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Feasibility study on China‘s mercury-free catalyst R&D
Feasibility study on China‘s mercury-free catalyst R&D
One Carbide-based PVC Producer
One Carbide-based PVC Producer
Thank you for your kind attention
Thank you for your kind attention
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Feasibility study on Chinas mercury-free catalyst RD

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1Feasibility study on China‘s 15R&D of gas-liquid mercury-free
mercury-free catalyst R&D. FECO/ catalyst. enterprise-based mercury-free
MEP/China October, 2011. Dr Sun Yangzhao. catalyst R&D and engineering pilot
2Content. PVC industry developments and platform is taking initial shape.
mercury management status in China Project 163. Relevant industry mercury pollution
background and progress Mercury pollution control policy. 2007 – Industry
control policies Difficulties and restructuring directory list (2007)
challenges Next steps. specifies HgCl2 catalyst under restricted
31.PVC production and mercury category. Encourages oxychlorination of
management in China. PVC plastic is widely ethylene to replace carbide method? For
used in industry, agriculture, national new, modified or expanded PVC installation
defense and chemical construction must reach the scale of over 300,000 tons
materials, etc in China. Chinese PVC a year. 2009 – MEP released clean
production can be divided in two production standards for chloralkali
categories: carbide method and ethylene industry (carbide PVC), which specifies
method. For the carbide route, CaC2 is technological requirements to produce VCM
used as raw material, and activated carbon in a clean manner. April 2011 – 12th Five
with HgCl 2 serves as catalyst for the Year Plan for Comprehensive prevention and
production of VCM which will be further control of heavy metal pollution was
used to make PVC. Table 1: PVC Data for approved and promulgated by the State
China 2009 (Source MIIT, 2010). Type of Council (applies to lead, mercury,
Production. # of Facilities. PVC cadmium, chromium and arsenic).
production (million tonnes). % of total 172009 MEP Clean Production Standards
production. Carbide-based. 94. 5.8. 63.4. for Chloralkali Industry (carbide PVC).
Ethylene. 10. 3.35. 36.6. Total. 104. Indicator. Class 1. Class 2. Class 2.
9.15. Class 3. Clean Production Auditing
4Mercury in carbide based process. Standard. I. process and equipment
Currently for one ton PVC produced in requirement. I. process and equipment
China: 1.2 kg of HgCl 2 catalyst consumed requirement. I. process and equipment
on average (as 11% of HgCl 2 content). For requirement. I. process and equipment
5.8 million tons of PVC produced in 2009, requirement. I. process and equipment
around 7000 tons of mercury catalyst used, requirement. 1. For HCl desorption device.
comprising: 770 tons of HgCl 2 and 570 use HCl deep desorption technoogy. use HCl
tons of mercury were used (MIIT, 2010) deep desorption technoogy. use HCl regular
Carbide-based PVC production consumes desorption technology. . 2. For mercury
around 60? of China’s total annual mercury catalyst. use low Hg and waste acid water
use. treatment technology. use low Hg and waste
5Mercury flow chart in carbide PVC acid water treatment technology. use low
production. Hg catalyst technology. . 3.VC mercury
6Catalyst Effectiveness. Sublimation recycling requirements. VC mercury
and intoxication causes reduction of recycling treatment. VC mercury recycling
catalyst effectiveness. When it decreases treatment. VC mercury recycling treatment.
to certain level, catalyst need to be VC mercury recycling treatment. II.
replaced and inactivated catalyst becomes resource and energy use indicators. II.
worn catalyst. Usually waste catalyst resource and energy use indicators. II.
contains 3-4.5% mercury. After Hg remover, resource and energy use indicators. II.
part of the sublimated HgCl2 will enter resource and energy use indicators. II.
the worn acid and alkali and get emitted. resource and energy use indicators. Hg
7Necessity of carbide process. Carbide catalyst consumption per unit of
PVC production uses lots of mercury, but product(kg/t? ?1.2. ?1.3. ?1.3. ?1.4. III.
it remains necessary? Chinese energy Pollutant generation indicator (before end
structure characterized as "lack oil, treatment). III. Pollutant generation
poor in gas and rich in coal" indicator (before end treatment). III.
Ethylene method can hardly meet the need Pollutant generation indicator (before end
of PVC industry alone Carbide PVC industry treatment). III. Pollutant generation
pays high attention to mercury pollution indicator (before end treatment). III.
administration. Pollutant generation indicator (before end
8Emission reduction measures for treatment). waste water generation per
carbide PVC production. The industry has unit of product. 12. 35. 35. 40. THg per
adopted the following measures to reduce unit waste water(g/t). 1.5. 1.8. 1.8. 2.0.
mercury use and emissions: low mercury 18Notification on Enhancing Hg Pollution
subsititute for high mercury one? Prevention and Control in Carbide PVC
activated carbon in mercury remover to industry. Issued by MEP - January 19 2011
absorb mercury in gas phase? waste acid Purpose was to enhance pollution
recycled by desorption device, a few of prevention and control management
which are used to neutralize worn alkali? framework in carbide PVC production, Hg
waste alkali used to neutralize waste catalyst production and treatment of worn
acid, and collected together with other catalyst. Notification requires? Increased
waste liquid for central treatment; waste awareness of the importance of pollution
catalyst, activated carbon and other waste control in carbide PVC production
sludge are sent to certified orgnization Promotion of low Hg catalyst and effective
for central treatment. reduction of Hg emissions Tighter
9One Carbide-based PVC Producer. environmental management and strengthened
102. Project background and progress. monitoring measures Strengthened policy
UNEP has provided funds for China to carry support and supportive measures Increased
out PVC project through small grants role of industry association in education
program. The project is now on its second and training.
phase. Phase I “Communication and 19Hg bearing waste management. Hg and Hg
Deliberation of the Practice of Mercury compound bearing waste or polluted waste
Use and Emission Reduction during PVC are already listed into State Hazardous
production” agreement was signed in Waste List MEP is formulating Hg bearing
January of 2009. Phase II “Feasibility pollutant prevention and control technical
study on China‘s mercury-free catalyst policy, which includes worn Hg catalyst.
R&D ” agreement was signed in April of 20Difficulties and Challenges Ahead.
2011. (1?Legislation and Enforcement inadequate
11Target and Research Results of Phase force in industry restructuring as well as
I. Phase 1 - Overall Target?To reduce in promoting and applying new reduction
mercury use in Chinese PVC industry technology and new material administrative
Duration?From Jan. 2009 to Sep. 2009 weakness in mercury and HgCl2 catalyst
Activities and results? Organization of production and supply production operation
“Workshop on Mercury Reduction in Carbide needs to be standardized. (2) Capacity
PVC Production” Investigation and study on basic situation and understanding is not
mercury use and reduction status in clear lack of monitoring/surveillance of
Chinese PVC production by acetylene mercury discharge.
Analysis of administrative and policy 21Difficulties and Challenges Ahead.
needs mercury use in this industry. ?3?Technology Application of low-mercury
12Target and Progress of Phase II. Phase technology needs to be further improved
2 Overall Target - To promote mercury free and researched Need of alternative
catalyst development and use in VCM techology: mercury-free catalyst is still
production. Implementation duration?April under research and development economic
2011-December 2011 Main activities? and other effects of application need to
Organization of “Project workshop on be taken into consideration before
Mercury free catalyst development wide-scale adoption. HCl desorption is
feasibility”; Develop a feasibility study only partly applied among enterprises.
report on mercury-free catalyst research 22Difficulties and Challenges Ahead.
and development, including identification ?4?Financing involves a wide range and
of near-term and long-term activities. large number of enterprises most
13Project workshop on Mercury free enterprises are small-scale with limited
catalyst development feasibility, 19-20 profit margins alternative technologies
September 2011. Approximately 40 are highly specialized and expensive. As a
participants from Chinese government and developing country, China is facing huge
industry, representatives from the shortage of labor-power, material and
international community Agenda? financial power.
International mercury convention 23Next steps for Carbide based PVC
negotiation process China PVC industry Production. Phase1 (Jan 2010~Jan 2012)
update Updates of mercury-free catalyst Activity 1?Raise understanding of mercury
R&D home and abroad Outcomes: Exchange pollution risks amongst local
of ideas on demands for and challenges to environmental protection bodies and
develop mercury-free catalyst technology. industry. Activity 2?Develop emission
Expert team proposed draft criteria for a inventory. Activity 3?Study the evaluation
peer review process. and application standards of low-mercury
14Wide-spread use of low Hg catalyst. By and non-mercury catalyst. Activity 4?Set
adoption of low Hg catalyst, mercury up reduction plan and targets across PVC
removal and centralized treatment of industry. Phase 2?Jan. 2012~Dec.2013
waste, producers are able to meet the Activity 5: Research mercury alternative
national emission limit requirements. technology and pilot application, apply
time. target. 2012. 2012. 2012. 2012. mercury reduction measures and standardize
2012. 50% use of low Hg catalyst per VCM administration. Activity 6: Initiate
production. 25% less use of HgCl per ton assessment and operation guidance for
of PVC at average. industrialization of above.
efficient collection technology of VC 24Conclusion. Although the Chinese
composing gas phase. 50% use of HCl deep central government has paid a lot of
desorption technology. 2015. 2015. 2015. attention to mercury pollution prevention
2015. 2015. 2015. whole industry uses low and control in the VCM sector, it is still
Hg catalyst. 50% less use of HgCl per ton facing a lot of difficulties and
of PVC at average. 100% recycling of worn uncertainties with spreading information
low Hg catalyst. whole industry realizes on the low-mercury catalyst and the
sound collection of worn Hg catalyst. High researching & development of
efficient Hg recycling technology free-mercury catalyst. We hope for more
penetration rate of 50%. over 90% support, including finance and
penetration rate of HCl deep desorption technologies from developed countries!
technology. 100% use of NaHS treatment for 25Acknowledge. Special thanks extended
Hg bearing wast water. to the following: Chemicals Branch, DTIE
15Mercury free catalyst R&D of UNEP Department of International
progress. Currently, carbide PVC producers Cooperation, MEP Department of Pollution
are working with research institutes on Prevention and Control, MEP Chemical
following research: to carry out acetylene Registration Center, MEP China Petroleum
VCM fluidized bed technology, i.e. and Chemical Industry Association.
mercury-free catalyst, supportive process, 26Thank you for your kind attention !
reactor. catalytic system of hydrogen Email: sun.yangzhao@mepfeco.org.cn.
chloride of acetylene to produce VCM;
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