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Organized resistance
Organized resistance
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From Empire to Independence 1750-1776

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1From Empire to Independence 1750-1776. 9Harbor, prevented from unloading, captain
2Big picture. Seven Years’ War? Britain reports to Sam Adams at church Group of
as dominant power Outcome of war leads to 50-60 dressed as Indians board ship &
American rebellion Growth of nationalism throw 45 tons of tea into harbor Ships in
in America = American Identity Wealthy other harbors attacked as well.
leaders motivated ordinary people through 10Intolerable Acts. Punishment to
principles of equality. Massachusetts & strengthen British
3French & Indian War (7 Years’ war) authority Termination of self-rule Quebec
1756-1763. Great global war for empire Act- state religion of Catholicism ? fears
Britain & Prussia vs. Spain, France of same thing in colonies Virginia and
& Austria Virginians fighting French others openly express sympathy.
Canadians along Ohio R. Albany Conference 11First continental congress. Who: 56
1754: British officials, colonists, elected delegates from 12 colonies What:
Iroquois Confederacy Unachieved Goal- Illegal meeting which developed trust and
collective colonial response to New France common identity among colonies When:
Lack of cooperation ? many battlefronts September-October 1774 Where: Philadelphia
(N. Atlantic, border of New France & Why: Organize common response to
New York, Ohio country*) Control over Ohio Intolerable Acts Results: creation of
R. ? fort building Indians played British important committees which played
& French against each other. important roles in communication and
4Outcome of War. George Washington organization during revolution
becomes war hero (despite initial failure) British/colonial violence.
Demonstration of colonial/British 12Second Continental Congress. Who:
differences New Prime Minister William Eventually elected delegates from all 13
Pitt buys colonial cooperation (leads to colonies, more radical, Thomas Jefferson
British success & debt) Promise new face What: Meeting to organize defense
Indians territory & boundary of of colonies When: May-June 1775 Where:
colonies (Proclamation of 1763) Philadelphia Why: Needed organized
Destruction of French empire in America military to fight British Results: George
Britain gains control of French lands Washington made commander-in-chief of
(Canada to Caribbean, Atlantic to Continental Army Army made up of existing
Mississippi R.) Spain gains Louisiana, militias.
loses Florida. 13Rebellion and fighting. Spain jumps at
5Indian Country. Indian/Colony conflict opportunity to get revenge 1775-1776
continues Indian Confederacy battles in various locations: Canada,
simultaneously attacks all British forts Boston, Virginia, North Carolina British
in West, year of fighting, stalemate promise freedom to slaves who join them
Proclamation Line set by British limits Patriots vs. Loyalists Second Continental
purchase, settlement in Indian lands Congress reconvenes Sept. 1775- formal
Colonists thought war would mean westward rebellion declared by King George Spring
expansion British unable/unwilling to 1776 France joins Spanish at sea Thomas
control illegal colonist expansion? Paine’s Common Sence.
Vermont, West Virginia, Tennessee Weakened 14Declaration of Independence. June 1776
Indians forced to sign lands away. committee of 5 assigns writing to
6American nationalism. Contrast of Jefferson Month of editing & voting
American & British soldiers American Justified renunciation of allegiance to
colonists feared enslavement by British Britain Asserted principles of equality
War brought colonists together, to other and the right of revolution Most important
colonies Nationalism- 19th century term document in American history? Signed July
Benedict Anderson, “Every successful 4, 1776 King George’s diary entry: Nothing
revolution has defined itself in special.
nationalist terms….nation: it is an 15We hold these truths to be
imagined political community – and self-evident, that all men are created
imagined as both inherently limited and equal, that they are endowed by their
sovereign.” Based on ideas of common Creator with certain unalienable rights,
history, culture, language and that among these are life, liberty and the
experiences. pursuit of happiness. That to secure these
7British debt, American resistance. rights, governments are instituted among
Most important things to colonists: men, deriving their just powers from the
Liberty & property 18th century consent of the governed. That whenever any
English radicals (Whigs) discuss form of government becomes destructive to
republicanism- unchecked power threatens these ends, it is the right of the people
liberty and institutes tyranny Acts to alter or to abolish it, and to
imposed by Britain to increase revenue institute new government, laying its
from colonies ? “no taxation without foundation on such principles and
representation” Male landowners in organizing its powers in such form, as to
colonies couldn’t vote in British them shall seem most likely to effect
elections Parliament argues “virtual their safety and happiness. Prudence,
representation” Upper-class leads indeed, will dictate that governments long
resistance to Acts Motivated lower-class - established should not be changed for
hit hard during & after war Sons of light and transient causes; and
Liberty: Upper-class group attempting to accordingly all experience hath shown that
control resistance movement (economic mankind are more disposed to suffer, while
& political pressure). evils are sufferable, than to right
8Organized resistance. Role of reading themselves by abolishing the forms to
& publications: Newspapers, pamphlets, which they are accustomed. But when a long
books, postal service, prints, letters train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing
some used as propaganda Colonial invariably the same object evinces a
assemblies dissolved due to design to reduce them under absolute
insubordination Customs agents & tax despotism, it is their right, it is their
collectors targeted. duty, to throw off such government, and to
9Boston. Massacre: British Army provide new guards for their future
occupation of Boston 10/1/1768 3/5/1770 security. --Such has been the patient
Boston crowed harassing guard at Customs sufferance of these colonies; and such is
House attacked by British soldiers 7 dead, now the necessity which constrains them to
4 wounded Mob of hundreds demands alter their former systems of government.
vengeance Governor orders British troops The history of the present King of Great
out Paul Revere’s print circulated Britain is a history of repeated injuries
throughout colonies (propaganda, and usurpations, all having in direct
untruthful representation) Tea Party object the establishment of an absolute
Response to Tea Act 1773 – reduction in tyranny over these states. To prove this,
price of tea, aimed at saving East India let facts be submitted to a candid world.
Co. British tea ship arrives in Boston
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