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Medium-Scale Liquefaction Technology

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1Medium-Scale Liquefaction Technology. 9sub-cooling occurs in 1 or 2 PFHE(s).
Tim CORNITIUS SYNGAS Refiner. Kryopak’s EXP - single-cycle
2Lng market issues Industry quotes turbo-expander refrigeration uses inlet
Significant lng projects Plant categories process gas as refrigerant. No mixed
by capacities Lng liquefier components refrigerant (MR) required. PCMR -
Vendors/liquefaction processes pre-cooled MR: nitrogen, methane, ethane,
Plant/infrastructure economics Operating butanes w/ conventional refrigeration
small-scale liquefaction plants Planned circuit for pre-cooling. SCMR -
small-scale liquefaction plants Us vehicle single-cycle MR: nitrogen, methane,
fuel lng plants Technology innovations ethane, butanes and pentane.
& advancements Questions? Outline. 10Vendors/liquefaction processes. Small,
3Over 5 TCF/year gas flared-E&P Mid-Scale Liquefaction Processes Chart
trends increase problem next 10 years LNG Energy & Chemicals provides process
demand increasing rapidly with consuming design thru engineering, construction,
countries diversifying supply sources for startup to meet small-plant requirements.
energy security and to tap markets Designed cold boxes for Phillips Cascade
inaccessible by pipeline. GTL plant Process and provides aluminum plate and
development halted. Small-to-medium-scale core-in-kettle heat exchangers. Mustang
LNG/GTL plant demand increasing to develop Engineering’s LNG Smart requires no
gas from associated reserves, remote refrigerant production. Eliminates MRs.
locations, pipelines, landfills for Uses inlet gas as sole refrigerant medium.
distribution and vehicle fuel Growing Gas enters multistage process via
environmental pressure to reduce flaring compression, turbo-expansion. Hamworthy
that is no longer option for new fields offers small-scale plant using closed
that are increasingly in remote locations. nitrogen expansion loop providing required
Flaring erodes economic value of field cold duty to liquefy gas. Mini-LNG plant
development to resource owner and has lead uses pipeline or landfill gas.
to global effort to eliminate practice. 11Plant/infrastrucutre economics.
Re-injection does not maximize economic Large-scale plant costs doubling/tripling
value. Governments concerned about w/strong LNG demand. Base product costs up
disposition and national resource use 20 to 30% last two years. Small-scale
Hundreds of billions barrels oil have costs only risen 50%. Manufacturing
greater than 1,000 tcf associated gas as efficiencies reducing plant costs while
technical reserves. High infrastructure joint-venture partnerships lowering
cost for liquefaction, transport, component costs Until 2003, medium-scale
re-gasification make economics favorable liquefiers (0.1-1.0 million mty) built for
for reserves in range of 400+ million $300-$400 per metric ton per year (mt/y)
standard cubic feet per day (MMscfd). of capacity - a premium price/unit of
Advancements in process technology, production between 3.0-8.0 million mty.
standardized designs and manufacturing Large-scale plants produced sufficient
efficiencies reduce small to medium-scale volumes to cover substantial costs of
plant costs and make additional reserves marine facilities such as long jetties,
economical. LNG Market issues. breakwaters and channel dredging Beginning
4Industry quotes. "We believe the w/economic rebound of 2002 recession,
LNG industry will begin to see new plants large-scale plant costs increased to near
supplied by stranded natural gas from $500/ mt/y of capacity. Medium and
sources such as landfills and dairy farm small-scale plants have increased just
waste manure. By liquefying natural gas 50%. Producing around six plants per year
and getting it to transportation markets, could significantly reduce costs.
LNG can further evolve into a renewable, 12Vehicle Fuel Infrastructure Costs
clean burning fuel" Explained Dennis Med-size liquefiers: $500,000 to >$12
McLaughlin, Earth Biofuels CEO million. Conventional 20-tpd MR plant:
"Natural gas should be used to fuel $3-$4.5 million; 200-tpd plant: $12
vehicles and not for power million. Storage: 11,000-750,000 liters:
generation" Boone Pickens, Clean 3.5 $/liter-1.5 $/liter. Loading systems:
Energy "We have been receiving 10 $50,000-$3 million. Road tankers; US
inquiries a month on building small-scale semi-trailer: 13,000 gals (50,000 liters)
liquefaction plants" David Gordon, $350,000. Gas supply station:
Kryopak, Salof Companies "We continue 15,000-400,000 gal: $210,000-$1.8 million.
to improve our process through the LNG fueling stations: $300,000.
application of new refrigerant Plant/infrastrucutre economics.
compositions and higher compression 13Operating small-scale liquefaction
ratios. These developments have led to plants. Production Facility. Location.
progressively lower energy needs and Daily Production (g/d). US. Clean Energy.
smaller equipment sizes" Black & Willis, TX. 100,000. Earth Biofuels.
Veatch. Topock, AZ. 86,000. ExxonMobil. Shute
5Significant LNG projects. $3 million Creek, WY. 70,000. Williams. Ignacio, CO.
plant will liquefy 2.5 MMcfd associated 30,000. BP. Evanston, WY. 30,000. Pioneer
gas to 15.5 tons/day LNG by February 2007 Natural Res. Satanta, KS. 20,000. China.
on Nongtom-A platform in Gulf of Thailand. Guanghui LNG Plant. Xinjiang (Shan Shan).
LNG piped onshore to be processed into 55 MMscfd (Linde). Hainan LNG Plant.
vehicle fuel Praxair subsidiary White Hainan Island. 10 MMscfd (Propak; EXP).
Martins started $38 million, Xinao LNG Plant. Weizhou Island. 6 MMscfd
14.5-MMscfd-liquefaction plant in Brazil (Kryopak; flare gas). Germany. Bayerwerk
in August that distributes LNG to regions AG. Gablingen. 45 kmol/h. Norway.
not serviced by pipelines Air Products Naturgass Vest. Bergen. 120 tpd (Linde).
provides PPMR process w/split MR 14Weizhou Island plant.
refrigeration gear configuration & 15Planned small-scale liquefaction
main cryogenic heat exchanger for Peru’s plants. Production Facility. Location.
first 14.5-MMscfd LNG plant to be onstream Daily Production (MMscfd). US. KeySpan
in 2009 Murphy Oil has preliminary board Energy. Brooklyn, NY. 8.5 (Expander).
approval for 5-MMscfd flare gas Washington Gas. Chillum, MD. 5 (PRICO).
reclamation LNG project offshore Sarawak, Peoples Gas Light/Coke. Fisher, IL. 15
Malaysia. Deepwater Kikeh oilfield should (PRICO). China. Erdos-Xingxing Gas Co.
be onstream second-half 2007 Australia Xingxing. 36 (BV; remote
considering several more LNG plants after gas;Industry/Vehicles). CNOOC. Zhuhai,
Karratha LNG power plant project Kryopak Guandong. 20 (BV; fast track project;
designing 150-X-300 ft, 4.5-MMscfd LNG turbine drive; 2007). Dazhou. Dazhou. 34
plant for jackup rig China expedites (BV; clone of Erdos). Yongda. Yongda. 36
small-scale liquefaction projects to meet (BV; clone of Erdos). Lanzhou. Lanzhou. 12
growing urban demand. (BV; municipal gas distribution). HongKong
6Plant categories by capacities. Gas Towngas CBM. Shanxi. 6 (Kryopak, 2007).
found in oil wells, stranded gas wells, Shanxi LNG Ltd. Shanxi. 50 (Kryopak,
landfills, biogas, coal mines. China LNG 2007). Wuxi Yongda Gas LNG. Congqing,
for distribution and vehicle fuel. Other Sichan. 37 (2007). Pacific Asia CBM.
countries use as transportation fuel or Guizhou. 30 (Kryopak, 2008). Australia.
energy source in power plants, heating Wesfarmers Gas Ltd. Kwinana, WA. 180 tpd
systems and chemical processes. LNG stored (Linde; 2008). Norway. Statoil.
on site - independent pipeline supply. Hammerfest. 13,000 tpd (Linde; 2007).
Plant Type Capacity (MMscfd/mtpd) LNG Scotland. Transco National Energy.
fueling stations 0.5-10 Mini LNG >1 LNG Scotland. 12 (EP).
peakshaving; flare gas 5-20 Small-scale 16Planned Chinese small-scale LNG
1-10 Medium-scale 10-200 Small-scale plants. China’s Most Developed Area.
baseload 50-250 (Sonatrach Unit 40; HongKong Towngas CBM LNG Plant Shanxi 6
180/3,500) Baseload plants 300-1,000 MMscfd, CBM Gas Planned, 2007 (Kryopak).
(Sonatrach Units 5&6; 360/7,000) LNG Shanxi LNG LTD Shanxi 50 MMscfd, Gas Field
Plant Gas Supply 3.3-MM-mty-plant: 5-6 tcf Gas Planned, 2007 (Kryopak). Wuxi Yongda
feed gas; 550-MMscfd-plant: 5 tcf; Gas LNG Plant Chongqing, Sichan 37 MMscfd,
100-MMscfd-plant: 1 tcf. Note: Chinese Gas Field Gas Planned, 2007. Pacific Asia
capacity in feed gas rate and not LNG CBM LNG Plant Guizhou 30 MMscfd, CBM Gas
production, can be 10% to 15% difference. Planned, 2008 (Kryopak). CNOOC Zhuhai LNG
7LNG liquefier components. For capacity Plant Zhuhai, Guangdong 22 MMscfd,
under construction, process cycle will be Offshore Gas Planned, 2007.
single-mixed refrigerant or propane 17US vehicle fuel LNG plants. Clean
pre-cooled single-mixed refrigerant Energy’s 10-MMscfd Boone Pickens Plant,
process. Choice of processes will depend Willis, TX, 60 miles N of Houston produces
on detailed analysis of capital and 100,000 gal/d vehicle-grade LNG from
operating costs of two options. In either high-pressure pipeline feed. Gas liquefied
case, basic equipment as follows: Cold Box at -285°C, stored in 1,000,000-gal tank,
– depending on process, one or more cold delivered in 33 cryogenic trailers to
boxes containing brazed aluminum heat vehicle fleet and industrial customers.
exchangers, separator vessels, cryogenic Purchased plant from Applied LNG
piping, instrumentation, valves. Propane Technologies (ALT) in 2005 for $14 million
pre-cooled system may also contain Less than a year after Apollo Resources
core-in-kettle heat exchangers. MR International bought ALT, Earth Biofuels,
Compressor – electric motor or gas turbine acquired Apollo LNG and does business as
drive centrifugal compressor depending Earth LNG that owns 8-MMscfd Topock, AZ
upon site-specific requirements. LNG plant producing over 80,000 gals/day
Refrigerant System Vessels – vessels w/86,000 gals/day capacity. Apollo LNG’s
required on compressor suction and market value is about $36 million. LNG
discharge. Aerial Inter-Coolers and sold primarily to municipal fleet
Condenser Cryogenic Liquid Collection customers on US West Coast and in Arizona.
& Vaporizer System Heavies Removal Earth LNG owns 14 cryogenic tanker trucks.
Column – requirement determined by feed Customers: municipal fleets, commercial
composition. vehicles, refuse haulers. LNG business
8Vendors/liquefaction processes. margins effectively locked in. Plant
Large-scale units tend to use operations cost relatively fixed;
mixed-refrigerant loops (MRL) while contracts are structured such that LNG
smaller units use turbo-expanders. sales pricing fluctuates proportionately
Crossover point from turbo-expander to MRL as gas feedstock cost goes up or down.
is about 0.05 million mty. Baseload plants Transaction helps expand and diversify
use plate-fin (PFHE) and coil-wound Earth Biofuel’s revenues and profitability
cryogenic heat exchangers Baseload Fuel sold under Willie Nelson’s brand name
Liquefaction Processes Air Products’ – BioWillie.
propane pre-cooled MR (PPMR) uses 18Clean energy boone pickens plant,
nitrogen, methane, ethane, propane. Gas Willis, TX.
feed initially cooled by propane chiller 19Technology Innovations &
to - 35°C. Liquid/vapor streams chilled Advancements. Vacuum Insulated Pipe (VIP)
further before flashed across J-T valves Economically viable alternative to
to provide cooling for final gas mechanically insulated pipe. Cryogenic
liquefaction. Used in 82% of baseload fluids lose liquid quality, refrigeration
plants and APCI also moving into small and by heat transfer thru carrier pipe &
medium-scale plants Phillips’ original insulation. Evacuating annular space
optimized cascade LNG process uses between cryogen carrier pipe and jacket
propane/ethylene circuits, methane flash pipe, conductive/convective heat transfer
circuit, brazed-aluminum heat exchangers nearly eliminated. Multiple reflective
and core-in-kettle exchangers insulation layers within annular space
Statoil/Linde LNG Technology Alliance’s minimize radiation heat transfer to
mixed-fluid cascade process uses three MR cryogen. First VIP for LNG application was
cycles to pre-cool, liquefy, sub-cool in LNG fueling stations First VIP LNG
purified gas. Linde makes proprietary Export/Import Terminal Use Atlantic LNG
spiral wound heat exchanger (SWHE) Shell’s Trinidad Tobago (T1-1998; T4-2004);
dual MR process has two separate MR Distrigas import facility, Boston, MA
cooling cycles using SWHEs and process (2000); ELNG Idku Egypt (2004); Darwin,
configuration similar to PPMR process. Australia (2005); Freeport LNG (2006)
Shell also has single MR process Industry Advancements Reduced jetty size
IFP/Axens’ Liquefin produces LNG at very or elimination; smaller line sizes
high capacities and is two-MR process for w/external expansion joints; subsea
new LNG baseload projects of 6 MTPA train pipeline: low-cost alternative to
sizes. trestle-based offshore loading/offloading
9Vendors/liquefaction processes. Small, system; vacuum insulated from liquefier to
Mid-Scale Liquefaction Processes Black tank, tank to tanker, tanker to tank
& Veatch’s PRICO process uses bringing enormous advantage; cryogenic
single-MR loop/single refrigeration transfer technologies; VIP proven
compression system: nitrogen, methane, technology but every new project brings
ethane, propane, iso-pentane. MR challenges. Small/Medium-Scale LNG
compressed/partially condensed prior to Competition CompactGTL capital cost
entering cold box w/PFHE cores. Used for $25,000-$35,000/b/d capacity; OPEX: $5 to
peakshaving, vehicle fuel supply, gas $6/bbl; for oilfields producing
distribution systems: 4 to >180 MMscfd. 10,000-50,000 MMscfd; 10-to-20-b/d plant
MR system used for baseload, peakshaving. for testing onshore/offshore Brazil will
BV has 16 operating plants: 4 to 360 be onstream 2008; feasibility studies for
MMscfd and nine projects under offshore GTL plants using technology; GTL
development. Linde LE’s advanced based on compact, modular syngas and FT
single-flow for mid-scale 0.2-1.0-MTPA reactors enabling GTL plants at 10 to 150
plants. Liquefaction occurs in SWHE. Basic MMscfd.
single-flow for small <0.2 MTPA plants 20ZEUS DEVELOPMENT CORP HOUSTON, TEXAS
such as peakshaving or mini-LNG. USA. Questions?
Pre-cooling, liquefaction &
Medium-Scale Liquefaction Technology.ppt
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Medium-Scale Liquefaction Technology

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