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Lincoln’s Presidency An Online Professional Development Seminar
Lincoln’s Presidency An Online Professional Development Seminar
Lincoln’s Presidency An Online Professional Development Seminar
Lincoln’s Presidency An Online Professional Development Seminar
Lincoln’s Presidency An Online Professional Development Seminar
Lincoln’s Presidency An Online Professional Development Seminar
Matthew Pinsker Associate Professor of History, Pohanka Chair in
Matthew Pinsker Associate Professor of History, Pohanka Chair in
Discussion Question Why did Lincoln feel so pressured to act
Discussion Question Why did Lincoln feel so pressured to act
First Reading of the Emancipation Proclamation of President Lincoln,
First Reading of the Emancipation Proclamation of President Lincoln,
Final Choices Blind Memorandum, August 23, 1864 “This morning, as for
Final Choices Blind Memorandum, August 23, 1864 “This morning, as for
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Lincolns Presidency An Online Professional Development Seminar

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1Lincoln’s Presidency An Online 12emancipation proclamation?
Professional Development Seminar. 13John Hay to Mary Jay, July 20, 1862
2GOALS To deepen understanding of the “The President himself has been, out of
critical decisions Abraham Lincoln made as pure devotion to what he considers the
a war-time president To provide fresh best interests of humanity, the bulwark of
approaches and materials with which to the institution he abhors, for a year. But
teach Lincoln’s presidency. he will not conserve slavery much longer.
3FROM THE FORUM Challenges, Issues, When next he speaks in relation to this
Questions Deeper knowledge beyond the defiant and ungrateful villainy it will be
highlights: Lincoln-Douglas Debates, with no uncertain sound. Even now he
election as a cause of the Civil War, the speaks more boldly and sternly to
Emancipation Proclamation, the Gettysburg slaveholders than to the world. If I have
Address, the assassination How did sometimes been impatient of his delay I am
Lincoln’s views on slavery and so no longer.”. Discussion Question What
emancipation evolve? Was Lincoln justified does John Hay appear to be describing in
in suspending civil liberties during the his letter to Mary Jay on Sunday
Civil War? Did he violate the Constitution afternoon, July 20, 1862?
as commander-in-chief? What accounts for 14First Reading of the Emancipation
his ongoing popularity? Proclamation of President Lincoln, Francis
4Matthew Pinsker Associate Professor of Biknell Carpenter, oil on canvas, 1864.
History, Pohanka Chair in American Civil Discussion Question Why did Lincoln change
War History Dickinson College Research his mind less than one year after warning
focuses on the career of Abraham Lincoln, Orville Browning that emancipation
partisanship in the Civil War era, proclamations were “dictatorship”?
American constitutionalism, the 15Emancipation Abraham Lincoln to Horace
Underground Railroad and the history of Greeley, August 22, 1862 “As to the policy
U.S. campaigns and elections. I "seem to be pursuing" as you
5Civil Liberties Abraham Lincoln, say, I have not meant to leave any one in
Fragment on Constitution & Union, c. doubt. I would save the Union. I would
January 1861 “The assertion of that save it the shortest way under the
principle, at that time, was the word, Constitution. The sooner the national
"fitly spoken" which has proved authority can be restored; the nearer the
an "apple of gold" to us. The Union will be "the Union as it
Union, and the Constitution, are the was." If there be those who would not
picture of silver, subsequently framed save the Union, unless they could at the
around it. The picture was made, not to same time save slavery, I do not agree
conceal, or destroy the apple; but to with them. If there be those who would not
adorn, and preserve it. The picture was save the Union unless they could at the
made for the apple not the apple for the same time destroy slavery, I do not agree
picture.”. Discussion Question Did Lincoln with them. My paramount object in this
believe there were principles higher than struggle is to save the Union, and is not
the Constitution? either to save or to destroy slavery. If I
6Discussion Question Why did Lincoln could save the Union without freeing any
feel so pressured to act aggressively in slave I would do it, and if I could save
Maryland in 1861? Civil Liberties Abraham it by freeing all the slaves I would do
Lincoln to Winfield Scott, April 25, 1861 it; and if I could save it by freeing some
“I therefore conclude that it is only left and leaving others alone I would also do
to the commanding General to watch, and that.”. Discussion Question Was Lincoln
await their action [by the Maryland outlining his true position in this letter
legislature]… [and] to adopt the most to Greeley? How does understanding context
prompt, and efficient means to counteract complicate the meaning of this document?
[secession], even, if necessary, to the 16Emancipation “And, as a fit and
bombardment of their cities---and, of necessary military measure for effecting
course, in the extremest necessity, the this object, I, as Commander-in-Chief of
suspension of the writ of habeas corpus.”. the Army and Navy of the United States, do
7Civil Liberties Article 1, Section 9, order and declare that on the first day of
US Constitution “The privilege of the writ January in the year of Our Lord one
of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, thousand, eight hundred and sixtythree,
unless when in cases of rebellion or all persons held as slaves within any
invasion the public safety may require state or states, wherein the
it.”. Discussion Question Which branch has constitutional authority of the United
the power to suspend civil liberties States shall not then be practically
according to the Constitution? recognized, submitted to, and maintained,
8Civil Liberties Roger Taney, Ex Parte shall then, thenceforward, and forever, be
Merryman (published June 3, 1861) “I can free.” (July 22, 1862) _____________ “And
only say that if the authority which the by virtue of the power, and for the
constitution has confided to the judiciary purpose aforesaid, I do order and declare
department and judicial officers, may that all persons held as slaves within
thus, upon any pretext or under any said designated States, and parts of
circumstances, be usurped by the military States, are, and henceforward shall be
power, at its discretion, the people of free; and that the Executive government of
the United States are no longer living the United States, including the military
under a government of laws.”. Discussion and naval authorities thereof, will
Question Why was Chief Justice Taney so recognize and maintain the freedom of said
dismissive of President Lincoln’s claims persons.” (January 1, 1863). Discussion
under the “military power”? Question What has changed in the
9Civil Liberties Special Message to emancipation sentence from July 22 to
Congress, July 4, 1861 “And this issue January 1?
embraces more than the fate of these 17Emancipation Final Emancipation
United States….It forces us to ask: ‘Is Proclamation, January 1, 1863 “And I
there, in all republics, this inherent, hereby enjoin upon the people so declared
and fatal weakness?’’ "Must a to be free to abstain from all violence,
government, of necessity, be too strong unless in necessary self-defence; and I
for the liberties of its own people, or recommend to them that, in all cases when
too weak to maintain its own existence?’” allowed, they labor faithfully for
. . . “To state the question more reasonable wages. And I further declare
directly, are all the laws, but one, to go and make known, that such persons of
unexecuted, and the government itself go suitable condition, will be received into
to pieces, lest that one be violated? Even the armed service of the United States to
in such a case, would not the official garrison forts, positions, stations, and
oath be broken, if the government should other places, and to man vessels of all
be overthrown, when it was believed that sorts in said service.”. Discussion
disregarding the single law, would tend to Question In this sentence, Lincoln
preserve it? But it was not believed that addresses former slaves directly for the
this question was presented. It was not first time. How does he define freedom for
believed that any law was violated.” . . . them?
“It was with the deepest regret that the 18Emancipation Final Emancipation
Executive found the duty of employing the Proclamation, January 1, 1863 “And upon
war power, in defense of the Government, this act, sincerely believed to be an act
forced upon him. He could but perform this of justice, warranted by the Constitution,
duty or surrender the existence of the upon military necessity, I invoke the
Government….In full view of his great considerate judgment of mankind, and the
responsibility he has, so far, done what gracious favor of Almighty God.”.
he has deemed his duty. You will now, Discussion Question Nothing like this
according to your own judgment, perform sentence appears in any earlier draft of
yours.”. emancipation? How does this final addition
10Civil Liberties Abraham Lincoln to change the meaning of the policy?
Erastus Corning, June 12, 1863 “Yet, 19Emancipation Abraham Lincoln to James
thoroughly imbued with a reverence for the C. Conkling, August 26, 1863 “You dislike
guaranteed rights of individuals, I was the emancipation proclamation; and,
slow to adopt the strong measures, which perhaps would have it retracted—— You say
by degrees I have been forced to regard as it is unconstitutional—— I think
being within the exceptions of the differently. I think the constitution
constitution, and as indispensable to the invests its commander—in—chief, with the
public Safety. Nothing is better known to law of war in time of war.”. Discussion
history than that courts of justice are Question What does Lincoln mean by “the
utterly incompetent to such cases.”. law of war”?
Discussion Question Why was Lincoln so 20Final Choices Abraham Lincoln to
dismissive of courts and judges in wartime Albert Hodges, April 4, 1864 "I am
civil liberties cases? naturally anti-slavery. If slavery is not
11Emancipation Abraham Lincoln to wrong, nothing is wrong. I can not
Orville Browning, September 22, 1861 “And remember when I did not so think, and
the same is true of slaves. If the General feel. And yet I have never understood that
needs them, he can seize them, and use the Presidency conferred upon me an
them; but when the need is past, it is not unrestricted right to act officially upon
for him to fix their permanent future this judgment and feeling.” . . . “Was it
condition. That must be settled according possible to lose the nation, and yet
to laws made by law—makers, and not by preserve the Constitution? By general law
military proclamations. The proclamation life and limb must be protected; yet often
in the point in question, is simply a limb must be amputated to save a life;
"dictatorship." It assumes that but a life is never wisely given to save a
the general may do anything he limb. I felt that measures, otherwise
pleases———confiscate the lands and free unconstitutional, might become lawful, by
the slaves of loyal people, as well as of becoming indispensable to the preservation
disloyal ones. And going the whole figure of the Constitution, through the
I have no doubt would be more popular with preservation of the nation. Right or
some thoughtless people, than that which wrong, I assumed this ground, and now avow
has been done! But I cannot assume this it.”. Discussion Question Why does Lincoln
reckless position; nor allow others to separate his personal belief from his
assume it on my responsibility. You speak public duty? Did Lincoln believe that the
of it as being the only means of saving Constitution changed during wartime?
the government. On the contrary it is 21Final Choices Blind Memorandum, August
itself the surrender of the government. 23, 1864 “This morning, as for some days
Can it be pretended that it is any longer past, it seems exceedingly probable that
the government of the U.S.———any this Administration will not be
government of Constitution and re-elected. Then it will be my duty to so
laws,———wherein a General, or a President, co-operate with the President elect, as to
may make permanent rules of property by save the Union between the election and
proclamation? I do not say Congress might the inauguration; as he will have secured
not with propriety pass a law, on the his election on such ground that he can
point, just such as General Fremont not possibly save it afterwards.”.
proclaimed. I do not say I might not, as a Discussion Question What was Lincoln
member of Congress, vote for it. What I trying to accomplish with this secret
object to, is, that I as President, shall memorandum from August 1864? Abraham
expressly or impliedly seize and exercise Lincoln. Memorandum, August 23, 1864.
the permanent legislative functions of the Holograph document. Robert Todd Lincoln
government.”. Discussion Question In his Papers, Library of Congress (204).
1861 letter to Browning, wasn’t Lincoln 22Final Choices Lincoln Response to
explaining why an emancipation Serenade, November 10, 1864 “It has long
proclamation would be unconstitutional? been a grave question whether any
12Emancipation Second Confiscation Act, government, not too strong for the
July 17, 1862 “Section 9. And be it liberties of its people, can be strong
further enacted, That all slaves of enough to maintain its own existence, in
persons who shall hereafter be engaged in great emergencies.” . . . “But the
rebellion against the government of the election was a necessity. We can not have
United States, or who shall in any way free government without elections; and if
give aid or comfort thereto, escaping from the rebellion could force us to forego, or
such persons and taking refuge within the postpone a national election, it might
lines of the army; and all slaves captured fairly claim to have already conquered and
from such persons or deserted by them and ruined us.”. Discussion Question Lincoln
coming under the control of the government asked the question about the strength of
of the United States; and all slaves of government in his July 4, 1861 special
such person found on [or] being within any message to Congress. Why does he raise it
place occupied by rebel forces and again now, after his reelection? Lincoln
afterwards occupied by the forces of the suspended civil liberties and emancipated
United States, shall be deemed captives of slaves, but he refused to cancel
war, and shall be forever free of their elections. Why did he believe that “free
servitude, and not again held as slaves.”. government” demanded regular political
Discussion Question What is the contests but not strict interpretations of
relationship between congressional the Constitution?
confiscation policy and Lincoln’s 23Final Slide. Thank You.
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