Курсы английского
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There are several types of new products
There are several types of new products
Commercialization Model
Commercialization Model
Innovation, Intellectual Property and Poverty Reduction
Innovation, Intellectual Property and Poverty Reduction
Mortality of New Product Ideas
Mortality of New Product Ideas
Competitive Advantage
Competitive Advantage
The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO
The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO
The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO
The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO
The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO
The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO
(1) Demystification (Guides)
(1) Demystification (Guides)
(1) Demystification (Guides)
(1) Demystification (Guides)
(1) Demystification (Events)
(1) Demystification (Events)
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(1) Demystification (Website)
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1Managing Intellectual Property Assets 34entrepreneur as one who reorganizes
for Enhancing the Competitiveness of SMEs. economic activity in an innovative and
Guriqbal Singh Jaiya Director, SMEs valuable way. That is, an entrepreneur is
Division. The Small and Medium-Sized one who engages in a new economic activity
Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO. that was previously unknown. An
2From Invention to Innovation. While entrepreneur is a risk taker because being
invention depends upon creativity, innovative means there are few rules or
successful technological innovation history for guidance. The Small and
requires integrating new knowledge with Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division
multiple business functions. The Small and of WIPO.
Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division 35Entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship is
of WIPO. the process of creating or seizing an
3Innovation – What is it? The creation opportunity, and pursuing it regardless of
of new ideas/processes which will lead to the resources currently controlled. The
change in an enterprise’s economic or Webster’s Third New International
social potential [P. Drucker, ‘The Dictionary defines an entrepreneur to be
Discipline of Innovation’, Harvard “one who organizes, owns, manages, and
Business Review, Nov-Dec, 1998, 149]. The assumes the risks of a business”. The
Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs)
Division of WIPO. Division of WIPO.
4What is Innovative Thinking? A means 36Entrepreneurship. The entrepreneur
of generating innovation to achieve two shifts resources out of an area of lower
objectives that are implicit in any good and into an area of higher productivity
business strategy: make best use of and/or and greater yield. [J. B. Say, French
improve what we have today determine what economist, circa 1800] Entrepreneurship is
we will need tomorrow and how we can best creative destruction. Dynamic
achieve it, to avoid the "Dinasaur disequilibrium brought on by the
syndrome« Innovative thinking has, as a innovating entrepreneur, rather than
prime goal, the object of improving equilibrium and optimization, is the norm
competitiveness through a perceived of a healthy economy and the central
positive differentiation from others in: reality of economic theory and practice.
Design/Performance Quality Price [Joseph Schumpeter, Austrian economist,
Uniqueness/Novelty. The Small and 1911] The entrepreneur searches for
Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division change, responds to it, and exploits it as
of WIPO. an opportunity. Innovation is the specific
5Obstacles to Successful Innovation. tool of entrepreneurs, the means by which
Competitive position Market judgement they exploit change as an opportunity for
Technical performance Manufacturing a different business or a different
expertise Financial resources. The Small service [Peter Drucker, 1985]. The Small
and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs)
Division of WIPO. Division of WIPO.
6Innovation. How to classify newness 37Entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship
and degree of innovation and what to focus drives innovation, competitiveness, job
on: New to the firm? First in the market? creation and economic growth. It allows
First in the world? Incremental or radical new/innovative ideas to turn into
innovation? The Small and Medium-Sized successful ventures in high-tech sectors
Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO. and/or can unlock the personal potential
7There are several types of new of disadvantaged people to create jobs for
products. Some are new to the market, some themselves and find a better place in
are new to the firm, and some are new to society. The Small and Medium-Sized
both. Some are minor modifications of Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO.
existing products while some are 38Entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship, in
completely innovative. The Small and small business or large, focuses on
Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division "what may be" or "what can
of WIPO. be". One is practicing
8Product Development Strategies. New entrepreneurship by looking for what is
Product. Old Product. Old Market. New needed, what is missing, what is changing,
Market. Product Development. Market and what consumers will buy during the
Penetration. Market Development. Product coming years. The Small and Medium-Sized
Diversification. The Small and Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO.
Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division 39Entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurs have:
of WIPO. A passion for what they do The creativity
9Marketing principles……. Identify and ability to innovate A sense of
opportunities and threats Identify independence and self- reliance (Usually)
customer needs React to a competitive a high level of self confidence A
environment Careful planning to make a New willingness and capability (though not
or improved product Use the 4 P’s…. necessarily capacity or preference) for
Product service Price Promotion Place taking risks. The Small and Medium-Sized
(distribution) Retain flexibility to react Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO.
to changes. The Small and Medium-Sized 40Entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurs do not
Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO. (usually) have: A tolerance for
10The Development of Technology: From organizational bureaucracies A penchant
Knowledge Generation to Diffusion. Supply for following rules A structured approach
side. Demand side. IM ITATION. Basic to developing and implementing ideas The
Knowledge. Invention. Innovation. foresight to plan a course of action once
Diffusion. ADOPTION. The Small and the idea is implemented and established.
Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises
of WIPO. (SMEs) Division of WIPO.
11Innovation Process. The adoption of an 41Entrepreneurial Success. 1. People
innovation by similar firms Usually leads (Entrepreneur /Entrepreneurial Team) 2.
to product or process standardization Opportunity (Marriage of Market and
Products based on imitation often are Product/Service) 3. Access to Resources
offered at lower prices but with fewer (Land. Labor, Capital, Knowledge) And the
features. The Small and Medium-Sized fit amongst these three elements. The
Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO. Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs)
12The Innovation Process. An innovation Division of WIPO.
starts as an idea/concept that is refined 42Major factors determining success of a
and developed before application. new product in the market. The product
Innovations may be inspired by reality provides functional advantages Lower price
(known problem). The innovation (new for comparable product More attractive
product development) process, which leads design (look) Reputation of brand Easy
to useful technology, requires: Research access: Available in the main retail shops
Development (up-scaling, testing) Consistent product quality Excellent
Production Marketing Use Experience with a after-sales services. The Small and
product results in feedback and leads to Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division
incrementally or radically improved of WIPO.
innovations. The Small and Medium-Sized 43Competitive Advantage. Criteria… The
Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO. Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs)
13The Innovation Process. Translation of Division of WIPO.
a Creative Idea into Useful Application. 44? ? New Business Development.
Organizing Resources. Commercial Breakthrough Innovation. New Businesses.
Application. Analytical Planning. Need two processes: NPD and NB(usiness)D.
Implementation. To Accomplish: New Product Development. Innovative New
Organization Product Design Manufacturing Products. An opportunity driven path to
Services. To Provide: Value to Customers market- a different business design. The
Rewards to Employee Revenue to Investors Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs)
Satisfaction of Founders. To Obtain: Division of WIPO.
Materials Technology Human Resources 45Protection of IP. Value adding.
Capital. To Identify: Product Design Confidentiality or Nondisclosure
Market Strategy Financial Need. The Small Agreements (Trade Secrets). Collaborative
and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Research Agreement. Utility models,
Division of WIPO. Patents. Technology Licensing Agreement,
14The Profitability of Innovation. Value Branding. The Small and Medium-Sized
of an innovation. Legal protection Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO.
Complementary resources Ease of imitation 46Intellectual Property Questions.
of technology Lead time. Profits from Intellectual Property (IP)
Innovation. Innovator’s ability to Issues/questions during New Product
appropriate value from an innovation. The Development (NPD): Can the innovation be
Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) legally protected? For how long? How does
Division of WIPO. one protect an innovation from imitators?
15Appropriating Value from Innovation. How much will it cost? When to protect? Do
The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises you need to rely on an IP expert? The
(SMEs) Division of WIPO. answers are complicated by the fact that
16Product Life Cycle. Sales. Time. one or more types of legal frameworks may
Maturity. Decline. Growth. Introduction. be used to protect a particular
The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises innovation, product, process, or creative
(SMEs) Division of WIPO. work. These include trade secrets,
17New Product Development. Stages in a trademarks, designs, patents, and
New Product Development process: Idea copyright. It is necessary to know which
Generation Idea Screening Concept are applicable and when each is
Development and Testing Business Analysis appropriate. This varies somewhat from
Beta Testing and Market Testing Technical jurisdiction to jurisdiction. The advice
Implementation Commercialization. The of a lawyer that specializes in these
Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) matters is essential. The Small and
Division of WIPO. Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division
18Technology Adoption – Diffusion of of WIPO.
Innovation. Innovators: venturesome; 47Intellectual Property Questions. It is
greatest need Early adopters: opinion necessary to know which types of
leaders; needs driven Early majority: intellectual property rights (IPRs) are
deliberate Late majority: skeptics applicable and when is each type of IPR
Laggards: traditionalists; suspicious. The appropriate. This varies somewhat from one
Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) country to another. The advice of an IP
Division of WIPO. lawyer is desirable if not essential. The
19New Business Models Emerge. The Small Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs)
and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO.
Division of WIPO. 48Background. In September 2000, the
20New Regional Model Emerge. The Small WIPO Assemblies approved the creation of
and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) “a substantial new program of activities,
Division of WIPO. focusing on the IP-related needs of SMEs
21Commercialization Model. Strategic worldwide” SMEs Division established in
Investment is the Foundation of a October 2000 Nine professionals and three
Successful Commercialization Model. The administrative staff in the SMEs Division
Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) of WIPO. The Small and Medium-Sized
Division of WIPO. Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO.
22What Investors Look for? Novelty; 49Strategy. 1. Demystification 2. New
world-class; evidence of commercial audience 3. New Areas 4. Proactive 5.
interest; clear path to market E-Services 6. Partnership. The Small and
Unencumbered, or encumbered by reasonable Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division
conditions (Equity, royalties) Protection of WIPO.
(Non-disclosure agreements, Patents, 50(1) Demystification. Studies Guides
Designs, Brands, Copyright) IP protected Events and expert missions Website and
by one or more Patents is the IP required newsletter CD-ROM Magazine articles. The
to implement the business plan “Freedom to Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs)
Operate”. The Small and Medium-Sized Division of WIPO.
Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO. 51(1) Demystification (Studies).
23Innovation, Intellectual Property and National Studies (on IP and SMEs)
Poverty Reduction. Critical Ingredients completed or under way in Argentina,
for Innovation: Intellectual Capital Human Bhutan, Mongolia, Nepal, Philippines, Sri
Capital Financial Capital Proximity Social Lanka, Tanzania, Sierra Leone, Romania,
Network Capital. The Small and Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador,
Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division Honduras and Paraguay, Egypt, Morocco,
of WIPO. Lebanon WIPO Survey of IP Services to
24Complementary Resources. Bargaining Tenants of European Technology Incubators
power of owners of complementary resources Norwegian SMEs and the IPR system. The
depends upon whether complementary Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs)
resources are generic or specialized. Division of WIPO.
Distribution. Manufacturing. Finance. 52(1) Demystification (Guides). WIPO/ITC
Service. Core technological know-how. Guide on Marketing of Crafts and Visual
Complementary technologies. Marketing. Arts; Role of Intellectual Property; A
Other. Other. The Small and Medium-Sized practical guide WIPO/ITC Guide on Secrets
Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO. of Intellectual Property: Guide for Small
25Alternative Strategies for Exploiting and Medium Sized Exporters WIPO/ITC Guide
Innovation. The Small and Medium-Sized on Exchanging Value: Negotiating
Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO. Technology Licensing Agreements - A
Outsourcing certain functions. Strategic Training Manual ITC Guide on Exporting
Alliance. Joint Venture. Internal Automotive Components ITC Guide on
Commercialization. Licensing. Biggest Pharmaceutical SMEs (Forthcoming). The
risks & benefits. Allows complete Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs)
control. Limits investment, but dependence Division of WIPO.
on suppliers & partners. Benefits of 53The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises
flexibility; risks of informal structure. (SMEs) Division of WIPO.
Shares investment & risk. Risk of 54(1) Demystification (Guides).
partner conflict & culture clash. Published Making a Mark (Trademarks)
Small risk, but limited returns also Looking Good (Designs) Inventing the
(unless patent position very strong. Risk Future (Patents). The Small and
& Return. Allows outside resources Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division
& capabilities To be accessed. Few. of WIPO.
Permits pooling of the 55(1) Demystification (Guides).
resources/capabilities of more than one Translation and/or customization: Under
firm. Substantial resource requirements. way, with funding from several sources, in
CompetingResources. Konica licensing its the following countries: Algeria,
digital camera to HP. Pixar’s movies (e.g. Argentina, Australia, Canada, Czech
“Toy Story”) marketed & distributed by Republic, Egypt, Estonia, Hungary, Italy,
Disney. Apple and Sharp build the “Newton” India, Israel, Kenya, Lebanon, Malaysia,
PDA. Microsoft and NBC formed MSNBC. TI’s Malta, Mongolia, Morocco, New Zealand,
development of Digital Signal Processing Philippines, Poland, Slovakia, Spain,
Chips. Examples. Tanzania, Tunisia, Vietnam 16 Countries
26Cooperating with lead users early members of the OAPI. The Small and
identification of customer requirements Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division
assistance in new product development. of WIPO.
Uncertainty & Risk Management in 56(1) Demystification (Events). Special
Tech-based Industries. Technological programs, seminar and workshops organized
uncertainty. Sources of uncertainty. by the SMEs Division in Geneva in
Market uncertainty. Strategies for partnership with selected associations and
managing risk. Limiting risk exposure organizations (IASP, INSME, IPI, MOST,
—avoid major capital commitments (e.g. WASME) Annual WIPO Forum on IP and SMEs
lease don’t buy) —outsource —alliances to for IP Offices of OECD Countries. The
access other firms’ resources & Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs)
capabilities —keep debt low. Flexibilility Division of WIPO.
—keep options open —use speed of response 57(1) Demystification (Events).
to adapt quickly to new information —learn WIPO-Italy Forum on Textile and Clothing
from mistakes. Selection process for Industries of the Mediterranean Basin
standards and dominant designs emerge is Countries (Prato, Italy - December 2003)
complex and difficult to predict, e.g. Participants from Algeria, Cyprus, Egypt,
future of 3G. Customer acceptance and Jordan, Israel, Lebanon, Malta, Morocco,
adoption rates of innovations notoriously Palestine, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey. The
difficult to predict, e.g. PC, Xerox Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs)
copier, Walkman. The Small and Division of WIPO.
Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division 58(1) Demystification (Website). The
of WIPO. Website of the SMEs Division is in six UN
27Innovation risk. RISKS. COSTS. languages (English, French, Spanish,
The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises 60,000 pages viewed every month in 2004
(SMEs) Division of WIPO. Contents include sections such as IP for
28Mortality of New Product Ideas. The Business, IP and E-Commerce, Activities,
Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Best Practices, Case Studies and
Division of WIPO. Documents. The Small and Medium-Sized
29The “ Right” Innovative Product? The Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO.
right product is one that becomes 59(1) Demystification (Website). The
available at the right time (i.e., when Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs)
the market needs it), and is better and/or Division of WIPO.
less expensive that its competition. To 60(1) Demystification (Newsletter).
have the right product, therefore, one Monthly e-newsletter in the 6 UN languages
must: Predict a market need Envisage a (Free) Content includes articles, updates
product whose performance and capability with information, links and documents
will meet that need Develop the product to Launched in August 2001 Total number of
the appropriate time scale and produce it. subscribers: >19,000. The Small and
Sell the product at the right price. The Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division
Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) of WIPO.
Division of WIPO. 61(1) Demystification (CD-ROM). 50,000
30Competitive Advantage. Innovation and copies of the SMEs Division CD-ROM
Competitive Advantage. Difficult for distributed to SME support institutions,
competitors to imitate. Commercially IP Offices and others worldwide Marketing
exploitable with present capabilities. and customization E-learning CD ROM (in
Provides significant value to customers. partnership with KIPO: “IP Panorama”)
Timely. The Small and Medium-Sized SAARC CD-ROM (in preparation). The Small
Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO. and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs)
31Strategic Entrepreneurship and Division of WIPO.
Innovation. Entrepreneurship is concerned 62(1) Demystification (Articles). Some
with: The discovery of profitable articles recently published: What to do if
opportunities The exploitation of you are accused of copyright infringement
profitable opportunities Firms that Tapping into Patent Information: a buried
encourage entrepreneurship are: Risk treasure International trade in technology
takers Committed to innovation Proactive – licensing of know-how and trade secrets
in creating opportunities rather than Intellectual Property and E-commerce: how
waiting to respond to opportunities to take care of your business’ website
created by others. The Small and Offshore outsourcing and IP Savvy
Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Division marketing: merchandising of IP rights. The
of WIPO. Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs)
32Entrepreneurship. Creativity is at the Division of WIPO.
heart of entrepreneurship, enabling 63(2) New Audience. Bringing IP issues
entirely new ways of thinking and working. to SME events Bringing new business
Entrepreneurs identify opportunities, perspective to IP events New partnership:
large or small, that no one else has Open door policy IGOs, government focal
noticed. Good entrepreneurs also have the points, SME support, training and
ability to apply that creativity—they can financial institutions, chambers of
effectively marshal resources to a single commerce and industry, SME associations,
end. They have drive—a fervent belief in SME research institutions, private sector
their ability to change the way things are institutions, universities, etc... The
done, and the force of will and the Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs)
passion to achieve success. They have a Division of WIPO.
focus on creating value—they want to do 64(3) New Areas. Creative Industries IP
things better, faster, cheaper. And they for financing (venture capital,
take risks—breaking rules, cutting across securitization) Accounting and valuation
accepted boundaries, and going against the of IP assets IP Asset Management, IP Due
status quo. The Small and Medium-Sized Diligence and IP Audit Fiscal policies and
Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO. IP (tax incentives for R&D activities,
33Entrepreneurship. Defining patenting, licensing etc.) IP services to
entrepreneurship is difficult because SMEs by incubators, technology parks,
there is no universal, clear-cut chambers of commerce and SME associations
definition of the term. In its most basic IP needs of SMEs in agriculture,
sense, entrepreneurship is manifest in a biotechnology, handicrafts, software,
business venture when an individual is textiles, etc. The Small and Medium-Sized
able to turn a novel idea into a Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO.
profitable reality. In practice, however, 65(4) Being Proactive. Original Content
entrepreneurship is more multifaceted, Links Best Practices Case Studies. The
ranging from operating a small business in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs)
one’s own home, to bringing a national Division of WIPO.
franchise to a small town, to turning a 66(5) E-Services. Web site content SME
new and unique idea into a high-growth mail E-mail newsletter Distance learning
company. Entrepreneurship can involve (proposed) Discussion forum (proposed).
starting a business that brings a new The Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises
store to main street, offering a product (SMEs) Division of WIPO.
or service previously unavailable to a 67(6) Partnership. National and Regional
community, or acquiring an existing IP Offices National SME focal points in
business that has had a long-standing government, private sector Chambers of
presence in a community and helping it Commerce and Industry SME Associations;
evolve to reflect one’s own vision and Cooperatives Incubators, Science Parks,
personality. The Small and Medium-Sized Technology Parks Universities; R & D
Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO. Institutes Private Sector Consultants SME
34Entrepreneurship. The word Finance Institutions (including venture
entrepreneurship literally means, "to capitalists) Other UN Agencies (ITC, ILO,
take or carry between" in the sense UNIDO, AfDB). The Small and Medium-Sized
of an economic transaction; to be a Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO.
market-maker. It does not literally convey 68Thank You. Guriqbal Singh Jaiya
the notion of innovation that we commonly guriqbal.jaiya@wipo.int
associate with the term. Joseph Schumpeter www.wipo.int/sme/en/index.html
(1883-1950), one of the more well known www.wipo.org. The Small and Medium-Sized
theorists on entrepreneurship, defined an Enterprises (SMEs) Division of WIPO.
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