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International Students and the Politics of Language among Globalising
International Students and the Politics of Language among Globalising
International Students and the Politics of Language among Globalising
International Students and the Politics of Language among Globalising
The pre-eminence of English
The pre-eminence of English
In Asia
In Asia
The institutional perspective: discourses and paradoxes in the
The institutional perspective: discourses and paradoxes in the
NUS
NUS
NUS
NUS
NUS
NUS
Todai
Todai
1. Place of language in choice of overseas university
1. Place of language in choice of overseas university
1. Place of language in choice of overseas university
1. Place of language in choice of overseas university
1. Place of language in choice of overseas university
1. Place of language in choice of overseas university
2. Coping with (un)familiar language environments
2. Coping with (un)familiar language environments
2. Coping with (un)familiar language environments
2. Coping with (un)familiar language environments
3. Host language ability and formation of friendships
3. Host language ability and formation of friendships
3. Host language ability and formation of friendships
3. Host language ability and formation of friendships
3. Host language ability and formation of friendships
3. Host language ability and formation of friendships
Globalising Universities

: Michelle. , . , Globalising Universities.ppt zip- 1359 .

Globalising Universities

Globalising Universities.ppt
1International Students and the 19all the places I could go, you can get
Politics of Language among Globalising lots of really nice cheap food, nice hot
Universities in Asia. Brenda S.A. Yeoh, and sunny, and reassured me that everyone
Michelle Foong and K.C. Ho National understood English an English-speaking
University of Singapore. Globalisation : country in Asia would somewhat be an
now, University of Western Sydney, 23-24 introduction, finding out more, I always
July 2013. 1. thought I wanted to work abroad for some
2The pre-eminence of English. English - time. It sounded like a good idea to maybe
the de facto language of globalised work in Singapore or somewhere in Asia.
higher education (Kell and Vogl, 2010). (Tim, British undergraduate exchange
Reflected in international student student, NUS) I have a very good friend
mobilities Matthews and Sidhu (2005): the from childhood and he used to study in
movement of predominantly Asian students Japan on scholarship. He was there for two
from non-English speaking countries into years as an undergraduate and still, he
Western English-speaking centres remains couldnt catch up with the language. And
fundamentally unidirectional and is a now he has to come back and start
legacy of British and American colonialism everything all over again. Japanese is
which secured English as the key language one of the most difficult languages in the
of global commerce. Language boot camps world. Its very hard. I used to study
for international students in western Japanese and I think Oh my God!. Its
universities (Taylor, 2004). 2. not for me. English is definitely easier!
3The pre-eminence of English. Brooks (Thi, Vietnamese undergraduate student,
and Waters (2011) point to the desire for NUS). 19.
fluency in English as the one 201. Place of language in choice of
overwhelming concern directly related to overseas university. language wise it was
the accumulation of cultural capital in a little difficult, their English is kind
order to navigate ones way to success in of, a bit different from normal so there
a globalised world. Chew (2010): was a bit of difficulty in understanding,
linguistic migration, that is, like if you go to their research webpage
migration [as part of a well planned and and they talk about what theyre doing and
carefully calculated project] you go likehuhhhhh? I guess you just
necessitated primarily in search of a need to spend a lot of, a slightly longer
linguistic capital, relating usually to time in trying to understand it, but its
premium languages such as English, which not that difficult, its not a big
is readily exchangeable in the market problem. (Charlene, Malaysian postgraduate
place for other kinds of capital. 3. student,Todai) Its not that I dont want
4In Asia . Recent revolution in Asian to learn Japanese, I really want to learn
universities push towards Japanese because I think if you know
internationalization, accompanied by the Japanese in Japan, its much more
growth of international ranking exercises. convenient. But I thought maybe I should
English as the language of international be focusing on my research because thats
reach in the strategies of globalizing what Im getting paid for, . But when my
universities in Asia? Special provision of sensei said I should do it [learn
academic programmes in English in Japanese], I should do it. Thats why I
non-English speaking countries in order to felt like doing it, but then there was a
attract international students with little point [where] I had too much work. (Abbas,
familiarity of the local language. Pakistani Civil Engineering postrgraduate
Ishikawa (2009): the predominance of student, Todai). 20.
Japanese as a medium of instruction, a 211. Place of language in choice of
symbol of cultural and linguistic overseas university. As an international
autonomy, proves unpopular among student, it helps if you have basic
prospective students who increasingly Japanese language ability, but Im
demand English language courses and degree thinking what if you dont have any of
programmes Altbach (2004): win-win that, then its really difficult to
strategy, allowing these universities to communicate. Also, because of that, youre
attract international students unwilling not aware of the sort of support youre
to learn the local language on the one able to get, because they cant
hand, while improv[ing] the communicate to you. Oh you actually can
English-language skills of domestic get this, they cant tell you When I
students and thus enabl[ing] them to work first went to class, everything, guidance,
in an international arena on the other. orientation, was in Japanese, like
4. information on how to register for your
5Aims. Using two contrasting case classes, rules, these are all important
studies The University of Tokyo (Todai) things everything is in Japanese. So you
and the National University of Singapore kind of like go urgghhh!, youre totally
(NUS) and by drawing on quantitative and left out in the cold. Of course you can
qualitative data, this paper Examines ask them, but you need to speak in
discourses and debates around the place of Japanese, they do give you handouts, but
English in a globalising university, only a tiny part of it is in English, and
highlighting paradoxes and tensions you have the feeling that youre missing
embedded in language policy. Explores ways out on a lot of information. I feel its
in which international students at both because the international student ratio is
universities cope with (un)familiar very small, so they can kind of get away
language environments and deal with with not having guidance in English. I
language barriers in the universities. feel like I missed out on a lot of
Seeks to deepen understanding of the opportunities just because everything is
everyday politics of language that in Japanese. (Charlene, Malaysian
international students confront, and the postgraduate student,Todai). 21.
strategies they employ in negotiating 222. Coping with (un)familiar language
these encounters. 5. environments. The scores of the
6Methods. Globalizing Universities and international students listening,
International Student Mobilities in East speaking, reading and writing in English
Asia (GUISM): multidisciplinary research (NUS) and Japanese (Todai) were aggregated
project spanning 9 universities in 8 East to create an index of the students
Asian cities, of which NUS and Todai are language proficiency. Figure 1 shows that
participating institutions. Student the language proficiency of NUS students
surveys 250 to 500 per university Formal (from score 11 to 16) in English is
interviews with university officials and generally higher than the Japanese
other key personnel directly involved in language proficiency for Todai students.
the respective universitys 22.
internationalization process. Analysis of 232. Coping with (un)familiar language
published and non-print materials by NUS environments. When asked if they were
and Todai, such as promotional literature, satisfied with their adjustment with the
handbooks, prospectus, websites and other host language, the lower mean score of
relevant material. In-depth biographical 2.72 suggests that Todai students on the
interviews were conducted with a total of whole were less satisfied compared to NUS
40 international students, 20 from each students whose mean satisfaction score was
institution. 6. 2.92. 23.
7The institutional perspective: 242. coping with (un)familiar language
discourses and paradoxes in the language environments. While the NUS international
of internationalization. Fundamental issue students exhibited a higher level of
that Asian universities grapple with in proficiency and coping ability with the
rescaling the educational enterprise for a host language (English) compared to their
global market lies with the language of Todai counterparts who had to wrestle with
internationalization, given the: assured Japanese, the adjustment process was
position of the English language as the nonetheless significant if more subtle.
ground floor of the world hierarchy of People dont even recognize me as an
languages (Balaz and Williams, 2004) international student, theyd assume that
predominance of universities in the Im Singaporean and when they find out,
Anglo-American world. 7. theyd be like, oh youre Malaysian,
8NUS. Among East Asian universities, (but) you speak English so well, you dont
the National University of Singapore (NUS) look like a Malaysianits very
represents the minority which has irritating, insultingthe whole mentality
capitalised on its colonial legacy of that they are so much better than everyone
English based education to facilitate else. (Jenny, Malaysian Chinese
internationalization Singapores Global undergraduate student, NUS) That group
Schoolhouse strategy restructuring of its didnt let me participate much in the
national universities to achieve greater work, they didnt trust me, gave me all
prominence attracting reputable foreign the trivial taskswhen we have group
universities to set up overseas campuses discussions, they would say things like
in Singapore developing alliances with does anyone have any idea what shes
strong overseas partners through global talking about? that kind of thing. Before
(English language) networks such as the coming [to NUS], I was working with an
International Alliance of Research Australian boss. There was nothing wrong
Universities, Association of Pacific Rim with me [in terms of English
Universities and Universitas 21 (Sidhu, Ho communication]. When I came here, the
and Yeoh, 2011). 8. whole world shattered. I started to doubt
9NUS. NUS a leading global university everything, from my English to my
centred in Asia a thought leader on Asian competency, about everything. (Kim,
matters (NUS Corporate brochure 2010) Vietnamese undergraduate student, NUS).
distinctive expertise and insights 24.
relating to Asia (NUS Vision) competing 25In the international classroom in
with leading universities [in Asia and the Todai, courses where the language of
west] to recruit the best minds (NUS instruction is officially English are
President Professor Tan Chorh Chuan, often in practice conducted in dual
Presidents Address, State of the languages. Hyun, a South Korean PhD
University 2010) key node in global student, explains: as some Japanese
knowledge networks (NUS Vision). The students are not comfortable with English,
student community is also highly diverse, the professors try to speak in English
with international students making up 20% first, then afterwards explain in Japanese
and 60% of the undergraduate and graduate too. In parallel fashion, mainland
student populations respectively. (NUS Chinese students studying in Todai who
Corporate brochure 2010). 9. struggle with English may resort to
10Todai. Instead of the wholesale Japanese instead. Hong (Todai) a Chinese
adoption of English as the global PhD student, found oral English
language, internationalisation is not presentations and communication very
seen to be incongruent with the challenging (given both her and her hosts
Japanisation of Japan (Hashimoto, 2000). inadequacies with the language) but was
? English language dominance is to be more comfortable with reading and writing
resisted and deconstructed Well, as a in Japanese, primarily because of the
society, I think it is nearly a clich? large number of characters borrowed from
but Japan is one of the most homogeneous Chinese: In my lab I was the only
societies in the world, even though we foreigner and the only girl. So I felt it
have a diversity element language wasnt so easy to start my work, because
communication is virtually all in there were many instruments I didnt know
Japanese. And also the fact that Japan how to use, or things that I didnt
more or less successfully achieve understand, I found it hard to communicate
modernization without depending too much with my labmates. Firstly, when I speak
on the help of the outside world This English, they wont reject me but they
created an atmosphere where somehow the find it hard to understand what Im
system that exists now can manage all talking about, and its also hard for them
sorts of elements [without recourse to the to express themselves, *sigh* so I felt it
outside world] so despite the fact we was no use talking, so I might as well not
need a lot of internationalization its talk. 25.
hard to achieve real diversification 262. coping with (un)familiar language
(Senior official#1, Todai, 2010). 10. environments. I actually think its less
11Todai. Todais current pursuit of stressful here because as an international
internationalisation is articulated in student in my lab, I get off with a lot,
terms of an openness and so theyre (Japanese labmates) all like
responsibility towards the future of ahh, it is okay Charlene. For example,
Japan, diverse peoples of the world, during my lab seminars they have to
and human civilisation in general, a translate some lab reports from English to
discourse which attempts to transcend the Japanese, and present to everyone. I dont
particularities of nationality, ethnicity have to present that because thats not my
and language, and instead draw on the native language, so I dont have to
language of world solidarity and universal present in Japanese, just in English. Also
truths: Japan too, is expected to display because their English level is not so
its unique characteristics and contribute good, I dont get bombarded with a lot of
to human civilization, as it opens itself questions. I think in Malaysia, I will not
to the world. It [Todai] thus dedicates be able to get away with these sorts of
itself to pursue the truths and universal things, because the language and
realities transcending national, ethnic, everything is all the same. (Charlene,
and language differences. One of our key Malaysian postgraduate student, Todai).
missions [of Todai] is to constantly 26.
create and develop forums for education, 273. Host language ability and formation
research, and academic exchange in order of friendships. Friendship circle confined
to build bridges between different largely to co-nationals: When I came to
nations, regions, peoples, languages, and Singapore, at the beginning, I just
cultures-and thereby deepen mutual communicated with Chinese graduate
understanding on a global scale. By students, because its easy, the first few
promoting international education and months, because Singaporean English is
research, Todai will strive to broaden its very hard to understand, very fast
internationalism and deepen its [Interviewer: But you can speak Mandarin
understanding of the various regions of to them [Singaporean Chinese]?] But some
the world, as it promotes education and of them didnt know Mandarin and they
research that aspires for truth and peace prefer to communicate with you in English,
(The University of Tokyo Guidebook, 2009). I think so. For me the definition of
11. friends means you can talk to them about
12Todai. English language courses first your real feelings (??). [It is] difficult
introduced as early as in the 1980s in with locals I think English is a
civil engineering in order to recruit problem.and also culture, a little bit
students from Southeast Asia in tandem differentAnd when you already know some
with the expansion of the Japanese [co-national] friends, and youd be lazy
construction industry in the region ? to go make some new friends, you wont
until recently not central to Todais take initiative, especially we are already
internationalisation strategy: I need to older, you wont take the initiative, so
point out that some elements of everyone let it be (????,). (Minghan,
internationalization, particularly in the Chinese postgraduate student, NUS). 27.
form of the increase in international 283. Host language ability and formation
students has been achieved without of friendships. Hong, PhD student from
depending very much on the language, of China, bows to the invincibility of the
the English language of instruction The language barrier despite an abundance of
largest international student body is goodwill to form friendships across the
Chinese nearly 900 Chinese studentsand divide: This [Japanese] girl has tried to
the second is Korean students600 make friends with me, she is my junior, so
studentsand then TaiwaneseThese East she felt, since Im senior she should have
Asian international students speak nearly good relations with me, she is very
perfect Japanese Internationalisation has adorable, so if the next day is my
hence gone on without depending on the presentation, she would put a note on my
English language I think that this is desk, ganbatte![do your best!] Japanese
partly a blessing to us, because we dont are very good at drawing, so shed draw a
need to change the language of small bunny and even write ?? in Chinese
instruction. But then, that has created characters, so shes really adorable. But
in a way, a narrowness of our because of the language barrier, I really
internationalization a narrow [band in] dont know how I can communicate with her
geographic distribution Those countries better, at most have lunch together, and
that use Chinese characters have a return her some small gift. If she has any
definite advantage in learning the problems with her work, I can help her,
Japanese language and so Chinese, Korean but thats it, I dont really know what to
Taiwanese, they really, as I said, have a say to her. She also doesnt really know
very good command of the Japanese what to say, already she doesnt like to
language (Senior official#1, Todai, talk much. The relationship among
2010). 12. international students [in her lab] is
13Introduction of degree courses in really good, language wise, we can
English a recent effort: Every effort is communicate more [using English], Ive
being made to increase the number of [gained] more understanding of Thai and
courses that are taught in English, Korean culture. With the Koreans, we would
enhance our services to international talk about Korean pop stars in dramas,
students and research fellows, and singers, I think its quite fun and
translate numerous administrative meaningful.... [I am] very close to the
documents of the University into English. Thai student, his parents are Chinese
(Message from the President, The ancestry, so I feel pretty close, though
University of Tokyo 2010 Admission he doesnt speak Mandarin, we feel closer.
Information for International Students). When foreigners come together, you are
Todai. 13. actually closer (??????????????????).
14Todai. Selected as one of the (Hong, Chinese PhD student, Todai). 28.
universities to promote 293. Host language ability and formation
internationalization in Japan under the of friendships. The relationship among
Global 30 Project, Todai has begun to international students [in her lab] is
establish more courses in English, through really good, language wise, we can
which students are able to obtain their communicate more [using English], Ive
degrees ? move towards [gained] more understanding of Thai and
internationalisation with greater Korean culture. With the Koreans, we would
diversity? Our current task is to broaden talk about Korean pop stars in dramas,
the scope of diversitywe need to go singers, I think its quite fun and
beyond East Asia. And for that purpose, meaningful.... [I am] very close to the
the need to increase courses taught in Thai student, his parents are Chinese
English is essential. (Senior Todai ancestry, so I feel pretty close, though
official#1, 2010) ). 14. he doesnt speak Mandarin, we feel closer.
15Todai. While the declared aim is to When foreigners come together, you are
allow international students with no prior actually closer (??????????????????).
knowledge of the Japanese language to (Hong, Chinese PhD student, Todai).
complete their degrees in English, the Interestingly not being fluent in Japanese
subtext suggests that Japanese language did not affect third country friendships
proficiency is still strongly preferred: as the language of interaction among third
prospective students need not have prior country networks is most likely the major
knowledge of the Japanese regional language, probably English and
language...however, those who have learned Mandarin. 29.
Japanese in high school or other 303. Host language ability and formation
institutions are especially welcomeduring of friendships. 30.
their undergraduate studies, students are 313. Host language ability and formation
strongly encouraged to strengthen their of friendships. 31.
Japanese language ability to manage 32Conclusion. NUS leverages with
themselves in the Japanese language so as little hesitation on its strong English
to be able to take classes conducted in language legacy to build close affinities
Japanesesuch language proficiency may with the Anglo-American world of higher
help students work in Japan or Japanese education and to compete effectively in
companies abroad after they graduate from the global league of universities. Todai
Todai.... ...prospective students [who treads a more ambivalent path towards
enrol in the advanced international internationalization, embracing a
program in economics] are those who can heightened discourse about folding
disseminate messages both at home and language differences into the larger goal
abroad from Japans own perspective of world solidarity on the one hand, and
without being limited to western ways of maintaining the centrality of the Japanese
thinking. (The University of Tokyo 2010 language to the higher education landscape
Introduction of Courses in English, on the other, even as certain niche
pp.5-6) Although the program [graduate programmes take on English as the language
program in engineering] itself is in of instruction (at least on paper). 32.
English, some Japanese skills will 33Conclusion. For both universities,
eventually be necessary for graduates who language issues feature not only in
hope to work in Japanese companiesto institutional discourses about
address this reality, we offer a program globalization but also in shaping
that is seamlessly bilingual (Senior international student mobilities and
official#2, Todai, 2010). 15. experiences. The relationship between host
16The perspectives of international language proficiency and social adjustment
students. 16. is not a linear one. Instead, as seen in
171. Place of language in choice of both the case of the English dominated
overseas university. 17. environment in NUS and the more
181. Place of language in choice of ambivalently layered environment with two
overseas university. 18. dissonant languages (English and
191. Place of language in choice of Japanese), the place of language as both
overseas university. The representative enabler and constraint in the adjustment
from NUS (at a study abroad fair in Leeds, process is negotiated in the stream of
his home university) was telling me about everyday encounters. 33.
Globalising Universities.ppt
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Globalising Universities

Globalising Universities

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