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содержание презентации «Language.ppt»
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1Language. Language as a critical 11greatly influence the company was given an
phenomenon for cognitive science Language award.
separates humans from other animals 12Usually, syntax and semantics work
Behaviorists: language learning by together. Finding meaning often requires
stimulus-response associations Chomsky: An finding syntactical parsing
innate Language Acquisition Device is (interpretation) Sentences are often
needed Innate constraints for language ambiguous because parsing is ambiguous
learning Kids learn language in about 2.5 Often, once syntax is clear, semantics is
years, from positive evidence Kids are not clear. John, while Mary had had “had,” had
generally corrected for grammaticality We had “had had.” “Had had” had had a better
can generate and understand novel effect on the teacher. John while Mary had
sentences Without any constraints, an had had had had had had had had had had a
infinite number of grammars is consistent better effect on the teacher. Buffalo
with any finite amount of data (Gold’s buffalo buffalo Buffalo buffalo.
Thesis) 1,2,3,4,…5? 29? 53? Xth number in 13
series is 2(x-1)(x-2)(x-3)(x-4)+x=53. 14Other examples of ambiguity. In the
2 window of an Oregon store: Why go
3The Universal Language = what elsewhere and be cheated when you can come
languages share. Constraints on what we here? In a New York restaurant: Customers
will consider as grammars Constraints are who consider our waitresses uncivil ought
good - they allow learning to take place to see the manager. In a Los Angeles dance
Word order of subject and object hall: Good clean dancing every night but
Subject-verb-object occurs Sunday. In the offices of a loan company:
Subject-object-verb occurs Ask about our plans for owning your home.
Object-subject-verb (almost) never occurs 15Does Language influence thought? The
Word order of adjectives and nouns An Sapir-Whorf hypothesis Linguistic
adjective comes close to the noun it relativism: people who speak different
modifies La femme brave a frappe l’homme languages think abut world differently
cruel [The woman brave hit the man cruel] Eskimoes have 32 words for snow is NOT
Constraints help us to learn grammar rules evidence for Sapir-Whorf Hopi combine form
quickly. and substance together in words and
4 similarity judgments Support from Brown
5Properties of Language. and Lennenburg Determine “highly codable
Productivity/generativity People can colors” and less codable colors based on
produce novel utterances by putting consistency of color labels across people.
together pieces (words) in different Show 4 colors to subject Have subjects
arrangements Regularity Language has a find colors in a pile Recognition for
systematic structure Only some structures highly codable colors > recognition for
are allowable Grammar gives rules for less codable colors Rosch argues against
determining what is allowable Sapir-Whorf: universal color perception
Arbitrariness of symbols No inherent Dani are better at recognizing highly
connection between symbol and meaning codable colors (in English) even though
Violations Onomatopoiea - words that sound they only have terms for “light” and
like what they mean: crack, buzz, bark “dark” A universal progression of color
Sound/meaning clusters: slip, slither, terms. Orange Pink Gray Purple. Black
slide, sled, slope, slalom, slack, slimy. White. Yellow Green. Red. Blue. Brown.
6 16Evidence in favor of linguistic
7Grammar. Sentence -> NP VP NP -> relativism. Wooden Fork. Plastic Fork.
[article] [AP] noun VP -> verb NP AP Plastic Knife. English. Mayan. Berinmo and
-> adj [AP]. Recursion: AP defined in English differ in their ability to
terms of itself. remember colors English and Berinmo have
8Syntax and Semantics. Syntax The set different color categories Task: Present a
of rules for putting together words and color, delay, show two possible colors,
phrases to make sentences Semantics The subjects’ task is to choose the previously
meaning of the sentence Syntax without presented color English best at task when
semantics Colorless green ideas sleep one color is “blue” and the other is
furiously Williams’ syndrome. Very low IQ, “green” Berinmo best at task when one
preserved language Wernicke’s aphasia: color is “wor” and the other is “nol”
flowing, meaningless speech Semantics Chinese children count earlier than
without syntax If you wants now million American children (In part) because
dollars, “give it to me” say. Broca’s Chinese numbers are more systematic
aphasia: halted, contentful speech. Yucatac Mayan vs. English speakers (Lucy,
9Syntax and semantics each promote 1992) Count nouns are countable objects:
understanding. Three kinds of sentences in chairs, bananas, pens, trees Mass nouns
experiment Semantically meaningful and are substances: jello, copper, mud, grease
grammatical Semantically meaningless but Mayans do not need to use plurals for most
grammatical Agrammatical Meaningful objects, treating them as mass nouns
sentences are more likely to be English:“two chairs”. Mayan:“two chair”
comprehended than meaningless sentences Mayans’ similarity judgments are more
Contribution of semantics Meaningless but influenced by material (as appropriate for
grammatical sentences are more likely to mass nouns), rather than shape (as
be comprehended than agrammatical appropriate for count nouns).
sentences Syntax provides its own 17
constraints The more predictable and 18Davidoff, Davies, & Roberson
constrained a sentence is, the more (1999).
comprehendible it is Redundancy helps 19
understanding. 20M. F. The gender marking for a word
10A) A witness signed the official legal influences similarity ratings of pictures,
document. B) Sloppy poetry leaves nuclear and the features listed for a picture. Der
minutes. C) Attracted wrapper the Luffel (M): Spoon Die Gabel (F): Fork Das
reverence private odorless. A) A jeweler Messer (N) : Knife.
appraised the glittering diamond earrings. 21The modularity of word activation. The
B) Romantic ink follows wasted games. C) “speech is special” movement Word priming
Became lecture the bar deep wealthy. A) A is modularized: fast, efficient, doesn’t
storm prevented the annual company picnic. take everything into account
B) Total coffee describes eternal spots. Disambiguation of word meaning “Rumor had
C) Played the formula club old it that, for years, the government
controversial the. A) A magazine exposed building had been plagued with problems.
the shocking political corruption. B) The man was not surprised when he found
Healthy angry packages bloomed several spiders, roaches, and other bugs
dangerously. C) The built a was tamer in the corner of the room.” Are both
fortune blaze by lazy. “insect bugs” and “listening device bugs”
11Click migration Click travels to the activated when we read “bugs”? Lexical
boundary between phrases. Syntax decision task: Is the following string a
influences perception. Syntactic gaps seem word? Thirgs: “No” - non word Insect:
larger than they really are Large gaps are “Yes” - word related to appropriate
more likely to be filled. As a direct meaning Spy: “Yes” - word related to
result of their new invention’s influence inappropriate meaning Book: “Yes” - word
the company was given an award. (As a unrelated to either meaning Both “Insect”
direct result of their new invention’s and “Spy” are faster than “Book”
influence) (the company was given an immediately after we read “bugs” After 750
award). (The retiring chairman whose msec, only “Insect” is primed. First
methods still greatly influence the priming is based on pure association, not
company) (was given an award). The on context or knowledge Other examples of
retiring chairman whose methods still priming.
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