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Internet History and Growth
Internet History and Growth
Internet History and Growth
Internet History and Growth
Internet History and Growth
Internet History and Growth
What Was the “Victorian Internet”
What Was the “Victorian Internet”
Famous Quote From Sir Isaac Newton
Famous Quote From Sir Isaac Newton
What Is the Internet
What Is the Internet
What is the Internet
What is the Internet
What is the Internet
What is the Internet
*** Internet History ***
*** Internet History ***
The Creation of the Internet
The Creation of the Internet
Vannevar Bush
Vannevar Bush
Claude Shannon
Claude Shannon
J. C. R. Licklider
J. C. R. Licklider
Paul Baran
Paul Baran
Ted Nelson
Ted Nelson
Ted Nelson
Ted Nelson
Leonard Kleinrock
Leonard Kleinrock
Lawrence Roberts
Lawrence Roberts
Steve Crocker
Steve Crocker
Jon Postel
Jon Postel
Jon Postel
Jon Postel
Robert Kahn
Robert Kahn
Christian Huitema
Christian Huitema
Brian Carpenter
Brian Carpenter
Tim Berners-Lee
Tim Berners-Lee
Mark Andreesen
Mark Andreesen
Mark Andreesen
Mark Andreesen
Honorable Mention
Honorable Mention
Honorable Mention
Honorable Mention
Honorable Mention
Honorable Mention
Honorable Mention
Honorable Mention
March 2001
March 2001
The Internet Host Count in Realtime on September 1, 2002 - Over 204
The Internet Host Count in Realtime on September 1, 2002 - Over 204
Domain Name Registration Jan
Domain Name Registration Jan
Statistics from the IITF Report The Emerging Digital Economy *
Statistics from the IITF Report The Emerging Digital Economy *
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1Internet History and Growth. William 24technical work on the early protocols, he
F. Slater, III Chicago Chapter of the organized the Network Working Group, which
Internet Society September 2002. was the forerunner of the modern Internet
2Agenda. Internet History Internet Engineering Task Force, and he initiated
Evolution Internet Pioneers Internet the Request for Comment (RFC) series of
Growth – Sept. 1969 – Sept. 2002 notes through which protocol designs are
Conclusion. documented and shared. And wrote many of
3What Was the “Victorian Internet”? the first RFCs, including RFC 1 and 3. Dr.
4What Was the “Victorian Internet”. The Crocker has been a program manager at
Telegraph Invented in the 1840s. Signals Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA),
sent over wires that were established over a senior researcher at USC?S Information
vast distances Used extensively by the Sciences Institute, founder and director
U.S. Government during the American Civil of the Computer Science Laboratory at the
War, 1861 - 1865 Morse Code was dots and Aerospace Corporation and a vice president
dashes, or short signals and long signals at Trusted Information Systems before
The electronic signal standard of +/- 15 joining CyberCash. Dr. Crocker served as
v. is still used in network interface the area director for security in the
cards today. Internet Engineering Task Force for four
5Famous Quote From Sir Isaac Newton. years and as a member of the Internet
“If I have been able to see farther than Architecture Board for two years. Dr.
others, it was because I stood on the Crocker holds a B.A. in mathematics and a
shoulders of giants.”. Ph.D. in Computer Science from UCLA.
6What Is the Internet? A network of 25Jon Postel. Source:
networks, joining many government, Livinginternet.com. From Jon Postel’s Bio:
university and private computers together Jon Postel is the Director of ISI's
and providing an infrastructure for the Computer Networks Division. The division
use of E-mail, bulletin boards, file has 70 staff members working on about 10
archives, hypertext documents, databases projects, including the NSF sponsored
and other computational resources The vast Routing Arbiter, and DARPA sponsored
collection of computer networks which form projects in the areas of Active Networks,
and act as a single huge network for Middleware, Security, Distributed Systems,
transport of data and messages across and High Speed Networking. He received his
distances which can be anywhere from the B.S. and M.S. in Engineering, and his
same office to anywhere in the world. Ph.D. in Computer Science from UCLA, in
Written by William F. Slater, III 1996 1966, 1968, and 1974 respectively. Jon is
President of the Chicago Chapter of the a member of the ACM and the Internet
Internet Society. Copyright 2002, William Society (and currently serves on the
F. Slater, III, Chicago, IL, USA. Internet Society Board of Trustees). At
7What is the Internet? The largest UCLA he was involved in the beginnings of
network of networks in the world. Uses the ARPANET and the development of the
TCP/IP protocols and packet switching . Network Measurement Center. He has worked
Runs on any communications substrate. From in the areas of computer communication
Dr. Vinton Cerf, Co-Creator of TCP/IP. protocols, especially at the operating
8Brief History of the Internet. 1968 - system level and the application level.
DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects His current interests include
Agency) contracts with BBN (Bolt, Beranek multi-machine internetwork applications,
& Newman) to create ARPAnet 1970 - multimedia conferencing and electronic
First five nodes: UCLA Stanford UC Santa mail, very large networks, and very high
Barbara U of Utah, and BBN 1974 - TCP speed communications. Jon is also involved
specification by Vint Cerf 1984 – On in several Internet infrastructure
January 1, the Internet with its 1000 activities including the Internet Assigned
hosts converts en masse to using TCP/IP Numbers Authority, the RFC Editor, the US
for its messaging. Domain, and the Los Nettos network (a
9*** Internet History ***. regional network for the greater Los
10A Brief Summary of the Evolution of Angeles area). Jon was regarded by many to
the Internet. 1945. 1995. Mosaic Created be the ‘policeman of Internet Standards”
1993. WWW Created 1989. Internet Named and for many years during the infancy of the
Goes TCP/IP 1984. TCP/IP Created 1972. Internet. Jon was honored by Dr. Vint Cerf
ARPANET 1969. Hypertext Invented 1965. in October 1998, shortly after his passing
Packet Switching Invented 1964. First Vast with the addition of RFC 2468.
Computer Network Envisioned 1962. Silicon 26Vinton Cerf. Source:
Chip 1958. A Mathematical Theory of Livinginternet.com. Summary: Vinton Cerf
Communication 1948. Memex Conceived 1945. is co-designer of the TCP/IP networking
Age of eCommerce Begins 1995. Copyright protocol. In 1972, Vinton Cerf was a DARPA
2002, William F. Slater, III, Chicago, IL, scientist at Stanford University when he
USA. was appointed chairman of the
11From Simple, But Significant Ideas InterNetworking Working Group (INWG),
Bigger Ones Grow 1940s to 1969. 1945. which had just been created with a charter
1969. We will prove that packet switching to establish common technical standards to
works over a WAN. Hypertext can be used to enable any computer to connect to the
allow rapid access to text data. Packet ARPANET. The INWG later became affiliated
switching can be used to send digitized with the International Federation of
data though computer networks. We can Information Processing (IFIP), and has
accomplish a lot by having a vast network since been known as IFIP Working Group 1
of computers to use for accessing of Technical Committee 6. Cerf worked on
information and exchanging ideas. We can several interesting networking projects at
do it cheaply by using Digital circuits DARPA, including the Packet Radio Net
etched in silicon. We do it reliably with (PRNET), and the Packet Satellite Network
“bits”, sending and receiving data. We can (SATNET). In the spring of 1973, he joined
access information using electronic Bob Kahn as Principal Investigator on a
computers. Copyright 2002, William F. project to design the next generation
Slater, III, Chicago, IL, USA. networking protocol for the ARPANET. Kahn
12From Simple, But Significant Ideas had experience with the Interface Message
Bigger Ones Grow 1970s to 1995. 1970. Processor, and Cerf had experience with
1995. Great efficiencies can be the Network Control Protocol, making them
accomplished if we use The Internet and the perfect team to create what became
the World Wide Web to conduct business. TCP/IP. Cerf and Kahn started by drafting
The World Wide Web is easier to use if we a paper describing their network design,
have a browser that To browser web pages, titled "A Protocol for Packet Network
running in a graphical user interface Interconnection", which they
context. Computers connected via the distributed at a special meeting of the
Internet can be used more easily if INWG at Sussex University in September,
hypertext links are enabled using HTML and 1973, and then finalized and published in
URLs: it’s called World Wide Web. The the IEEE Transactions of Communications
ARPANET needs to convert to a standard Technology, in May, 1974. Cerf and
protocol and be renamed to The Internet. Stanford graduate students Yogen Dalal and
We need a protocol for Efficient and Carl Sunshine published the first
Reliable transmission of Packets over a technical specification of TCP/IP as an
WAN: TCP/IP. Ideas from 1940s to 1969. Internet Experiment Note (IEN) as RFC 675,
Copyright 2002, William F. Slater, III, in December, 1974. Their design included a
Chicago, IL, USA. 32 bit IP address, with eight bits for
13The Creation of the Internet. The identification of a network, and 24 bits
creation of the Internet solved the for identification of a computer, which
following challenges: Basically inventing provided support for up to 256 networks,
digital networking as we know it each with up to 16,777,216 unique network
Survivability of an infrastructure to send addresses.
/ receive high-speed electronic messages 27Vinton Cerf. Source:
Reliability of computer messaging. Livinginternet.com. It was assumed that
Copyright 2002, William F. Slater, III, the network design would eventually be
Chicago, IL, USA. re-engineered for a production system, but
14Tribute to the Internet Pioneers. The the architecture proved remarkably robust
Internet we know and love today, would not -- Cerf has said that once the network was
exist without the hard work of a lot of developed and deployed, it just
bright people. The technologies and "continued to spread without
standards they created make today’s stopping!" Cerf has continued to
Internet and World Wide Web possible. They perform research and contribute to the
deserve recognition and our gratitude for development of the Internet through work
changing the world with the Internet. In with the communications company WorldCom
this presentation, we will identify and and the Internet management organization
pay tribute to several of the people who ICANN. Resources. Cerf is the author of
made the Internet and the World Wide Web three entertaining RFCs and contributed to
possible. a fourth: RFC 968; "Twas the Night
15Internet Pioneers in this Before Start-up"; December, 1985. RFC
Presentation. Vannevar Bush. Claude 1121; Leonard Kleinrock, Vinton Cerf,
Shannon. J. C. R. Licklider. Paul Baran. Barry Boehm; "Act One -- The
Ted Nelson. Leonard Kleinrock. Lawrence Poems", presented at the Act One
Roberts. Steve Crocker. Jon Postel. Vinton symposium held on the 20th anniversary of
Cerf. Robert Kahn. Christian Huitema. the ARPANET, published September 1989. RFC
Brian Carpenter. Tim Berners-Lee. Mark 1217; "Memo from the Consortium for
Andreesen. Slow Commotion Research (CSCR)";
16Vannevar Bush. Source: April 1st, 1991; in response to RFC 1216.
Livinginternet.com. Summary: Vannevar Bush RFC 1607; "A View From The 21st
established the U.S. military / university Century"; April 1st, 1994. Other
research partnership that later developed online publications by Cerf are listed
the ARPANET. He also wrote the first below: How the Internet Came to Be. A
visionary description of the potential use Brief History of the Internet and Related
for information technology, inspiring many Networks. Internet: Past, Present, and
of the Internet's creators. President Future. Dr. Cerf is a tireless advocate
Roosevelt appointed Bush to Chairman of and speaker, educating people about the
the National Defense Research Committee in history of the Internet, Internet
1940 to help with World War II. In 1941, Technologies, the effects of the Internet
Bush was appointed Director of the newly on Society, and on how the Internet will
created "Office of Scientific affect the future of things like space
Research and Development", travel and communications. He is also a
established to coordinate weapons founder of the Internet Society and its
development research. The organization former Chairman.
employed more than 6000 scientists by the 28Robert Kahn. Source:
end of the war, and supervised development Livinginternet.com. Summary: Bob Kahn is
of the atom bomb. From 1946 to 1947, Bush co-designer of the TCP/IP networking
served as chairman of the Joint Research protocol. Robert Kahn obtained a Ph.D.
and Development Board. Out of this effort degree from Princeton University in 1964,
would later come DARPA, which would later worked for a while at AT&T Bell
do the ARPANET Project. Quote: “Consider a Laboratories, and then became an Assistant
future device for individual use, which is Professor of Electrical Engineering at
a sort of mechanized private file and MIT. He later went to work at Bolt Beranek
library. It needs a name, and to coin one and Newman, and helped build the Interface
at random, "memex" will do. A Message Processor. In 1972, Kahn was hired
memex is a device in which an individual by Lawrence Roberts at the IPTO to work on
stores all his books, records, and networking technologies, and in October he
communications, and which is mechanized so gave a demonstration of an ARPANET network
that it may be consulted with exceeding connecting 40 different computers at the
speed and flexibility. It is an enlarged International Computer Communication
intimate supplement to his memory. It Conference, making the network widely
consists of a desk, and while it can known for the first time to people from
presumably be operated from a distance, it around the world. Kahn then began work on
is primarily the piece of furniture at development of a standard
which he works. On the top are slanting open-architecture network model, where any
translucent screens, on which material can computer could communicate with any other,
be projected for convenient reading. There independent of individual hardware and
is a keyboard, and sets of buttons and software configuration. He set four goals
levers. Otherwise it looks like an for the TCP design: Network Connectivity.
ordinary desk. Vannevar Bush; As We May Any network could connect to another
Think; Atlantic Monthly; July 1945. network through a gateway. Distribution.
17Claude Shannon. Source: There would be no central network
http://www.research.att.com/~njas/doc/ces5 administration or control. Error Recovery.
html. The Father of Modern Information Lost packets would be retransmitted. Black
Theory Published a”A Mathematical Theory Box Design. No internal changes would have
of Communication” in 1948: Before Shannon, to be made to a computer to connect it to
it was commonly believed that the only way the network. In the spring of 1973, Vinton
of achieving arbitrarily small probability Cerf joined Kahn on the project. They
of error in a communication channel was to started by conducting research on reliable
reduce the transmission rate to zero. All data communications across packet radio
this changed in 1948 with the publication networks, and then studied the Networking
of A Mathematical Theory of Communication, Control Protocol, building on it to create
where Shannon characterized a channel by a the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP).
single parameter; the channel capacity, TCP had powerful error and retransmission
and showed that it was possible to capabilities, and provided extremely
transmit information at any rate below reliable communications. It was
capacity with an arbitrarily small subsequently layered into two protocols,
probability of error. His method of proof TCP/IP, where TCP handles high level
was to show the existence of a single good services like retransmission of lost
code by averaging over all possible codes. packets, and IP handles packet addressing
His paper established fundamental limits and transmission.
on the efficiency of communication over 29Robert Kahn. Source:
noisy channels, and presented the Livinginternet.com. Kahn has continue to
challenge of finding families of codes nurture the development of the Internet
that achieve capacity. The method of over the years through shepherding the
random coding does not produce an explicit standards process and related activities,
example of a good code, and in fact it has and is now President of the Corporation
taken fifty years for coding theorists to for National Research Initiatives (CNRI),
discover codes that come close to these a not-for-profit organization which
fundamental limits on telephone line performs research in the public interest
channels. Created the idea that all on strategic development of network-based
information could be represented using 1s information technologies. Resources. The
and 0s. Called these fundamental units following publications provide additional
BITS. Created the concept data information: Chapter 2- The Role of
transmission in BITS per second. Won a Government in the Evolution of the
Nobel prize for his master’s thesis in Internet; Revolution in the U.S.
1936, titled, “A Symbolic Analysis of Information Infrastructure; National
Relay and Switching Circuits”, it provided Academy of Sciences; 1994. RFC 6;
mathematical techniques for building a Conversation With Bob Kahn; 10 April,
network of switches and relays to realize 1969.
a specific logical function, such as a 30Christian Huitema. Christian Huitema
combination lock. joined Microsoft in February 2000, as
18J. C. R. Licklider. Source: "architect" in the "Windows
Livinginternet.com. Summary: Joseph Carl Networking & Communications"
Robnett "Lick" Licklider group. The group is in charge of all the
developed the idea of a universal network, networking support for Windows, including
spread his vision throughout the IPTO, and the evolution of TCP/IP support, IPv6,
inspired his successors to realize his Real-Time Communication, and Universal
dream by creation of the ARPANET. He also Plug and Play (UPnP). Prior to joining
developed the concepts that led to the Microsoft, he was chief scientist, and
idea of the Netizen. Licklider also Telcordia Fellow, in the Internet
realized that interactive computers could Architecture Research laboratory of
provide more than a library function, and Telcordia, working on Internet Quality of
could provide great value as automated Service and Internet Telephony. The work
assistants. He captured his ideas in a on Internet Telephony led to the
seminal paper in 1960 called Man-Computer development of the "Call Agent
Symbiosis, in which he described a Architecture" that enables very large
computer assistant that could answer scale configuration, moving Internet
questions, perform simulation modeling, telephony into the main stream of
graphically display results, and telecommunications. His personal work on
extrapolate solutions for new situations quality of service focused on measurement
from past experience. Like Norbert Wiener, of the Internet's size and quality.
Licklider foresaw a close symbiotic Huitema joined Bellcore (now Telcordia)
relationship between computer and human, the 18 March 1996. From 1986 to 1996, he
including sophisticated computerized led the research project RODEO at INRIA in
interfaces with the brain. Quote: It seems Sophia-Antipolis, France. He worked there
reasonable to envision, for a time 10 or on the definition and the experimentation
15 years hence, a 'thinking center' that of innovative communication protocols,
will incorporate the functions of software and compilers. One of the results
present-day libraries together with was the IP based H.261 videoconferencing
anticipated advances in information system, IVS, with which we demonstrated in
storage and retrieval. The picture readily 1994 that video communication can be made
enlarges itself into a network of such Internet friendly. From 1980 to 1985, he
centers, connected to one another by worked at CNET (Centre National d'Etudes
wide-band communication lines and to des T?l?communications), investigating
individual users by leased-wire services. computer usage of telecommunication
In such a system, the speed of the satellites -- this was the subject of his
computers would be balanced, and the cost doctorate thesis. He worked then on a
of the gigantic memories and the joined project between CNET and INRIA,
sophisticated programs would be divided by where he developed communication protocols
the number of users. - J.C.R. Licklider, for the SM90 workstation. Between 1975 and
Man-Computer Symbiosis, 1960. 1980, he worked as a software engineer at
19Paul Baran. Source: SEMA, first porting large Fortran programs
Livinginternet.com. Summary: Paul Baran to new architecture and then developing
developed the field of packet switching large Cobol applications for manufacture
networks while conducting research at the control. He studied at the Ecole
historic RAND organization. In 1959, a Polytechnique in Paris from 1972 to 1975,
young electrical engineer named Paul Baran and obtained in 1985 a Doctorat ?s
joined RAND from Hughes Aircraft's systems Sciences from the Universit? Pierre et
group. The US Air Force had recently Marie Curie (Paris 6). Huitema was a
established one of the first wide area member of the Internet Architecture Board
computer networks for the SAGE radar (IAB) from 1991 to 1996, its chair between
defence system, and had an increasing April 1993 and July 1995. He was elected a
interest in survivable, wide area trustee of the Internet Society in May
communications networks so they could 1995. Huitema has written a fairly large
reorganize and respond after a nuclear number of scientific publications,
attack, diminishing the attractiveness of articles and conference communications, as
a first strike option by the Soviet Union. well as three books, "Routing in the
Baran began an investigation into Internet" (Prentice-Hall PTR, 1995),
development of survivable communications "IPv6, the new Internet
networks, the results of which were first Protocol" (Prentice-Hall PTR, 1996)
presented to the Air Force in the summer and "Et Dieu cr?a l'Internet"
of 1961 as briefing B-265, then as paper (Eyrolles, 1995). Source:
P-2626, and then as a series of eleven http://conferences.oreillynet.com/cs/p2pwe
comprehensive papers titled On Distributed 2001/view/e_spkr/518.
Communications in 1964. Baran's study 31Brian Carpenter. Brian Carpenter has a
describes a remarkably detailed PhD in computer science. Worked 1975-85
architecture for a distributed, developing process control systems at CERN
survivable, packet switched communications in Geneva, taught computer science at
network. The network is designed to Massey University in New Zealand, and was
withstand almost any degree of destruction Communications Systems group leader at
to individual components without loss of CERN from 1985-1998. He moved to an IBM
end-to-end communications. Since each software development group in Hursley Park
computer could be connected to one or more in the UK where he appears to principally
other computers, it was assumed that any pursue IETF/IAB activities along with
link of the network could fail at any assisting IBM's Internet 2 applications
time, and the network therefore had no development efforts. He has involved for
central control or administration. Baran's some years in Internet Society activities.
architecture was well designed to survive He also served as chair of the IAB prior
a nuclear conflict, and helped to convince to Baker. Brian has recently worked on the
the US Military that wide area digital IPv6 Task Force, as well as the Internet
computer networks were a promising Architecture Board and the Internet
technology. Baran also talked to Bob Engineering Task Force. His interests
Taylor and J.C.R. Licklider at the IPTO include IPv6 IP Security and Quality of
about his work, since they were also Service. Brian is currently the Chairman
working to build a wide area of the Internet Society. He spoke to the
communications network. His 1964 series of members of ISOC-Chicago in May 2001 at
papers then influenced Roberts and Northwestern University.
Kleinrock to adopt the technology for 32Tim Berners-Lee. The inventor of HTML.
development of the ARPANET network a few Graduate of Oxford University, England,
years later, laying the groundwork that Tim is now with the Laboratory for
leads to its continued use today. Baran Computer Science ( LCS)at the
has also received several awards, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (
including the IEEE Alexander Graham Bell MIT). He directs the W3 Consortium, an
Medal, and the Marconi International open forum of companies and organizations
Fellowship Award. with the mission to realize the full
20Ted Nelson. Source: potential of the Web. With a background of
www.ibiblio.org/pioneers. Ted Nelson is a system design in real-time communications
somewhat controversial figure in the and text processing software development,
computing world. For thirty-something in 1989 he invented the World Wide Web, an
years he has been having grand ideas but internet-based hypermedia initiative for
has never seen them through to completed global information sharing. while working
projects. His biggest project, Xanadu, was at CERN, the European Particle Physics
to be a world-wide electronic publishing Laboratory. Before coming to CERN, Tim was
system that would have created a sort a founding director of Image Computer
universal library for the people. He is Systems, and before that a principal
known for coining the term engineer with Plessey Telecommunications,
"hypertext." He is also seen as in Poole, England. Source: w3c.org.
something of a radical figure, opposing 33Mark Andreesen. Source:
authority and tradition. He has been www.ibiblio.org/pioneers. Marc Andreesen
called "one of the most influential was a student and part-time assistant at
contrarians in the history of the the Nationa l Center for Supercomputing
information age." (Edwards, 1997). He Applications (NCSA) at the University of
often repeats his four maxims by which he Illinois when the World Wide Web began to
leads his life: "most people are take off. His position at NCSA allowed him
fools, most authority is malignant, God to become very familiar with the Internet.
does not exist, and everything is Like just about everyone else who was
wrong." (Wolf, 1995) Xanadu Nelson involved with the Internet, he also became
continued to expound his ideas, but he did familiar with the Web. Most of the
not possess the technical knowledge to browsers available then were for Unix
tell others how his ideas could be machines which were expensive. This meant
implemented, and so many people simply that the Web was mostly used by academics
ignored him (and have ever since). Still, and engineers who had access to such
Nelson persisted. In 1967, he named his machines. The user-interfaces of available
system XANADU, and with the help of browsers also tended to be not very
interested, mainly younger, computer hacks user-friendly, which also hindered the
continued to develop it. Xanadu was spread of the Web. Marc decided to develop
concieved as a tool to preserve and a browser that was easier to use and more
increase humanity's literature and art. graphically rich. In 1992, Andreesen
Xanadu would consist of a world-wide recruited fellow NCSA employee, Eric Bina,
network that would allow information to be to help with his project. The two worked
stored not as separate files but as tirelessly. Bina remembers that they would
connected literature. Documents would 'work three to four days straight, then
remain accessible indefinitely. Users crash for about a day' (Reid, 7). They
could create virtual copies of any called their new browser Mosaic. It was
document. Instead of having copyrighted much more sophisticated graphically than
materials, the owners of the documents other browsers of the time. Like other
would be automatically paid via electronic browsers it was designed to display HTML
means a micropayment for the virtual documents, but new formatting tags like
copying of their documents. Xanadu has "center" were included.
never been totally completed and is far Especially important was the inclusion of
from being implemented. In many ways Tim the "image" tag which allowed to
Berners-Lee's World Wide Web is a similar, include images on web pages. Earlier
though much less grand, system. In 1999, browsers allowed the viewing of pictures,
the Xanadu code was made open source. but only as separate files. Mosaic made it
Xanadu Logo. possible for images and text to appear on
21Leonard Kleinrock. Source: Dr. the same page. Mosaic also sported a
Kleinrock’s Homepage. Summary: Leonard graphical interface with clickable buttons
Kleinrock is one of the pioneers of that let users navigate easily and
digital network communications, and helped controls that let users scroll through
build the early ARPANET. Kleinrock text with ease. Another innovative feature
published his first paper on digital was the hyper-link. In earlier browsers
network communications, Information Flow hypertext links had reference numbers that
in Large Communication Nets, in the RLE the user typed in to navigate to the
Quarterly Progress Report, in July, 1961. linked document. Hyper-links allowed the
He developed his ideas further in his 1963 user to simply click on a link to retrieve
Ph.D. thesis, and then published a a document.
comprehensive analytical treatment of 34Mark Andreesen. Source:
digital networks in his book Communication www.ibiblio.org/pioneers. In early 1993,
Nets in 1964. After completing his thesis Mosaic was posted for download on NCSA's
in 1962, Kleinrock moved to UCLA, and servers. It was immediately popular.
later established the Network Measurement Within weeks tens of thousands of people
Center (NMC), led by himself and had downloaded the software. The original
consisting of a group of graduate students version was for Unix. Andreesen and Bina
working in the area of digital networks. quickly put together a team to develop PC
In 1966, Roberts joined the IPTO with a and Mac versions, which were released in
mandate to develop the ARPANET, and used the late spring of the same year. With
Kleinrock's Communication Nets to help Mosaic now available for more popular
convince his colleagues that a wide area platforms, its popularity skyrocketed.
digital communication network was More users meant a bigger Web audience.
possible. In October, 1968, Roberts gave a The bigger audiences spurred the creation
contract to Kleinrock's NMC as the ideal of new content, which in turn further
group to perform ARPANET performance increased the audience on the Web and so
measurement and find areas for on. As the number of users on the Web
improvement. On a historical day in early increased, the browser of choice was
September, 1969, a team at Kleinrock's NMC Mosaic so its distribution increased
connected one of their SDS Sigma 7 accordingly. By December 1993, Mosaic's
computers to an Interface Message growth was so great that it made the front
Processor, thereby becoming the first node page of the New York Times business
on the ARPANET, and the first computer section. The article concluded that Mosaic
ever on the Internet. As the ARPANET grew was perhaps "an application program
in the early 1970's, Kleinrock's group so different and so obviously useful that
stressed the system to work out the it can create a new industry from
detailed design and performance issues scratch" (Reid, 17). NCSA
involved with the world's first packet administrators were quoted in the article,
switched network, including routing, but there was no mention of either
loading, deadlocks, and latency. The UCLA Andreesen or Bina. Marc realized that when
Netwatch program now performs similar he was through with his studies NCSA would
functions to Kleinrock's Network take over Mosaic for themselves. So when
Management Center from the ARPANET years. he graduated in December 1993, he left and
Kleinrock has continued to be active in moved to Silicon Valley in California.
the research community, and has published 35Mark Andreesen. Source:
more than 200 papers and authored six www.ibiblio.org/pioneers. Netscape
books. In August, 1989, he organized and Andreesen settled in Palo Alto, and soon
chaired a symposium commemorating the met Jim Clark. Clark had founded Silicon
20'th anniversary of the ARPANET, which Graphics, Inc. He had money and
later produced the document RFC 1121, connections. The two began talking about a
titled "Act One -- The Poems". possible new start-up company. Others were
22Lawrence Roberts. Source: brought into the discussions and it was
Livinginternet.com. Summary: Lawrence decided that they would start an Internet
Roberts was the ARPANET program manager, company. Marc contacted old friends still
and led the overall system design. working for NCSA and enticed a group of
Lawrence Roberts obtained his B.S., M.S., them to come be the engineering team for
and Ph.D. degrees from MIT, and then the new company. In mid-1994, Mosaic
joined the Lincoln Laboratory, where he Communications Corp. was officially
carried out research into computer incorporated in Mountain View, California.
networks. In a pivotal meeting in Andreesen became the Vice President of
November, 1964, Roberts met with J.C.R. Technology of the new company. The new
Licklider, who inspired Roberts with his team's mandate was to create a product to
dream to build a wide area communications surpass the original Mosaic. They had to
network. In February, 1965, the director start from scratch. The original had been
of the IPTO, Ivan Sutherland, gave a created on university time with university
contract to Roberts to develop a computer money and so belonged exclusively to the
network. In July, Roberts gave a contract university. The team worked furiously. One
to Thomas Marill, who had also been employee recalls, " a lot of times,
inspired by Licklider, to program the people were there straight forty-eight
network. In October, 1965, the Lincoln hours, just coding. I've never seen
Labs TX-2 computer talked to their SDC's anything like it, in terms of
Q32 computer in one of the worlds first honest-to-God, no BS, human endurance, to
digital network communications. In sit in front of a monitor and program. But
October, 1966, Roberts and Marill they were driven by this vision [of
published a paper titled Toward a beating the original Mosaic]" (Reid,
Cooperative Network of Time-Shared 27). The new product would need a name.
Computers at the Fall AFIPS Conference, Eventually, the name Netscape was adopted.
documenting their networking experiments. In November of 1998, Netscape was bought
Also in 1966, DARPA head Charlie Hertzfeld by AOL. Today, Marc Andreeson is VP of
promised IPTO Director Bob Taylor a LoudCloud.com.
million dollars to build a distributed 36Honorable Mention. Jack Kilby
communications network if he could get it Co-inventor of the silicon microchip
organized. Taylor was greatly impressed by Robert Noyce Co-inventor of the silicon
Lawrence Roberts work, and asked him to microchip Robert Metcalfe ARPANET engineer
come on board to lead the effort. Roberts and inventor of Ethernet, and founder of
resisted at first, and then joined as ARPA 3Com Esther Dyson Visionary who helped
IPTO Chief Scientist in December 1966 when start the Electronic Frontier Foundation,
Taylor brought pressure on him through and who was the first Chairman of ICANN at
Hertzfeld and his boss at the Lincoln Lab. its beginning in October 1998. Jack Kilby.
Roberts then immediately started working Robert Noyce. Esther Dyson. Bob Metcalfe.
on the system design for a wide area Copyright 2002, William F. Slater, III,
digital communications network that would Chicago, IL, USA.
come to be called the ARPANET. In April, 37Internet Growth Trends.
1967, Roberts held an "ARPANET Design 38Internet Growth Trends. 1977: 111
Session" at the IPTO Principal hosts on Internet 1981: 213 hosts 1983:
Investigator meeting in Ann Arbor, 562 hosts 1984: 1,000 hosts 1986: 5,000
Michigan. The standards for identification hosts 1987: 10,000 hosts 1989: 100,000
and authentication of users, transmission hosts 1992: 1,000,000 hosts 2001: 150 –
of characters, and error checking and 175 million hosts 2002: over 200 million
retransmission procedures were outlined at hosts By 2010, about 80% of the planet
this meeting, and it was at this meeting will be on the Internet.
that Wesley Clark suggested using a 39No. of Participating Hosts Oct. ‘90 -
separate minicomputer called the Interface Apr. ‘98.
Message Processor to interface to the 40March 2001. Over 115 Million Hosts (As
network. of Jan. 2001). Over 407 Million Users (As
23Lawrence Roberts. Source: of Nov. 2000). 218 of 246 Countries (As of
Livinginternet.com. Roberts presented a Jan. 2000). > 31 Million Domain Names.
paper called Multiple Computer Networks About 100 TB of Data. Dr. Vint Cerf
and Intercomputer Communication that presents in Chicago at the Drake Hotel on
summarized the ARPANET plan at the ACM March 2001 The event was a fund-raiser for
Symposium on Operating System Principles the ITRC. Digital Photo March 2001 by
at Gatlinburg, Tennessee, in October 1967. William F. Slater, III, Chicago, IL, USA.
He then wrote a program plan called 41> 200,000,000 IP Hosts. >
"Resource Sharing Computer 840,000,000 Users. By September 2002 The
Networks" to build a working Internet Reached Two Important Milestones:
implementation of the network. The project Netsizer.com – from Telcordia.
justified itself, in part, by arguing that 42Sept. 1, 2002. Dot-Com Bust Begins.
different departments would be able to log Chart by William F. Slater, III. The
into other computers and use their Internet was not known as "The
programs remotely, thereby saving the Internet" until January 1984, at
costs of buying or building programs which time there were 1000 hosts that were
themselves, and greatly expanding the all converted over to using TCP/IP.
capabilities available to each site on the Copyright 2002, William F. Slater, III,
network. He gave the report to Taylor on Chicago, IL, USA.
June 3, 1968, who approved it on June 21. 43The Internet Host Count in Realtime on
The work was begun. Roberts also hired the September 1, 2002 - Over 204,000,000 IP
developer of TCP/IP, Bob Kahn, who had Hosts!!! Chart showing Internet Growth
worked on the Interface Message Processor from Sept. 1, 2001 to Sept. 1, 2002.
at BBN. Roberts became Director of the Source Netsizer.com.
IPTO when Taylor left in September, 1969. 44Domain Name Registration Jan. ‘89 -
Roberts left the IPTO in October, 1973, to Jul. ‘97. April 2001: 31,000,000 Domain
become CEO of Telenet, the first packet Names!!!
switching network carrier, which later 45Statistics from the IITF Report The
standardized on the X.25 networking system Emerging Digital Economy *. To get a
originally used on the EUnet. Roberts market of 50 Million People Participating:
later left Telenet when it was sold to GTE Radio took 38 years TV took 13 years Once
in 1979 and became the data division of it was open to the General Public, The
Sprint. In 1982, Roberts was President and Internet made to the 50 million person
CEO of DHL. From 1983 to 1993, he was audience mark in just 4 years!!!
Chairman and CEO of NetExpress, Inc., an http://www.ecommerce.gov/emerging.htm
electronics company specializing in Released on April 15, 1998. * Delivered to
packetized facsimile and ATM equipment. the President and the U.S. Public on April
From 1993 to 1998, he was President of 15, 1998 by Bill Daley, Secretary of
networking company ATM Systems. In the Commerce and Chairman of the Information
late 1990's, Roberts was Chairman and CTO Infrastructure Task Force.
of Packetcom, specializing in advanced 46Conclusion. The Internet (and World
Internet routers with improved quality of Wide Web) was have today was created by
service. Roberts has received numerous some very bright, talented people who
awards for his work, including the either had vision, or were inspired by
Secretary of Defense Meritorious Service other talented people’s visions. Though
Medal, the Harry Goode Memorial Award from their ideas were not always popular, they
the American Federation of Information pressed ahead. Their perseverance and hard
Processing, the IEEE Computer Pioneer work brought us to where we are today.
Award, the Interface Conference Award, the There is a lot to be learned by studying
L.M. Ericsson prize for research in data these people, their early work and keeping
communications in 1982, the IEEE Computer in mind what they had to work with. Today,
Society W. Wallace McDowell Award in 1992, we owe a great deal for the wired world we
and the ACM SIGCOMM communications award enjoy, to the hard work of these people.
in 1998. 47Questions?
24Steve Crocker. Source: www.epf.net. 48Sources of Statistical Information.
DR. STEPHEN D. CROCKER CEO, Steve Crocker Netsizer.com – from Telcordia CAIDA
Associates, LLC and Executive DSL, LLC Network Wizards Internet Domain Survey
steve@stevecrocker.com Steve Crocker is an RIPE Internet Statistics Matrix
Internet and computer security expert. Information and Directory Services Growth
Steve Crocker Associates, LLC is a of the World Wide Web The Netcraft Web
consulting and R&D company Server Survey Internet Surveys The
specializing in current Internet and Internet Society.
electronic commerce technologies. 49Sources of Statistical Information.
Executive DSL, LLC is an ISP specializing Netsizer.com – from Telcordia CAIDA
in the integration of Internet-based Network Wizards Internet Domain Survey
services for small and medium businesses. RIPE Internet Statistics Matrix
Steve Crocker was one of the founders and Information and Directory Services Growth
chief technology officer of CyberCash, of the World Wide Web The Netcraft Web
Inc., the leading Internet payments Server Survey Internet Surveys The
company. In the late 1960?s and early Internet Society. URLs are underneath!
1970?s, Dr. Crocker was part of the team 50For More Information, Please Contact:
which developed the protocols for the William F. Slater, III
Arpanet and laid the foundation for slater@billslater.com billslater.com
today’s Internet. In addition to his isoc-chicago.org 773-235-3080.
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