrophic Evolution. There’s
about. Who talks to who how often. What nothing remotely like human language
psychological learning mechanism people anywhere in the animal world. ?Suggests
have. Ideas about what sounds good, or who that there never was anything halfway
people want to sound like. between chimp and human language ?A single
4Biological Evolution. Biological mutation caused a crucial connection to be
evolution changes the type of languages made in the brain.
that will evolve culturally. L1. L2. L3. 26Gradual Evolution. Ugh. Food. Many
U3. L4. U4. L8. U7. L7. U6. L6. U5. L5. buffalo there. We hunt. Ugh-Ugh. Don’t
5Natural Selection. Biological attack until I say. Let’s spend the winter
evolution follows quite different rules to here. It’s more sheltered and there are
cultural evolution. It will occur whenever many animals to hunt. Let’s take the kill
we have: Multiplication Variation Heredity back to the others. Because out language
Those genes that result in people skills got better we survived better. But
reproducing will be selected for. it all happened slowly and gradually. I
6Successful Reproduction. Survival have seen herds of antelope over the hill.
Sexual success For almost all of our I think we should move there.
evolutionary history we’ve been 27What is Language for? Language helps
hunter-gatherers. How does language help us to pass on and develop technologies
hunter gatherers? Does language ability (how to make better spears). It helps us
affect social status? Does language play a to coordinate activities (e.g. hunting).
role in ‘courtship’? We can communicate knowledge about
7Does Language Evolution Matter? relevant aspects of the environment (e.g.
Language evolution isn’t important if there’s a big herd of buffalo behind the
we’re just interested in the way language hill where we camped 5 days ago). Could we
is today. Evolution isn’t important for achieve any of this without language?
understanding the structure and Could we even think this without language?
functioning of animals and plants. ?The 28Gossiping. 2/3 of all conversation is
evolutionary perspective helps us to about social relations. Both in developed
understand all aspects of language. countries and for hunter-gatherers. Does
8Evolution of all Life. this kind of language use have any effect
9Primate Evolution. Wrong! on our fitness? Does it help our survival
10We are not descended from Chimpanzees. rate? Does it increase our reproductive
Australopithecus africanus success?
Australopithecus robustus. 29Language Evolved as a Substitute for
Australopithecus afarensis. Homo habilis. Grooming. Monkeys and Apes are very social
Homo erectus. Archaic Homo sapiens Complex relationships Grooming is main
Neanderthal. gorillas common chimpanzees form of social interaction.
bonobos Homo sapiens sapiens. 30Increasing Group Size. Largest group
11When did Language Evolve? size for non-human primates is 50-55
Australopithecus africanus (Chimps and Baboons). For modern
Australopithecus robustus. hunter-gatherers is about 150. Primates
Australopithecus afarensis. Homo habilis. spend up to 20% of their days grooming.
Homo erectus. Archaic Homo sapiens Human’s would need to spend 40% of their
Neanderthal. gorillas common chimpanzees time to cover such a large group. ?
bonobos Homo sapiens sapiens. Language is ‘vocal grooming’.
12When did Language Evolve? 31Co-Evolution. Language will adapt to
Australopithecus africanus humans through cultural evolution As soon
Australopithecus robustus. as we acquire a tendency to mimic some
Australopithecus afarensis. Homo habilis. form of language will appear.
Homo erectus. Archaic Homo sapiens 32Has Language Evolution Stopped? Is
Neanderthal. gorillas common chimpanzees there genetic variation in language
bonobos Homo sapiens sapiens. ability between different people? Are
13When did Language Evolve? mutations still occurring? If either of
Australopithecus africanus these are true, language is still
Australopithecus robustus. evolving.
Australopithecus afarensis. Homo habilis. 33The K.E. Family. 16 of 30 members of
Homo erectus. Archaic Homo sapiens K.E. family have a specific language
Neanderthal. gorillas common chimpanzees impairment. Problems with morphology (have
bonobos Homo sapiens sapiens. to learn past tense and plurals one by one
14When did Language Evolve? – can’t learn rule of adding –ed / -s).
Australopithecus africanus Some other aspects of grammar not so
Australopithecus robustus. affected. Mean IQ of impaired subjects 86
Australopithecus afarensis. Homo habilis. (range 71-111). Mean IQ of unaffected
Homo erectus. Archaic Homo sapiens family members 104 (range 84 – 119).
Neanderthal. gorillas common chimpanzees 34K.E. Family Tree. F (74) – husband. F
bonobos Homo sapiens sapiens. (46) – husband. M – wife. F (43) –
15When did Language Evolve? husband. M (40) – wife. F (38) - husband.
Australopithecus africanus F (17) M (16) F (12) M (8). M (20) F (18).
Australopithecus robustus. F (21) F (17) F (12) F (11) M (7). M (10)
Australopithecus afarensis. Homo habilis. F (7) F (5) F (2)? M (17) M (15) M (14) F
Homo erectus. Archaic Homo sapiens (12) M (10) M (8) F (7) M (6) F (6). Red
Neanderthal. gorillas common chimpanzees family members have impairment Black
bonobos Homo sapiens sapiens. members have no impairment at all No
16How long has language been evolving spouses had language impairment. fraternal
for? chimp-human common ancestor. 5 twins.
million years ago. Australopithecus 35FOXP2. In 2001a gene was found in all
afarensis. Homo habilis. Homo erectus. affected family members No non-affected
gorillas common chimpanzees bonobos Homo family members had this gene Nor did any
sapiens sapiens. of 360 controls from the general
17What has evolved? Chimpanzees give population FOXP2 controls the expression
clues to how we were 5 million years ago. of other genes Affects brain development
How does modern chimpanzee language (at embryo stage).
compare to human language? Do chimpanzees 36Evolution of FOXP2. Grey boxes mark
have all the cognitive prerequisites for amino acid changing mutations 0 mutations
language? (Even if they could speak, would in 75 million years for chimps 1 for mice
they have anything to say?). 2 for humans in last 6 million years. 75
18Wild Chimpanzees. Communicate through Million years ago.
gestures, facial expressions, tactile 37FOXP2 Mutations. FOXP2 mutations have
contact, and about 25 different vocal been selected for in humans (are not due
calls. Calls can express fear, puzzlement, to random drift). Mutation probably
annoyance, food enjoyment, rage or happened 10,000 to 100,000 years ago. KE
distress, excitement Can alert other family mutation is different – in a
chimps to a food source But much more like completely different part of the gene. But
other animal communication systems than may still give us some idea what the
human languages. mutations were for.
19Teaching Language to Chimpanzees. 38Implications of FOXP2. Does FOXP2
Chimpanzees can’t control their breathing really tell us anything about language
or vocal apparatus So can’t mimic human evolution? Does FOXP2 code for morphology?
speech Good manual control So several Or does the mutation of FOXP2 disrupt
attempts to teach chimpanzees American whatever codes for morphology? Does FOXP2
sign language (ASL) ? Or to communicate by suggest that something really
pointing to a board of board of symbols. language-specific evolved?
20 39The Future of the KE Family Gene. Will
21What can Chimps Learn? Chimp trainers the KE family gene die out? Or will it
have claimed: Chimps can learn 250 ASL keep spreading? If it spreads widely
words Spontaneously make new lexical items enough, a version of language without
Combine words into sentences Other morphological rules might arise. We could
observers see a lot of random hand be seeing the beginnings of a new stage in
movements, and only very poor imitation of the evolution of language.
ASL signs. 40Summary. Language evolution raises a
22Nim Chimpsky. Nim eat Nim eat Tickle lot of questions: What evolved? When did
me Nim play Me banana you banana me you it evolve? Why did it evolve? Key point –
give Banana me me me eat No or very little All explanations in linguistics must
syntax Up to about 250 words maximum ultimately be grounded in terms of
(using a symbol board) No turn taking or biological evolution by natural selection.
Evolution of Language.ppt
cсылка на страницу

Evolution of Language

другие презентации на тему «Evolution of Language»

«Курс обучения в Language Link» - Профессионализм Language Link вполне оправдал наши ожидания. Корпоративное обучение иностранным языкам. Преимущества обучения в Language Link. Отзывы клиентов. Деловой английский. Общий английский. Основные программы обучения. Организационные преимущества. Профессиональные преимущества. Бизнес-английский для специальных целей.

«Английский язык для туристов» - Научитесь выживать, чтобы полноценно жить и путешествовать по всему миру!!! Каждый уровень предполагает 72 часа занятий. Новая Зеландия. Преподаватель всегда с улыбкой, очень доброжелательна”. Бегу записываться! Голландия. Первый уровень. Ямайки! С английским языком нигде не пропадешь! Второй уровень.

«Деловое общение» - Деловая поездка. Работа с интернет-ресурсами. Развитие навыка этикетного диалога. Деловой английский для подростков. Формирование интереса к деловому общению. Деловая игра. Элементы исследовательской работы. Формирование умения общаться в незапланированных ситуациях. Видеофильмы. Бизнес-ланч. Самостоятельная работа.

«Английская языковая школа» - К 2011-му году число участников конкурса превысило 400, а призовой фонд вырос до 1.000.000 рублей. Обувная компания «Алфавит». В ВЕС для обучения своих сотрудников обращаются такие компании как: Негорючая изоляция «Rockwool». Школы и офисы находятся более чем в 50 странах мира. В России на сегодняшний день спрос на изучение «живого» языка многократно превышает предложение.

«Английский Cambridge» - По желанию компании каждый модуль может быть расширен до 30 академических часов. Сейчас планирую подготовиться и получить еще сертификат по финансовому английскому. Какие программы вы используете? Корпоративное обучение. В чем же особенность корпоративного обучения? Я полтора года училась за границей, и вернувшись, продолжаю заниматься языком.

«Курсы английского Success English» - Описание курса. Золотой сертификат. Полученные знания, подтверждаются фирменными Сертификатами. Серебряный сертификат. Быстрое изучение английского языка. Модуль первый. Бронзовый сертификат. Деловой английский язык. Взаимодействие с англоязычной культурой. Особенности курса Success English. Модуль второй.

Курсы английского

25 презентаций о курсах английского

Английский язык

29 тем