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History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
In Celtic culture, the Druids were the priestly class in Celtic
In Celtic culture, the Druids were the priestly class in Celtic
Hadrian’s Wall
Hadrian’s Wall
Roman Soldier
Roman Soldier
The Romans
The Romans
Italy and England on a map of Europe
Italy and England on a map of Europe
Why did the Jutes want to stay
Why did the Jutes want to stay
Jute, Angle, and Saxon Invasion
Jute, Angle, and Saxon Invasion
The Jutes, Angles, and Saxons tribes spoke German although each spoke
The Jutes, Angles, and Saxons tribes spoke German although each spoke
The Vikings
The Vikings
Internet – Interactive game: Be a Viking Raider
Internet – Interactive game: Be a Viking Raider
Internet – Interactive game: Be a Viking Raider
Internet – Interactive game: Be a Viking Raider
Internet – Interactive game: Be a Viking Raider
Internet – Interactive game: Be a Viking Raider
Norman Fortifications
Norman Fortifications
The Normans built towers and castles in a style quite different from
The Normans built towers and castles in a style quite different from
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
Normans (Northmen)
Normans (Northmen)
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
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History of the English Language

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1History of the English Language. 33/vikings/who_were_the_vikings/ Decide your
2History of the English Language. A strategy: How large will your ship be? Who
language develops and changes slowly over will you include in the crew?
centuries. We do not know when the English 34In the century following 878 A.D., the
language started. Viking invaders kept coming. Finally, in
3Stonehenge. 1016, a Danish Viking named Canute (Cnut)
4Stonehenge Around 1900 B.C., was crowned King of England. Cnut ruled
Stonehenge was built. Since the people who Denmark and Norway. He was wise and humble
built this huge stone circle did not leave king.
a written record, we do not know what bbc.co.uk/schools/primaryhistory/anglo_sax
language they spoke. These huge stone ns/what_happened_to_the_anglo-saxons/.
circles align with the sun during 35The following story is told about King
solstices. (BBC, British History, Canute (Cnut). Once, King Canute took all
timelines) Dictionary skills: Solstice, his flattering courtiers down to the sea.
B.C., anno Domini. He asked, “Am I so powerful that I can
5These people moved huge stones from stop the tide from coming in?” They
miles away, raised them to a vertical answered, “Oh, yes!” So, he commanded the
position, and placed huge cap stones on tide to stay out. Of course, they all got
top. Stonehenge stands today as an awesome their feet wet. Dictionary skills:
accomplishment and could not have been flattering, courtiers.
done without a language. (BBC, British 36The Vikings gradually stopped speaking
History, timelines). Danish or Norse and learned English.
6Stonehenge. Cap stone. However, they gave us such words as: they,
7Celtic People. The Celts immigrated to their, them, are, skirt, sky, skin, scrub,
England in the 5th century B.C. and drove whisk, and names ending in –son.
out the Stonehenge people. Since the Celts bbc.co.uk/schools/primaryhistory/vikings/w
wandered over areas from Spain to Russia at_happened_to_the_vikings/.
and Britain, the Celtic language was 37French Vikings, the Normans.
spoken over a vast area of the European Scandinavian Viking bands invaded the
continent. (BBC, British History, northern coast of France, settled there,
timelines) Pronunciation guide: Celt (hard and learned French. They forced the French
c - k). king to name their leader the Duke of
8In Celtic culture, the Druids were the Normandy and to give them the province of
priestly class in Celtic polytheism. (BBC, Normandy (Northman lands). They were
British History, timelines). Dictionary called Normans (Northmen).
skills: polytheism. 38Meanwhile, England … 1066. Edward the
9The Celtic language survives today in Confessor, a descendant of King Canute,
the language spoken by the Scotch Gaelic, had no heir to claim the throne of
Irish, Welsh, and Breton. Celtic names are England. Two Norman nobles, Harold of
used for many places in Britain. One England and William, Duke of Normandy,
British town has this Celtic name: Lian \ said the throne had been promised to them.
vire \ pooll \ guin \ gill \ go \ ger \ u Upon the death of the king, Harold had
\ queem \ drop \ ooll \ llandus\ illo \ himself crowned.
gogo \ goch! 391066, the Battle of Hastings William,
10Dictionary skills: reputedly. Duke of Normandy, and his Norman army
11In 43 A.D., an army of 40,000 Roman crossed the English Channel, invaded
soldiers invaded Celtic Britain and made England, and attacked army of newly
it part of the Roman Empire. In the 400 crowned King Harold of England. Harold was
years the Romans ruled Britain, they killed when an arrow entered his visor and
introduced Christianity, Latin, built pierced his eye. William the Conqueror
roads, established Roman laws, and became King of England.
protected the Celts from the fierce Picts 40Norman Fortifications.
and Scots on the north side of Hadrian’s 41The Normans built towers and castles
Wall. Research skills: The Romans. in a style quite different from the old
12The Romans. Internet research skills: Celtic hill forts.
Who was Julius Caesar? Who was Claudius? 42
Who was Boudica (also spelled Boudicca)? 43Normans (Northmen). The Normans nobles
Who was Hadrian? spoke French with a Viking accent. The
13BBC History of BritainTime Line peasants spoke the English of the German
Research: Saxon tribe.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/interactive/t 44For 200 hundred years after 1066,
melines/british/index.shtml. French was the language in the government,
14Hadrian’s Wall. Hadrian’s Wall was church, education, and the arts. English
built across the narrow part of England to was spoken, but only by the lower classes.
keep the Pics and Scots from invading the Modern English has inherited two different
south. Hadrian’s Wall. words for the same item. For example, the
15Roman Soldier. Romans spoke Latin. * peasant who milked the beast called it a
Roman soldiers were exellent engineers and cow (Engl.), but the Norman lord who ate
built roads to link Rome with all the it called it beef (FR.).
Roman Empire. *Research: Why is it 45
important to the English language that 46How English Became Classy Again. In
Romans spoke Latin? (BBC, British History, 1204, the Anglo-Normans and the French
timelines). king fought once more for possession of
16The Romans. The Romans (Italy). Romans Normandy. The Anglo-Normans lost the
soldiers came from the area we call Italy battle and their possessions in Normandy
today. The city of Rome is still the to the French king.
capital of Italy. After serving in the 47English Became Classy. The King of
army, many soldiers married Celtic women France added insult to the English king’s
and stayed in England. Rome. loss of Normandy. He said, “The King of
17Italy and England on a map of Europe. England can’t fight or speak French well.”
England. Italy. The English king was angry! He ordered all
18End of Roman Rule 410 A.D. The Romans his subjects to speak English. English was
started pulling soldiers from Britain in the official speech of England.
410 A.D. after 400 years of Roman rule. 48The Anglo-Normans spoke English, but
Rome, the capital of the Roman Empire, was more than 10,000 of their French words
under attacks from barbaric tribes. The remained in the English vocabulary. Old
Celts were left without the protection of English + Norman French = a new
the Roman army and with no weapons to combination called Middle English.
defend themselves. (BBC, British History, 49Geoffrey Chaucer. The most famous
timelines). writer of Middle English (1150 – 1500) is
19Scandinavia. Scandinavia. After the Geoffrey Chaucer. The next slide has an
Romans left, the Picts and Scots came excerpt of a Chaucer poem. What does it
south into England. Bands of Vikings came say? Dictionary skills: excerpt (Classroom
south from Scandinavia. Chart, no source cited).
20After 400 years of Roman protection, 50“The Pardoner’s Tale” (an excerpt,
the Celts were civilized and accustomed to Geoffrey Chaucer). “Now, sires,” quod he,
Roman laws. (Bryson 46-47) Since the Celts “if that ye be so leef To fynds Deeth,
had Roman protection for 400 years, they turne up this croked wey, For in that
were defenseless against the Pict, Scot, grove I lafte hym, by my fey, Under a
and Viking raiders. (BBC, British History, tree, and there he wole abyde; Noght for
timelines). youre boost he wole him no thyng hyde. Se
21The Jutes Come to Britain. Vortigern, ye that ook? Right there ye shal hym
a Celtic chieftain, asked the Jutes, a fynde.” (Translate.) (Classroom Chart, no
Germanic tribe, to come to Britain and source cited).
fight the Picts and Scots. In return, 51Translation into modern English: Three
Vortigern promised that Jutes could have foolish men set out to kill Death. A
the isle of Thanet. The Jutes defeated the mysterious old man in a long black cloak
Picts and Scots, but when they finished helps in the search for Death. Who was the
fighting, the Jutes stayed in Kent. (BBC, mysterious old man? What do you predict
British History, timelines). happened when the foolish men found Death?
22Why did the Jutes want to stay? 52Interesting Facts about modern English
Britain is a beautiful island and located Our language has over 600,000 words. Words
in the path of the Gulf Stream waters. from German origins are those we use most
This huge river of warm water provides a frequently because these are about us and
warmer climate than one would expect at our immediate world. (Bryson Words from
that latitude and excellent grazing and Latin and Greek form most of the words in
farm land. (BBC Weather Centre). the English dictionary.
23This ocean current warms Britain by 53We use Germanic words when we talk
5-8C. This current moves north from the about everyday, essential things of life,
Gulf of Mexico at the equator. This air is such as the parts of the human body, the
still warm and moist when it reaches sun, moon, and stars, and home. German
Britain. Winds from the sea often bring words are the most frequently used, but
rain. (BBC Weather Centre). words from German make up only one fifth
24The Angles and Saxons. The Germanic of our total vocabulary words. .
Angle and Saxon tribes also invaded 54About three fifths of our vocabulary
Britain and drove the Celts far to the came originally from Latin and Greek…
west. King Arthur and his knights resisted usually passing through French on the way.
the German invaders. (Bryson, 49) Some The rest of the English word stock is
Celts fled across the English channel and borrowed from dozens of other languages.
settled in Brittany where a form of the (Glencoe Writer’s Choice Grammar and
Celtic language can be heard today. Composition Grade 6, 542-556).
(Bryson, 49) Research Castles of Wales 55The Language Family Tree. The
(http://www.castlewales.com/home.html). Indo-European languages are called a
25Jute, Angle, and Saxon Invasion. language family because they are believed
http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/primaryhistor to be the descendants of a parent language
/anglo_saxons/who_were_the_anglo-saxons/#r spoken in Central Europe in the late Stone
sources-photos. Age. There are no written records; but
26The Jutes, Angles, and Saxons tribes similar words in many languages have made
spoke German although each spoke a it possible to reconstruct the possible
different dialect. (Bryson, 47) Dictionary original forms. On the next slide there
skills: dialect. are some common Indo-European words.
27The Celts, renamed Wealas (Classroom chart, no origin).
(foreigners), were driven west by the 56Indo-E. Sanskrit. Russian Modern.
Angles and Saxons, settled in Wales. The Greek. Latin. Germ Early. Engl. Modern.
present day heir to the English throne, Puhter. Pita. ….. Pater. Pater. Fadar.
Prince Charles, is titled the Prince of Father. Treies. Trayah. Tree. Treis. Tres.
Wales. Welch is a form of the Celtic Threis. Three. Kmtom. Satam. Staw.
language. E-katon. Centum. Hund. Hundred. Ed-. Admi.
28By the middle of the 6th century, the Yest. Edo. Edo. Ita. Eat. Yugom. Yugam.
Jutes, Angles, and Saxons were settled on Yarmo. Dzugon. Jugum. Juk. Yoke. Bhero.
the land they had taken from the Celts. Bharami. … Fero. Fero. Baira. Bear (verb).
Historians decided that the Angles’ (Classroom Chart, no source cited).
dialect was the origin of our language, 57Works Cited. Amory, , Tucking, and
Angle – ish, English. Our language could Cartwright. The First 1,000 Words in
be called Saxon-ish because of a Saxon German. Edc Publishers, 1988. Print.
king, Alfred the Great. Research: Saxon, Bryson, Bill. Mother Tongue, English &
English, Alfred the Great How It Got That Way. New York, NY:
(bbc.co.uk/history/trail/conquest/after_vi HarperCollins Publishers, 2000. Print.
ing/sound). Classroom Chart. “History of the English
29King Alfred the Great was a scholar, Language”. No source cited. "Glencoe
statesman, and general who ruled the West Writer's Choice Grammar and Composition
Saxons from 871 to 899 A.D. He had the Grade 6." Ed. Columbus, OH:
most important Latin books translated into Macmillan/McGraw-Hill Glencoe, 2009.
the Saxon dialect and collected folk tales Print. "Holt Elements Of Language
and history. King Alfred’s love of Grade 6." Ed. Robert R. Hoyt. Austin,
reading, writing, and language preserved TX: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 2004.
our language during the Dark Ages . Print. BBC, British History, Timeline,
Research: King Alfred the Great Interactive Games. Web. 3 May 2010.
(http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_fig <http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/interacti
res/alfred_the_great.shtml). e/timelines/british/index.shtml>. BBC,
30Saxons, etc.* *Etc. (et cetera) – and Britain Weather. The Gulf Stream, Web.
so forth (L) Latin. The language known as July 2009.
Old English was spoken 450 A.D. – 1150 http://www.bbc.co.uk/climate/impact/gulf_s
A.D. Most surviving Old English documents ream.shtml Thomas, Jeffery L. Castles of
are in West Saxon dialect. Beowulf is one Wales. Web. 2009.
of these. Library search: “Beowulf”. http://www.castlewales.com/home.html.
31King Alfred was also a great general. 58Works Cited. BBC Primary History
Small bands of Viking raiders had been http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/primaryhistor
raiding, burning, and looting English /anglo_saxons/who_were_the_anglo-saxons/#r
towns for a century. Then, they brought sources-photos Nov. 5, 2009 BBC Sound of
large armies to seize the land. (Bryson, the Saxons
52) Alfred dealt them a smashing defeat in http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/trail/conques
878 A.D. King Alfred is the only English /after_viking/sound_saxons_01.shtml BBC
king with the title “the Great”. Historic Figures
(bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures). http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figu
32The Vikings. Vikings came from es/alfred_the_great.shtml BBC What
Scandinavia and Denmark. There were many Happened to the Anglo-Saxons?
places on the British island to beach http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/primaryhistor
their boats and raid the English /anglo_saxons/what_happened_to_the_anglo-s
countryside. xons/ BBc What Happened to the Vikings?
33Internet – Interactive game: Be a http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/primaryhistor
Viking Raider. /vikings/what_happened_to_the_vikings/.
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