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Detail succinctly observations/data/results: This section should
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Mastering the Abstract Writing Process

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1Mastering the Abstract Writing 13in response to tail-nerve shock, a
Process. John Cole Intel ISEF D & S procedure known to mimic a noxious tail
Chair. stimulus, the vast majority of 5-HT
2What Is an Abstract? A brief, written neurons increased their firing rate for
explanation of the research project, several minutes and became more excitable.
consisting of a succinct description of 5-HT neurons were found to project toward
the project’s purpose, the procedures various peripheral targets such as the
followed, the data collected, and the gill, heart, body wall, tail, siphon,
conclusions reached. A clear and simple head, and tentacles as well as to other
summary statement of the main points of ganglia in the CNS. This study shows that
the experiment A self-contained statement the Aplysia 5-HT system is globally and
that must make sense all by itself. persistently activated after a noxious
3ISEF Abstract Rules. Intel ISEF rules stimulus. Such an activation might serve
require each Finalist to write an abstract to synchronize the different aspects of
of no more than 250 words to be displayed the arousal reaction in Aplysia.
with the project. An abstract gives the 14Writing and Revising Tips. Simply put,
essence of the project in a brief but the style of an abstract should always be
complete form to judges and the public declarative not discursive. Emphasize
viewing the Finalist’s project. Once these aspects: purpose (hypothesis),
approved, SRC provides the Finalist with methods, scope, results, conclusions, and
two embossed copies of the abstract, one recommendations Focus only on the current
to display vertically at the project and year's research when it is a continuation
the other to make copies to handout to project. Exclude any of the mentor or
judges and the public on visitors’ day. supervisor’s work Omit details and
4The abstract must focus on the current discussions Use the past tense to describe
year's research and give only minimal (However, where appropriate use active
reference to previous work. Details and verbs rather than passive verbs.) Use
discussions should not be included in the short sentences, but vary sentence
abstract, but may be put in the longer, structure. Use complete sentences (Do not
written research paper (if required), or abbreviate by omitting articles or other
given on the project exhibit board. small words in order to save space.) Avoid
Finalists at the Intel ISEF are required jargon Use appropriate scientific language
to use the on-line system for submitting Use concise syntax Use correct spelling,
their abstract. Regional and local fairs grammar, and punctuation.
use the Official Abstract Form (not 15Revision Techniques. Addition – adding
necessary for most local fairs). In a word, phrase, or sentence Original: This
addition, abstracts must not include project is an experimentation of the
acknowledgments (such as referencing effects of two-cycle marine engine exhaust
mentor or university laboratory). water on certain algae. Revised: This
5Review of Abstract’s Purpose. Provides project is a bioassay experimentation of
SRC a quick study of your project as it is the effects of two-cycle marine engine
an overview of the purpose, means, and exhaust water on certain green algae.
result of research. Helps judges (both Deletion – deleting a word, phrase, or
special and category) discern quickly sentence Original: The researcher has
whether the project qualifies for specific developed an original code required for
awards and whether the research is successful implementation of the
significant in its specific area. Informs environment reconstruction application.
visitors to ISEF (students, teachers, and Revised: The researcher developed an
the public at large) of the nature of the original code required for successful
research. implementation of the environment
6Steps in Developing Abstract. Begin reconstruction application.
with a Research Project Prospectus to 16Substitution – substituting one word,
outline the research project. A prospectus phrase, or sentence for another Original:
helps the researcher identify the nature In the beginning, the idea was to
and scope of the investigation, research determine the toxicity of outboard engine
methods, and anticipated conclusions lubricant. Revised: The initial idea was
and/or applications. An example of such a to determine the toxicity of outboard
prospectus follows: engine lubricant. Transposition – moving
7Sample Research Project Prospectus. words, phrases, or sentences to another
Possible Title: Name: School: Purpose of position Original: Using optical fibers as
project / experiment In a sentence of 25 light guides, a system was created with
words or fewer, explain the reason for light guided from a light source to an
your research project or a hypothesis you integrating chamber, reflected and guided
have selected to test. Methods of research back to a digital camera. Revised: A
Explain in a sentence or two how you plan system using optical fibers as light
to research your topic. What methods will guides was created with light guided from
you use? What resources will you need? a light source to an integrating chamber,
Data/Observations Determine what data do reflected, and then guided back to a
you need to collect and what difficulties digital camera.
you may encounter as you research. 17Combination – combining sentences
Conclusions/Applications Explain in a and/or paragraphs, which usually results
sentence or two what results you in the use of multiple revision techniques
anticipate your research will produce. and a considerable shortening of the
What conclusions or applications do you passage. Original: The project was started
hope to be able to explain? with an investigation of methods in use
8Once the research is completed and you today and possible alternatives. Two
are ready to show your project, use an alternative methods that seemed to be
Abstract Template to write a draft of the promising were chosen — the first method
abstract. The following example was is to kill bacteria with pulsing high
created using a table format in a Word voltage, and the second is boiling with
document. high efficient heat exchanging. Revised:
9Detail succinctly The project investigated two alternative
observations/data/results: This section methods in use today: 1) killing bacteria
should provide key results that lead with pulsing high voltage; 2) boiling
directly to the conclusions you have bacteria with a high efficient heat
drawn. It should not give too many details exchange.
about the results nor include charts or 18Quiz: What techniques are used in
graphs. Sample Abstract Template. Title revising this passage? Original: The
Name School. Purpose of project / purpose of my project is to find the
experiment: An introductory statement of connection between the ratio of radii of
the reason for investigating the topic of an ellipse and its mechanical advantage on
the project. A statement of the problem or specified angle of rotation intervals.
hypothesis being studied. Summarize Revision: This project examined the
procedures, emphasizing the key points or connection between the ratio of radii of
steps: A summarization of the key points an ellipse and the mechanical advantage of
and an overview of how the investigation a specified angle of rotation intervals.
was conducted. Omit details about the 19PERIOD ANALYSIS OF CATACLYSMIC
materials used unless it greatly VARIABLE X10 AND ITS IMPLICATIONS ON THE
influenced the procedure or had to be ORIGIN OF LOW STATES Cataclysmic variables
developed to do the investigation. An are binary systems, each consisting of a
abstract should only include procedures white dwarf (the primary) and a low mass
done by the student. Work done by a mentor star (the secondary). Usually, matter
(such as surgical procedures) or work done flows from the secondary onto the primary,
prior to student involvement must not be producing X-rays upon impact. However,
included. State conclusions/applications. previous observations have indicated that
10Explanation of Parts. Purpose of the certain cataclysmic variables frequently
Experiment An introductory statement of exhibit low states – a dramatic decrease
the reason for investigating the topic of in mass transfer (and thus X-ray
the project. A statement of the problem or production) for an extended period of
hypothesis being studied. Procedures Used time. Low states can last up to several
A summarization of the key points and an years, and this phenomenon is currently
overview of how the investigation was not well understood. This research is
conducted. An abstract does not give primarily focused on creating a model to
details about the materials used unless it elucidate the origin of low states using
greatly influenced the procedure or had to data gathered from X10, a magnetic
be developed to do the investigation. An cataclysmic variable that experienced a
abstract should only include procedures low state in year 2005. The model proposed
done by the student. Work done by a mentor in this study attributes low states to the
(such as surgical procedures) or work done magnetic interactions between the
prior to student involvement must not be secondary’s starspots and the primary, and
included. Observation/Data/Results This its predictions on which systems should
section should provide key results that exhibit low states and which ones should
lead directly to the conclusions you have not have all been confirmed by past
drawn. It should not give too many details observations.
about the results nor include tables or 20THE STRING TOPOLOGY BV ALGEBRA,
graphs. Conclusions Conclusions from the HOCHSCHILD COHOMOLOGY AND THE GOLDMAN
investigation should be described briefly. BRACKET ON SURFACES This project provides
The summary paragraph should reflect on an algebraic description of the String
the process and possibly state some Topology Batalin-Vilkovisky algebra for a
applications and extensions of the large class of manifolds. Such a
investigation. An abstract does not description previously existed only for
include a bibliography unless specifically spheres and projective spaces. The
required by your local fair. The Intel homology H(LX) of the space of free loops
ISEF requires the bibliography as part of of a closed oriented smooth manifold X has
the research plan to be provided on Form a rich algebraic structure called string
1A. topology, discovered by Chas and Sullivan
11Revise and edit the abstract in the in 1999. In particular, H(LX) is a
template. Once you have filled in each Batalin-Vilkovisky (BV) algebra. However
section, you can easily copy and paste the this structure is hard to compute in
final version into the abstract form algebraic terms. This project studies
online. Such a procedure avoids the need string topology in the case when the
to retype the entire abstract, thereby manifold X is aspherical. In this case the
reducing the chance of errors in the final Hochschild cohomology Gerstenhaber algebra
version. HH(A) of the group algebra A of the
12Purpose. Methods. Data Observations. fundamental group of X has a BV structure.
Conclusions Applications. Sample Abstract. My main result is a theorem establishing a
Effects of Marine Engine Exhaust Water on natural isomorphism between the Hochschild
Algae Mary E. Jones Hometown High School, cohomology BV algebra HH(A) and the string
Hometown, PA. This project in its present topology BV algebra H(LX). In particular,
form is the result of bioassay for a closed oriented surface X of
experimentation on the effects of hyperbolic type this gives a complete
two-cycle marine engine exhaust water on description of the BV algebra operations
certain green algae. The initial idea was on H(LX) and HH(A) terms of the Goldman
to determine the toxicity of outboard bracket of loops on X. There are several
engine lubricant. Some success with conjectures connecting the string topology
lubricants eventually led to the BV algebra with algebraic structures on
formulation of "synthetic" the Hochschild cohomology of algebras
exhaust water which, in turn, led to the related to the manifold X. My theorem is
use of actual two-cycle engine exhaust the first such hypothesis that has been
water as the test substance. Toxicity was proven. The proof is based on a
determined by means of the standard bottle combination of topological and algebraic
or "batch" bioassay technique. constructions allowing to compute and
Scenedesmus quadricauda and Ankistrodesmus compare multiplications and BV operators
sp. were used as the test organisms. on both H(LX) and HH(A).
Toxicity was measured in terms of a 21COMPUTER AIDED INSTRUCTION IN THE
decrease in the maximum standing crop. The MODERN CLASSROOM Computers have benefited
effective concentration - 50% (EC 50) for mankind in many areas, and are still left
Scenedesmus quadricauda was found to be untapped in many areas. The main aim of
3.75% exhaust water; for Ankistrodesmus this project was to provide a modern,
sp. 3.1% exhaust water using the bottle fresh and exciting environment for
technique. Anomalies in growth curves education to take place in - utilizing
raised the suspicion that evaporation was computers as a medium. Although not
affecting the results; therefore, a restricted to, one of the concerns and
flow-through system was improvised motivations of this project was to make
utilizing the characteristics of a device this new form of education accessible to
called a Biomonitor. Use of the Biomonitor the underprivileged, both in South Africa
lessened the influence of evaporation, and and internationally. A program suite was
the EC 50 was found to be 1.4% exhaust designed to enhance education in the
water using Ankistrodesmus sp. as the test classroom. VirtuaLAB, a Virtual Reality
organism. Mixed populations of various (VR) laboratory, provides a 3-Dimensional,
algae gave an EC 50 of 1.28% exhaust fully equipped and extensible science
water. The contributions of this project laboratory where the students have the
are twofold. First, the toxicity of freedom to conduct experiments, learn and
two-cycle marine engine exhaust was found experience chemistry 'first hand' (similar
to be considerably greater than reported to modern video games), all provided
in the literature (1.4% vs. 4.2%). through an affordable desktop solution.
Secondly, the benefits of a flow-through Testing, both of the students' and
bioassay technique utilizing the teachers' usage of the program, as well as
Biomonitor was demonstrated. research into the affordability and
13Other Examples. Persistent Global viability of such a proposed environment
Activation of the Aplysia Serotonergic was also conducted. There are many
System After Sensitizing Stimuli The communities where overpopulation, poverty
marine mollusk Aplysia responds to noxious and lack of resources have made education
stimulation with a stereotyped arousal inaccessible. VirtuaLAB was investigated
reaction that includes escape locomotion, to determine how it could aid such a
increased heart rate and sensitization of community practically. Other benefits,
defensive reflexes. Although previous such as those to student's progress,
studies have shown that serotonin (5-HT) results and attitude towards their
is important for most of these behavioral education, were examined. In the broader
responses, it is still unclear how the perspective, VirtuaLAB is one
5-HT system is activated in response to implementation of a Computer Aided
noxious stimuli. To address this question, Instruction (CAI) environment – using VR
I used a specific staining of the 5-HT to immerse the user in the VirtuaLAB
neurons in the living central nervous world. The community response alone proved
system (CNS) that allowed me to (1) that such new technologies are not only
systematically record their electrical viable but are also demanded and that
activity following a noxious stimulus, and endless opportunity waits in this modern
(2) trace their projections using the technological future.
neuronal tracer Neurobiotin. I found that
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