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Immigrants and Religious Conflict

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1Immigrants and Religious Conflict 15(Maan (1992, pp.30-32) acknowledges that
(Italian, Lithuanian and Polish Catholics the Lithuanians experienced hostility on
in Scotland). Stephen J. McKinney, their arrival and as they settled in, but
Lecturer, Department of Religious ultimately: Being of the same faith and
Education Faculty of Education University the same colour of skin, there were no
of Glasgow. strong barriers between the Scottish and
2Tolerance / inclusion within religions Lithuanian peoples (Maan, 1992, p.31).
or denominations. Increasing awareness of 16External Struggles: two perspectives.
importance of (multiple) ethnic and Miller’s (p.70) account, however,
cultural identity, but emerging awareness contrasts with Maan’s statement. Miller
that religious identities are equally states that their Catholic faith and
important and complex. Are foreign origin meant that Lithuanians were
religions/denominations genuinely often discriminated against: Probably the
inclusive within themselves - Tolerant of main thing they brought with them was
the variety of internal their religion. To the Calvinistic
traditions/identities? There can be Presbyterian country of Scotland they
different insider voices representing a brought and diligently pursued the Roman
variety of traditions/identities within a Catholic faith. The traditional religious
religious group. Competing? Dominant bigotry, particularly in the west of
voices? Which tradition holds the power? Scotland, meant that there were two
Who makes decisions for a religious group? reasons why the Lithuanians suffered
Who speaks for a religious group? Which ostracism and prejudice: a) they were
religious traditions/identities are foreigners, and b) they were catholic.
represented in the public forum? Having suffered almost a century of
3Immigrants to Scotland between the Russian persecution this treatment was
18th and 20th centuries. Irish Jews Asian nothing new to them and they persevered in
Italians Lithuanians Poles. practicing their faith…(Miller, 1998,
4Irish Catholic. Vast majority of p.70).
Catholics in contemporary Scotland are 17External struggles. James Keir Hardie,
descended from large scale Irish Catholic the influential Socialist leader, often
immigration in the nineteenth century. The spoke publicly and vehemently against the
Irish Catholics constitute the largest Lithuanians, perceiving them as a threat
single group The history and impact of to local employment (Reid, 1978, p.122,
this particular group have been explored Miller, 1998, pp.23-24 Later, in the
in some depth: Arrival of Irish Catholics economic crisis of the 1930’s, when
and hostile response of local populace and Scottish society sought to blame the
Scottish establishment Employment continued presence of immigrant workers,
opportunities and the socio-economic however long established, for widespread
progress of the Irish Catholics Bigotry economic depression, many Lithuanian men
and sectarianism Catholic schooling changed their names and concealed their
Contemporary relation of Catholic ethnic identity to gain employment.
community and wider Scottish community 18Internal struggles. The Lithuanian
Possible futures for this Catholic struggle to gain acceptance in the work
community (Boyle and Lynch 1998; Bradley place was mirrored in their struggle to
1995, 1998, 2000; Conroy 2001, 2002; retain their own cultural expression of
Devine, 1991, 1999; Finn 1999, 2000, 2003; Catholicism within a predominantly ‘Irish’
Gallagher 1987, 1991; Handley, 1945, 1947; Catholic church (O’Donnell, 1998, 2000) In
McKinney, 2004). 1898 Lithuanian priest, resided in a
5Insider Accounts. Someone who writes parish in the Archdiocese of Glasgow and
about a particular group but also ministered to the widespread Lithuanian
identifies, partially or completely, with settlements (1998, pp. 171-175). This was
the aims, objectives and views of that funded by the Lithuanians themselves. They
group. Often the only people who have the paid church dues twice.
interest and impetus to write about the 19Internal struggles. The priests helped
particular group in any depth – the group retain a sense of Lithuanian identity –
may have been treated in a superficial, the services celebrated in Lithuanian
perfunctory or distorted way in ‘official’ combined with the language classes helped
histories (De Vos, 1995, p.17). We are to promote the language. The Lithuanians
also witnessing a revolution in the petitioned for a Lithuanian Church in
recording of social and cultural history. Bellshill – a request which was refused on
Today’s ethnic minorities are not content a number of grounds The Lithuanians were
to remain mute; they too, seek to be small in number and not perceived as a
heard. The defeated and the oppressed, now permanent community; The Archdiocese of
literate, are themselves contributing Glasgow may have regarded the Lithuanians
their interpretations to the writing or as a threat to unity (1998, pp.176-183).
rewriting of history, adding their own 20Lithuanian. O‘Donnell suggests that a
and, where facts fail, creating or Lithuanian church would have helped
deepening their own sustaining mythologies preserve language, culture and identity:
(De Vos, 1995, p.16). …it seems fairly obvious that the
6Insider Account is Problematic. Can institutional Catholic Church in the West
lack a critical edge Can fail to have a of Scotland had little sympathy for the
broader perspective Can be defensive Can ethnic aspirations and outlook of the
exaggerate or even minimize difficulties Lithuanians. …The diocesan authorities
encountered by the group Can champion the were willing to allow and assist in
group or champion factions or certain organizing a supply of chaplains for the
perspectives within the group Insider community. However, for reasons that had
accounts are more likely to discuss largely to do with the position of the
challenges faced by the group, rather than Catholic Church in Scotland, they were not
challenges caused by the group Tendency to willing to accept that the community had
be less critical when evaluating commonly any need, or right, to have its own church
held assumptions within the group and the or parish. To the extent that a national
views of fellow insiders. Church was perhaps essential to such a
7Advantages of Insider Accounts. small community if its culture was to
provide a fuller account of the origins thrive, it can be argued that the policy
and development of immigrant groups Based of the Glasgow Archdiocese was of key
on a more thorough examination of original importance in the process of Lithuanian
documentary sources and secondary sources assimilation (O’Donnell, 1998, p.183).
Increasingly, include analysis of 21Assimilation. This assimilation was
collections of oral histories - the hastened in the inter war years Break-up
insider status provides ease of access for of the traditional mining communities,
obtaining oral histories. including Lithuanian communities,
8Italians, Lithuanians and Poles. The Dispersal to new housing - the relatively
Italians, Lithuanians and Poles examined small numbers of Lithuanian families found
mainly from insider accounts. Italians themselves isolated from each other
(Rossi, 1991, Colpi, 1991; Pieri, 1997, Marriage outside the community became
Ugolini, 2000) Lithuanians (Miller, real common (Miller, 1998, p.138). Lithuanian
name: Stepsis 1998; O’Donnell, 1998, 2000) language, preserved mainly as a ‘spoken’
Poles (Ziarski-Kernberg, 2000). language, became obsolete (Boyd, 1983,
9Sectarianism. These were relatively pp.32-34).
small groups, but all shared the 22Assimilation. O’Donnell comments: As
Catholicism of the Irish Catholic Scotland enters the twenty first century,
immigrants and all were to experience the Lithuanian community, first
hostility and vehement sectarianism in established here around a century ago, has
Scotland, some of which has only recently been largely assimilated into the general
been disclosed. Scottish community (O’Donnell, 2000,
10Sectarianism. Sectarianism, according p.185) Miller, an elderly member of the
to Leichty and Clegg (2001) is: Lithuanian community, predicted in 1998,
Sectarianism… is a distorted expression of that with the passing of his generation,
good things – the need for identity and the Lithuanian community and culture in
belonging, and for the freedom to be Scotland will disappear (1998, p.150).
different. Sectarianism…is a complex of 23Discussion. The development of insider
attitudes, actions, beliefs and accounts has provided a voice for
structures, at personal, communal and immigrant groups and alternative
institutional levels, which always perspectives on Scottish social history
involves religion, and typically involves from the eighteenth to the twentieth
a negative mixing of religion and centuries. The writers of Irish Catholic
politics. It arises as a distorted descent have staked a claim in Scottish
expression of positive human needs, history for their group and have sought to
especially for belonging, identity and the redress some of the recorded historical
free expression of difference and is inaccuracies and imbalance. The writers of
expressed in destructive patterns of Lithuanian, Italian and polish descent
relating: hardening the boundaries between have also staked a claim in Scottish
groups; overlooking others; belittling, history for their groups and have sought
dehumanising, or demonising others; to establish the historical contribution
justifying or collaborating in the of these groups to Scotland. The history
domination of others; physically of the Irish Catholic community in
intimidating or attacking others (Leichty Scotland is scarred by incidences of
and Clegg, in Gorrie, 2001). sectarianism, The other three immigrant
11Sectarianism. In Scotland the term is groups have also faced hostility and
most frequently used to refer to tension sectarianism at some point in the history
between Catholics and Protestants (Finn, of their presence in Scotland.
1999, pp.869-870, 2003, p.904). 24Discussion. It has also emerged that
12The Roots of Sectarianism in Scotland. the Italians and the Lithuanians did not
Arrival of a large number of Irish always have a comfortable relationship
Catholics in the mid-late nineteenth with the larger wider Catholic community
century. Escaping famines and subsequent of Irish descent. The growth of the post
deprivation and destitution (Collins, reformation Catholic community in Scotland
1991, pp.1-11). Gathered in the industrial has been dominated by a particular
cities and towns seeking employment and ethnic-cultural form of Catholicism. The
competing with the local population for ‘Irishness’ and ‘Catholicity’ of this
jobs (Devine, 1999, pp.487-488). They larger immigrant group alienated the
arrived in large numbers to already Scottish population and these identifying
dangerously over populated areas features were to be the source of tension
(O’Tuathaigh, 1985, p.21). They arrived in and conflict. This tension and conflict
Scotland resentful and suspicious that the helped to provide the impetus for the self
British authorities had not provided preservation and maintenance of Irish
properly organised relief schemes in Catholics but possibly precluded the
Ireland (Foster, 1988, pp.318-344). The inclusion of other cultural forms of
Irish Catholic immigrants appeared to Catholicism – a drive for conformity
present a threat to the Presbyterian rather than pluriformity, resulting in a
tradition of Scotland (Gallagher, 1991, form of ‘cultural imperialism’ (Grace,
p.34). . Church of Scotland, in the 2002, p.7). O’Donnell and Colpi suggest
absence of a Scottish parliament (after that this is probably true for the
the union of crowns of 1707), had become Lithuanians and the Italians. The Poles
strong focus for Scottish identity and was appear to have fared better in more recent
perceived by the Scots and by outsiders as times as a result of more inclusive
the ‘embodiment of Scottishness’ (Robbins, attitudes.
2000, p.252). 25Discussion. The Irish Catholic account
13Sectarianism. The incorporation of has often been perceived to be synonymous
Catholic schools into the state education with the account of Catholics in Scotland
system in 1918 provided a public and One type of insider voice has dominated
visible focus for sectarianism (Bruce, Academic research has paralleled this
1985, pp.43-44). Large numbers of Irish dominance Other insider voices are
Catholic (or immediate descendants) weakened, at times, silenced. The
employed, almost exclusively, in heavy traditions/identities these voices
industry and manufacturing. The depression represent can be weakened Intolerance can
proved a catalyst for concerted be as destructive within a religion or
sectarianism as ‘foreign’ Irish Catholic religious denomination as between
workers were used as scapegoats for the religions.
economic ills besetting society. Racist 26Tolerance / inclusion within religions
and sectarian activists like White and or denominations. Increasing awareness of
Cormack (Brown, 1991, Kelly, 2003). Early importance of (multiple) ethnic and
1950’s, a Church of Scotland report cultural identity, but emerging awareness
articulated concerns about the ‘menace’ of that religious identities are equally
the Catholics of ‘alien’ origin (Kelly important and complex. Are
2003). Ecumenical movement in Scotland in religions/denominations genuinely
the 1960’s brought an end to any explicit inclusive within themselves - Tolerant of
sectarian or anti-catholic discourse in the variety of internal
the institutional Church of Scotland traditions/identities? There can be
(Brown, 2000, pp.275-281). different insider voices representing a
14The Lithuanians. Arrived between 1880 variety of traditions/identities within a
and 1914 Fleeing from poverty and cultural religious group. Competing? Dominant
and religious suppression by the Russians voices? Which tradition holds the power?
About 7,000 in 1914 They settled and Who makes decisions for a religious group?
worked in the mining areas, especially Who speaks for a religious group? Which
Ayrshire and Lanarkshire They formed a religious traditions/identities are
vibrant and colourful community. represented in the public forum?
15External Struggles: two perspectives.
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