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Nationalism in India 1920-1947
Nationalism in India 1920-1947
Development of the Indian National Congress
Development of the Indian National Congress
Funding Gandhi was something of a genius when collecting money (G
Funding Gandhi was something of a genius when collecting money (G
Noncooperation Movement 1920-22
Noncooperation Movement 1920-22
Noncooperation Movement 1920-22
Noncooperation Movement 1920-22
1930-31 Civil Disobedience Movement
1930-31 Civil Disobedience Movement
Gandhi-Irwin Pact, the Delhi Pact signed 1931
Gandhi-Irwin Pact, the Delhi Pact signed 1931
Nationalism in India 1920-1947

: Richard Birrell. , . , Nationalism in India 1920-1947.ppt zip- 173 .

Nationalism in India 1920-1947

Nationalism in India 1920-1947.ppt
1Nationalism in India 1920-1947. 12Ahmedabad, sentencing him for sedition for
Focusing on the practice of civil 6 years (served two). Gandhi invited the
resistance between 1920 and 1931. highest penalty for his deliberate crime
2Topics. Development of the Indian (said they disagreed over what constituted
National Congress 1920-22 Noncooperation a crime but could see that in their
Movement 1920-22 Gandhis calling off the (British) view what he had done was a
movement in 1922 The Bardoli Satyagraha crime. No protests when he went to jail.
1928 1930-31 Civil Disobedience Movement - 131928 Bardoli Satyagraha. the Patidars
1930 Salt March - 1930 Chittagong Armoury of Bardoli continued to give fervent
Raid - violent resistance - Chandrasekhar support to the Congress. In the mid-1920s,
Azad and Bhagat Singh - 1931 Gandhi-Irwin British ordered 22% increase in land-tax.
Pact Conclusion. The peasants decided to fight this. (had
3Development of the Indian National been ready to launch in 1921 but then
Congress. Established in the late movement ended. Still remained supportive
nineteenth century as an organisation for of Gandhi though and he very impressed by
the new educated professional and them- area of low crime, loyalty to him
commercial class. Lots of British-loving. etc) Approached Gandhi, and he deputed
By 1918 Indian political aspirations had Vallabhbhai Patel to organise the protest
advanced- wanted a share in the Government (Gandhi did delegate) In 1928, Patel took
of India. The 1919 Montagu-Chelmsford the movement in Bardoli in hand. Patel
reforms (dyarchy- in provinces ministries organised the Bardoli campaign
formed with Indians controlling the less brilliantly. The resolution to refuse the
important departments e.g. education, land tax was taken in February 1928. Patel
local government and exercise.) fell far established an army of Congress workers
short of these aspirations and were there, who ensured that there be strong
rejected by Congress as disappointing and solidarity. Those who paid their taxes
unsatisfactory. 1918-1923 = suffered social boycott. He depicted this
transformation of Congress in its as a religious battle of moral
political and organizational character. righteousness against an evil government.
(Gandhi huge role played in this) Nagpur British took coercive measures,
Constitution of 1920 made big difference. confiscating property and land, which they
As did Gandhis leadership of it and the threatened to sell. This had no effect,
consequent aims and objectives it took due to the solidarity. The movement was
on.- he had confidence from recent given strong publicity, bringing many
successes such as the Rowlatt Satyagraha- leading nationalist figures to Bardoli to
his first Indian mass movement Gandhi provide moral support. Pressures were
demanded the attainment of Swarajya brought to bear on the government in Delhi
(total independence) by the people of and the Viceroy, Lord Irwin. Bombay
India by all legitimate and peaceful authorities did not want to compromise,
means in a year. Main features of the new but Irwin was at that time trying to win
Constitution were: Attainment of Swaraj by the Congress leaders around to a new plan
all legitimate and peaceful means 4-anna for further devolution of power, and he
membership Provincial Congress committees put pressure on the Bombay authorities.
reorganised on linguistic basis, with a They agreed to set up a commission to
hierarchy of provincial district- investigate the tax increase. The protest
sub-district/town village committees was then called off. The commission found
Delegates to Congress sessions to be in that the increase was excessive and that
proportion to population of a province irregular methods had been used to make
(roughly one delegate to every 50,000 of a the calculations, and it recommended in
population). Therefore less crowded and May 1929 that the increase be much less.
more effective All India Congress Because of his superb leadership, Patel
Committee formed to meet about four time a became known as a great peasant leader.
year Congress Working Committee with about Significantly, Gandhi stayed largely away
15 members formed as executive head of the from Bardoli, as he did not want to
Congress. Permanent body that met about compromise Patels leadership. This
once a month. allowed Patel to use methods, such as
4So what actually changed? All-India caste boycott and intimidation of
Congress Committee Most important body. supporters of the British that Gandhi
Acted as the Parliament > its himself would not have sanctioned. In
decisions were binding on all subordinate 1929, Patel announced that he would
units Met 4 times per annum Elected by support struggles by peasants anywhere in
Provincial Congress Committees, and western India against high tax rates. He
numbers increased from 181 in 1918 to 350 held talks with local leaders in
in 1921. Implications of this were a Maharastra to see if such struggles could
higher number of elected delegates and be launched there. He set up a body called
greater representation and influence the Bombay Presidency Land League to fight
Creation of the Working Committee Congress for lower taxes. The Bombay Government
acquired for the first time an executive became very frightened, and in July 1929
body active throughout the year. Met once announced that it was suspending all
per month (kept on top of current events proposed tax increases, and that there
and changes- meant could adapt) Gave would be no further increases or revisions
day-to-day direction to the organisation until the forthcoming constitutional
(organised) Gandhi was its inventor and reforms had gone through. This represented
said of it; its decisions have to be a major victory by the nationalists in the
largely unanimous it can be dismissed by interests of the peasantry. By 1930, it
the All-Indian Congress Committee appeared that such peasant power could
According to Gopal Krishna its creation be used on a massive scale to win
was one of the most innovative and independence. It was in this atmosphere
important aspects to Congresss that the Civil Disobedience movement was
development during this period (and launched in that year. Gandhi Returned to
therefore to the movement due to the fore in 1928, 1927 Simon commission to
Congresss central role) because of the judge progress of the 1919 Govt of India
way that through it, Gandhi attempted to Act but the Simon Commission did not
meet the need for a compact and include any Indian so vehicle for judging
disciplined executive to direct a Indian political progress to be decided
loosely-knit mass movement which had to solely by the British. Spurred Gandhi into
maintain a broad coalition of divergent getting back on the scene, had been
elements- everyone involved and working spending time sorting out issues in
together Local Organisation and impact Congress and expanding initiatives about
Provincial Congress committees reorganised untouchability (strove to end this),
on a linguistic basis, with a hierarchy of alcoholism, ignorance and poverty.
provincial district- sub-district/town- Congress boycotted the Commission.
village committees Increased the number of Squabbling within Congress that had caused
Provincial Congress Committees between lack of action in interim period between
1918 and 1920 by changing the principles 1922 and Bardoli, Gandhi went and sorted
upon which they were formed and divided- it out by using his enormous influence and
no longer on administrative divisions with mediating between divided factions- we
no single principle, but instead the1920 want full independence Bardoli = renewed
constitution laid down that the Provincial confidence in the potential of satyagraha.
Congress Committees should be organised on It demonstrated what non-violent
a linguistic basis > allowing for resistance could achieve when carried out
greater cohesiveness and make it by organized, disciplined and united
increasingly possible for mass of people people, and it showed that the British
to be drawn into Congress work. could be made to bend. Gandhi now set on
Accordingly the provincial units were organisation of the nation.
reorganised into 21 linguistically 141930-31 Civil Disobedience Movement.
homogenous provinces Each village with 5 leadership of Sarojini Naidu (female poet
plus Congress members would have a and member of the Working Committee) and
Congress unit whose task it was to carry Maulana Abul Kalam Azad. Some Congress
out the Congress program in the village. leaders disagreed with Gandhi's promotion
1918-19 Congress had some type of of a woman to lead march Several times,
organisation in nearly half the districts Naidu and the satyagrahis approached the
> 1921-22 it had 213 District Congress salt works, before being turned back by
Committees in 15 Congress Provinces AND in police. At one point they sat down and
addition by 1921 there were thousands of waited for twenty-eight hours. Hundreds
local units working under the District arrested. 1930 Salt Satyagraha British
Committees To bring the Congress closer to hadnt responded to their boycott of the
the masses, in 1920 it was proposed to Simon Commission, nor of Congresss
conduct Congress sessions as much as poss demands for the British at the least, to
in Hindustani (Central Provinces). grant India dominion status (Gandhi had
5Abolition of the British Committee of moderated views of younger men like Subhas
the Congress Formed in London 1889 Chnadra Bose and Jawaharlal Nehru). He
Established to inform the British public reduced his call for this to a year. No
on Indian affairs and to popularise the response. Gandhi as ever informed his
views of Congress in Great Britain Despite Dear Friend Lord Irwin (Viceroy) of his
prominent British and Indian members it plans for the Salt March. It was a march
was extremely feeble and made little against British monopoly of the salt
impact on British opinion. Therefore a trade, Indias pulse. High tax on the
drain on the financial resources of salt. Illegal to make it or sell it
Congress. Abolished 1920 so the lost funds without a government license. Gandhi said
could be put to good use in the campaign. that every Indian man had the right to
> becoming far more fiscally astute, make his own salt, it was from the Indian
progress when handling a national movement ocean which was his, not the British let
of this scale Delegates at Congress everyman claim it as his own 248miles
Pre-1920 there was no limit to the number from Ahmedabad to Dandi, took from 12
of delegates who could attend the annual March 5 April. At Dandi, symbolic act by
and ad hoc special sessions. Therefore Gandhi of making salt himself. See photo.
often dominated by those from the local Over 12,000 congregated in Dandi Thousands
districts and provinces. Rival factions joined him on route. (few Muslims so
could pack the sessions with supporters. fissures of Indian society seen) 30,000
> Unfair and unrepresentative. greeted them in Surat ad at railhead for
(safeguard- usually majority voting but Dandhi, 50,000 gathered! Wave of
still an issue) Post- 1920 changed system resignations of local officials followed.
of delegates. One per 50,000. > made Gave interviews along the way. Gandhi
sessions far more representative. commended the government for not
Provinces allocated a quota of delegates interfering with the march This symbolic
according to population. 1923 number of campaign was one of his most successful at
delegates attending had declined upsetting the British hold on India (back
dramatically. 1921 Ahmedabad = 4728 1922 with a bang). Start of deliberate,
Gaya = 3848 1923 Cocanada = 1661! many systematic civil disobedience Something
Congressmen in prison and demoralisation which people everywhere could mimick
followed the 1922 collapse of the movement sense of empowerment and pride and unity.
Membership Nagpur Constitution 1920 People everywhere outright breaking the
introduced paid membership (voluntary). law > selling own made salt in the
Annual subscription of 4 annas. Hope to street etc. Police imprisoned more and
provide a significant part of the more. Gandhi warned that could do so but
financial resources needed for Congress more would follow until they couldnt
works. Although figures incomplete, were imprison anymore The Salt March launched a
areas where membership strong e.g. nationwide protest against the British
Gujarat, Hindustani, Bengal. 1922-23 salt tax. On May 4, 1930, Gandhi wrote to
membership declined, only 106, 046 for Lord Irwin, Viceroy of India, explaining
16/20 provinces. BUT Jawaharlal Nehru said his intention to raid the Dharasana Salt
extent of people following not in peoples Works. He was immediately arrested. The
desire to join but in Congresss capacity British government, represented by Lord
to reach remote villages (funds). Edward Irwin decided to negotiate with
6Funding Gandhi was something of a Gandhi (Irwin and Gandhi apparently got on
genius when collecting money (G. quite well, or at the very least respected
Krishnar). Took charge and financial each other. Irwin always insisted that
system changed Provincial Congress police should not arrest Gandhi- fear of
Committees had been very poor and often protest and backlash To arrest Gandhi is
failed to meet their commitments to AICC to set fire to the whole of India
Collected from women, peasants, wealthy (nationalist n newspaper) and they
friends and businessmen e.g. Seth Jamnalal regularly met and drank tea together and
Bajaj Tilak Memorial Swaraj Fund set up in 1928 sent a note of condolence over
highly successful 1921 in three months death of his nephew) Over the course of
(April-June) collected Rs. 10,000 1921-23 three weeks of meetings between Irwin and
total funds exceeded Rs. 13, 000 Spent as Gandhi, the Gandhi-Irwin Pact was signed
went along (bad experience in S. Africa) Dharasana salt works 1930 Protest
Spent on Congress activity- propaganda, following the Salt March to protest
volunteering etc, as well as national against rule of the British Raj Hundreds
education, aid to depressed classes, of satyagrahis were beaten by Indian
famine and flood relief and subsidies to soldiers under British command at
Congress organisations How Dharasana. The ensuing publicity attracted
inclusive/representative was it? world attention to the Indian independence
increasing number of peasant delegates movement, and brought into question the
1918 = 688 1919 = 1095 and steadily rose legitimacy of British rule in India The
until 1922 Minorities: Congress sought Congress, led by Gandhi and Jawaharlal
their participation, especially Muslims. Gandhi publicly issued the Declaration of
Muslim involvement had been limited Independence, or Swaraj, on January 28,
(sought Muslim-orientated goals) but World 1930. The Congress decided to continue
War One and threat to the Khalifa helped. with the proposed plan of action (despite
Muslim League, Central Khilafat Committee Gandhis arrest). Many of the Congress
(1921 10.9%) Post 1923 their support and leaders were arrested before the planned
involvement decreased, although retained day, including Nehru and Vallabhbhaj Patel
support of the religious leaders of Indian Several times, Naidu and the satyagrahis
Islam. Once Gandhi had gained control over approached the salt works, before being
Congress, he gained support of Congress turned back by police. At one point they
for the Khilafat - in June 1920 he had sat down and waited for twenty-eight
demanded that Congress support the demands hours. Hundreds more were arrested.
of the Khilafat Movement. Some- Khalilf of 15American journalist Web Miller an
the Ottoman Empire was their spiritual eye-witness to the beating of satyagrahis
head (not all believed this) After WW1, with steel tipped lathis. His report
defeat of Germany and Turkey in 1918 a attracted international attention: Not
harsh settlement was imposed, with Turkey one of the marchers even raised an arm to
losing much of her empire. Ali brothers fend off the blows. They went down like
launched strong protect of non-cooperation ten-pins. From where I stood I heard the
against British Gandhi thought could sickening whacks of the clubs on
work together > strength in unity and unprotected skulls. The waiting crowd of
numbers Gandhis work with untouchables watchers groaned and sucked in their
sign of will for inclusivity and unity. breaths in sympathetic pain at every blow.
Attempts to branch out- lots of time, Those struck down fell sprawling,
money and effort exerted on this. unconscious or writhing in pain with
(movement as a whole still marked by fractured skulls or broken shoulders. In
fissions of Indian society but Congress two or three minutes the ground was
was progressing) Love of the people quilted with bodies. Great patches of
brought the problem of untouchability blood widened on their white clothes. The
early into my life. My mother said, You survivors without breaking ranks silently
must not touch this boy, he is an and doggedly marched on until struck down.
untouchable. Why not? I questioned When every one of the first column was
back, and from that day my revolt began knocked down stretcher bearers rushed up
Swaraj is a meaningless term, if we unmolested by the police and carried off
desire to keep a fifth of India under the injured to a thatched hut which had
perpetual subjectionInhuman ourselves, we been arranged as a temporary hospital.
may not plead before the Throne for Miller's first attempts at telegraphing
deliverance from the inhumanity of others the story to his publisher in England were
(Young India, 1921)- the movement all censored by the British telegraph
encompassing Faith in general Tried to operators in India. Only after threatening
have religious representation according to to expose British censorship was his story
population percentages. Hindu 68% of pop, allowed to pass. The story appeared in
1918 76% of AICC (All-Indian Congress 1,350 newspapers throughout the world and
Committee) to 1923, 72.5% Muslims 21% of was read into the official record of the
pop, 1918 20.2% to 1923 24.5.% Also United States Senate by Senator John J.
referred to Muslims as his brothers Sikhs Blaine Patel watched the massacre and
1% of pop, 1918 around 0.x% (there were 2 remarked: All hope of reconciling India
delegates) to 1923 around ?%. with the British Empire is lost forever. I
7Women Women were drawn in First female can understand any government's taking
delegate in 1920. 1918 = 0.55% 1923 = people into custody and punishing them for
3.61%. (still remained a significant breaches of the law, but I cannot
minority) Urban/rural representation Tried understand how any government that calls
to balance out the number of delegates itself civilized could deal as savagely
from urban and rural areas. Did reduce and brutally with non-violent, unresisting
those from towns until in 1921 rural men as the British have this
delegates significantly dominated, thereby morning." In response to the beatings
more true representation of Indian and the press coverage, Lord Irwin,
interests as a whole Leaders Mostly Viceroy of India, wrote to King George:
educated, middle or upper class. Monopoly The police for a long time tried to
of lawyers. Successfully mixed up the refrain from action. After a time this
occupational status of its leaders. More became impossible, and they had to resort
representative Pre-1920 social position to sterner methods. A good many people
secured a leading role in the Movement. suffered minor injuries in consequence.
Post-1920 it was the renunciation of 161931. Gandhi felt the focus for the
social position and the demonstration of campaigns next phase should remain salt.
willingness to accept sacrifices that was Should include boycotts of foreign cloth
demanded of those who desired to lead. and liquor. Should discourage not paying
Gandhi told lawyers that they had to make taxes or breaking forest regulations
choice, keep their Congress position and because these not inherently unjust like
lose their legal practice, or leave.- the salt May 14 and 22, Congress
therefore got people who were totally volunteers attempted march on Hazratganj
committed. So Indian National Congress (Lucknow) - Congress claimed some killed.
represented a broad national front not a Lucknow did not win right to march through
tightly organised party. Gandhi it is not the street that signified British power,
a party organisation but it developed a but it forced Raj to abandom the fiction
structure of authority paralleling that of that imperial rule anything but government
the British- like a state within a state. at gunpoint Bombay city salt satyagraha
Own uniform (khadi) and operated in Hindu and cloth picketing were everywhere.
as much as English. Provided a platform Volunteers took over the streets- large,
for all parties like a coalition well organised marches Congress had
consisting of elements which agreed on identified an issue that had personal
general aims and methods but not always on meaning to the people and was a symbol for
specific items of policy or program. Forum the general injustice of the British
for debate Very loose structure, Chittagong, Bengal, terrorists barged
democratic (limits) useful as general their way into and sacked a campaign begun
aim at this point was the same (in 1920-21 in the spirit of ahimsa (and armoury raid)
that is. Later were factions) Delegates Northwest Frontier, Muslim Pathans, Abdul
were not bound by Congress decisions (e.g. Ghaffar Khan- picketed liquor stores.
on sectional aspects such as industrial Soldiers opened fire, killed 65. Local
strikes) Acquired a very strong executive officials stepped into the fore when
arm which gave effect to its official Congress leaders arrested Large scale
policy Idea became an instrument of its concentrations of protestors eg Dharasana
benefactors wholly unfounded (Krishnar) and Lucknow made people vulnerable to
Alliance was often a fragile one. attack so Congress emphasised small-scale
8Noncooperation Movement 1920-22. So dispersed actions eg boycotts Underground
developing Congress took up most of 1920 journals etc when government confiscated
and with good reason. It resulted in the printing presses Withholding payments
advantages discussed (representation, occurred, over land revenue- Patidars.
organisation, funding to act and empower, Moved possessions across border (so
democratic procedures etc). Congress had crack-down British couldnt get them).
also through these developments developed Resistance to land revenue also took hold
a structure of authority paralleling that in U.P sharp agricultural prices decline
of the British- like a state within a second half of 1930 Was breaking of forest
state. It had its own uniform (khadi) and legislation eg by Gond and Korku tribe
operated in Hindi as much as in English. people Rural civil disobedience more
Delegates were not bound by Congress difficult for Congress to control- always
decisions (e.g. lack of action in behnd the curve and struggled to direct
sectional disputes such as strikes) Gandhi and check violence Bombay climax, 12 Dec.
had made a loose coalition of interests, Picketers laid in strret to block truicks
classes and different religious groups and carrying foreign goods, young volunteer
constantly worked towards this aim. > killed. Madras City, Calcutta, Congress
strength through uniting and numbers and employed similar techniques Boycotts huge
the exchange of ideas. Gandhis personal impact Huge strain on police> after
charisma often held it together (when he Amritsar British reluctant to use soldiers
was in jail, Nehru and Patel initially Sporadic involvement though couldnt not
unsure what to do). Alliance was a fragile be, without Muslim involvement eg Punjab
one. So 1920 taken up by creating the and the Sind little trouble for British
right situation to allow for action to be (Muslim majority) > only 1152/29,000
taken. 1921 year of mass action. Early prisoners in jail for civil disobedience
1921, NCO launched by students leaving offences in November were Muslims (were
schools and colleges. Two big student smaller percentage of population though-
strikes in Calcutta and Lahore. see Congress slides) Class divisions too
Alternative national schools founded and starkly apparent > mostly middle, few
two unis in Aligarh and Ahmedabad. very poor peasants Second half of 1930
Lawyers gave up practice (choice for those Congress debilitated. Arrest forced
in Congress, Congress or practice = the leadership to hand initiative to
committed) e.g Motilal Nehru and C.R. Das provincial committees, which repression
Popular arbitration courts established disrupted, and breakdown of central and
July 1921 boycott of foreign cloth provincial control eroded non-violent
launched (Gandhi had launched this discipline. The more that civil
campaign in 1919, made a simple cheap disobedience sprang from local grievances
spinning wheel that all could carry around rather than from strategic intent, the
but in 1921 that the boycott really took more it was likely to stray from the
off nationally). non-violent standard.
9Public bonfires of foreign cloth, even 17Gandhi-Irwin Pact, the Delhi Pact
Bhagat Singh involved. Picketing of shops signed 1931. By signing Gandhi and Irwin
selling foreign cloth Import of foreign were committing themselves to the
clothes halved during NCO - power of mass following; - discontinuation of the civil
movement Nationalists expected to wear disobedience movement by Congress in
khadi (handspun and handwoven cloth- return for - participation by the Indian
Indian) > employment and National Congress in the Round Table
self-sufficiency in rural areas. Conference - Withdrawal of all ordinances
Emphasised dignity of manual labour issued by the British Government imposing
Congress supporters were supposed to spin curbs on the activities of the Indian
regularly (in film Gandhi always National Congress - Release of prisoners
spinning). Showed Indian unity, and arrested for participating in the civil
capability. Gandhi saw it as a uniform- disobedience movement - the removal of tax
white so always had to washed = clean = on salt, which therefore allowed the
pure. Quickly became a symbol of Indians to produce, trade and sell salt
anti-British feeling and nationalist legally and for their own private use Many
commitment. For many, was their first Indian citizens, and indeed members of
contact with national movement. Sense of Congress felt this fell a long way too
empowerment and involvement. Pride. Those short of the movements overarching aims
who wore it became a target of police and were angry and disappointed in
attention. Pupils at government schools Gandhis signing of it. No inquiry into
were not allowed to wear it. Movement police abuses, farmers could not recovered
escalated in second-half of 1921 Main seized land that had been sold, picketing
areas of strength: * Uttar Pradesh. of foreign cloth and liquor shops could
January- March 1921, peasants attacked continue but not as a political sanction.
zamindars in Awadh. Protesting against Salt laws would stay in place but govt
high prices. Clashes with police and Kisan would not interfere with small-scale
Sabhas were formed which Gandhi condemned manufacture for domestic use. Jawaharlal
because he argued that the peasants should Nehru bitterly disappointed. Gandhi gave a
fight the government, not fellow-Indians. lot, Irwin gave little. Irwin I do regard
Jawharalal Nehru began his political work it as a very astonishing thing that Gandhi
in this movement. Eventually this led to should have been so far persuaded to come
the Awadh Rent Act of 1921 which gave into line Some British thought was too
greater security to peasants (useful to lenient (will always have critics) Gandhi
have lawyers on board, can articulate and thought would lead to further concessions
argue well) * Bihar. This was a very keep picking away, patience. Gandhi
strong movement. It also became violent at himself was disappointed. Round Table
times such as when peasants were claiming talks in London shortly after achieved
to be Gandhis disciples but it did force nothing. Only way forwards is with more
merchants to lower prices. (problems of civil disobedience BUT within months of
peasant belief in Gandhi as miracle man, his signing the pact, Irwin was succeeded
didnt fully comprehend his Satygraha. by the far more hard line Lord Willington.
Power of personality and charisma, Ready and waiting. Willington embarked on
brilliant- quote from official, but also a a new campaign of crushing the movement by
problem.) * Punjab. Many Sikh peasants repression and violent techniques. Unlike
were involved (not religiously exclusive) Irwin he was not so willing to drink tea
in this protest. They demanded that and talk. He was not sympathetic to the
control over their temples (gurudwaras) be cause nor Gandhi whom he promptly had
taken out of the hands of corrupt priests arrested. Movement did continue without
who were backed by the British, and should him though, and without many of the key
instead be replaced by popular control Congress leaders such as J. Nehru and
(the Akali Movement) * Bengal. Big strike Patel- even Nehrus mother arrested.
in Calcutta jute mills in 1921, due to Although this round of civil disobedience
cut-backs for workers. Strong Hindu-Muslim did not strictly speaking finish until
unity in this strike (quite unique). In 1934, after the first six months it failed
Midnapor District, peasants refused to pay to seriously challenge the raj HOWEVER
their tax to the district board after it despite lack of constitutional change or
tried to increased taxes. It was mainly material benefits, showed power of mass
the richer peasants who were involved movement. Did succeed in weakening raj in
(point made by R. Kumar about mill some areas. Shredded the legitimacy of
strikers in Bombay, the great textile British rule. Loss of authority of raj-
strike of 1919). In late 1921 this change in meaning of going to jail (eg
escalated into a no-rent campaign by Singh proud) Gandhi embodiment of national
tenants against zamindars. Some Santals purpose. Inside Congress his stature gave
looted markets and zamindar-owned forests, him enormous leverage, could suppress
and in February 1922, Santals attacked factional quarrelling and spur it to turn
police wearing Gandhi caps, which they itself into a mass political organisation-
claimed made them immune to bullets but not necessarily a projection of
(miracle man again and lack of Ganhis ideals just because the movement
understanding of Gandhian doctrine). flowed from him.
10* Assam. Strong protests. Workers in 18Violence. Others were clearly not so
the tea gardens, demanding higher wages. convinced. Wanted vengeance for Amritsar,
Rumours of a Gandhi Raj in which general conditions under British rule an
labourers would be given land * Gujarat violent repression. Bande Mataram (a
(one of the areas most politically active Congress Extremist) stated; peaceful
throughout, gave second highest donations means can succeed only when these imply
to the Tilak Swaraj Fund). Strong movement the ugly alternative of more troublesome
in areas in which Gandhi had worked in and fearful methods, recourse to which the
1918, and also in rural south. Patidar failure of peaceful attempts must
peasants to the fore. Bardoli Taluka inevitably lead to Gandhi claimed to
particularly strong- he was selected in admire and adore terrorists patriotism
late 1921 to inaugurate official Congress and giving of their lives to the cause for
no-tax campaign (Gandhi delegated) it had much sacrifice to its credit but
Congress cadres were sent to prepare the he felt that their methods were wrong and
area (funding) This was a ryotwaru areas, were more a hindrance than an advantage
with no landholding intermediaries between There were violent acts being carried out
the peasants and the British. * Southern during this period of mass non-violent
Rajputana. Bhil movement led by Motilal resistance too perhaps Gandhi felt if
Tejawat. Anti-landlord. * Madras signed the pact would give a bit of hope
Presidency. Andhra coastal region sees and pull people back to non-violence (by
richer peasants refusing to pay taxes this stage had accepted that some chose to
(note how rarely poorest peasants are follow his satyagraha not for a way of
involved), under belief that Gandhi life but for political expedience) So what
Swaraj is coming and we shall not have to violence was there? Numerous sporadic
pay any taxes. In interior of Andhra, small cases. Also the Chittagong Armoury
tribal peasants break forest laws > was Raid of 1930 as well as various revenge
believed that Gandhi would abolish forest killings Chittagong Armoury Raid Attempt
regulations. * Kerala. Mapilla peasants on April 18, 1930 to raid the armoury of
were inspired by Khilafat to rise. Belief police and auxiliary forces from
that a new Islamic state is about to be Chittagong by revolutionary freedom
inaugurated in which there would be no fighters led by Surya Sen Believed in
expensive litigation and the present armed uprisings for Indian independence
system of police would be abolished. Armoury was captured as planned, couldnt
Turned violent in August 1921 when a locate the ammunition but succeeded in
police raid on a mosque led to a wide dislocating telephone and telegraph
scale violent rising against Hindu communications and disrupting trains Total
landlords (not good for movement of 65 revolutionaries took part (not much
cohesiveness). British lost complete when compared to Gandhi and Congress
control over two sub-districts for two Movement of this year) Military salute,
months and Khilafat Republics were raised National Flag Police traced some of
established. Approx. 600 Hindus were the revolutionaries hiding in Jalalabad
killed and 2500 forcibly converted. Revolt hills on outskirts of Chittagong (April
suppressed harshly, with 2337 rebels being 22) Over 80 British and 12 revolutionaries
killed and 1652 wounded. 45,000 people killed in ensuing gunfire Sen arrested
taken prisoner. So not good- Gandhi not February 1933. Tried and hung, January
happy (although as in 1915-18, did show 1934 General Violence During 1930-32 22
that was considerable discontent that with officials and 220 non-officials were
the right organisation, leadership and killed in separate incidents by such
control could potentially be harnessed.) pro-violent groups, organisations, and
November, Prince of Wales (future Edward individuals This time, Gandhi had vowed
VIII) visited India. Congress boycotted not to call off the campaign due to
him and there were large demonstrations. violence Violence always present, even in
Also some fights between middle and upper 1940s such as in 1942 Key figures of
class Indians who wished to warmly welcome Chandrashekar Azad (left) and Bhagat Singh
the Prince and the demonstrators who did (right).
not. This was in Bombay and through the 19Chandrashekar Azad. Real name =
clashes, 20 died. Gandhi was much Chandrashekhar Sitaram Tiwari Azad means
disheartened by this (as well as the freedom (after first arrests for
accumulation of all of the above, and of involvement in non-violent campaign in
course, the Amritsar Massacre of 1919 was 1921) After suspension of Non-Cooperation
still fresh in everyones minds- violence Movement attracted by more aggressive and
by British. Clearly there was a great violent revolutionary ideas (although long
propensity for violence on both sides at held fascination with guns) Independence
this time). Gandhi postponed taking the by any means led to his forming the
movement on to its next level of Hindustan Socialist Republican Association
tax-refusal in Bardoli. And, furthermore, and was mentor for others such as Bhagat
by the end of 1921, Gandhi was having Singh, Sukhdev etc HSRA wanted full Indian
reservations about what he had set in independence and to build new India on
motion, a sense of responsibility due to socialist principles Kakori Train Robbery
the continuing violence. Final nail in the (1926) which was an attempt to blow up the
coffin was Chauri-Chaura, Feb. 1922. Viceroys train, and the shooting of John
11Chauri-Chaura 1922. Town near Poyantz Saunderes (1928) to avenge the
Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh. February 4, killing of Lala Lajpat Rai (a widely
1922. Around 2000 protestors gathered for revered Congressman- beating sustained
picketing of the liquor shop at the local during anti-Simon Commission
market in Chauri-Chaura (Gandhi advocated demonstration) Vowed that he would never
temperance- lots of trees cut down in this be arrested by British police and would
cause). Sensing trouble (or looking for it die a free man. February 27, 1931 met two
depending on your take) armed policemen comrades at Slfred Park, Allahabad. Tip
were sent to keep order. Crowd march off, police surrounded park and ordered
towards market shouting anti-government Azad surrender. Fought alone, killed 3
slogans. Some dispute over what happened policemen. Shot in thigh, used ammunition
next, some say police fired into air as saw no means of escape and shot himself
warning and then attacked the Photo shows how police laid out Azads
demonstration. Others say no warning. dead body for the public to see in order
Crowd responded with stone throwing and to display what would happen if you
situation got out of control. Police behaved like Azad. a deterrent.
started firing on the crowd. Three 20Bhagat Singh. Family history of
demonstrators killed (two Hindu, one involvement in revolutionary activities
Muslim) Crowd chased the police to the against the British Raj Quickly rose
police station and set it on fire with the through ranks of the Hindu Republican
policemen inside it. 22 policemen died. Association. Gained support (but not of
British furiouss and imposed martial law Gandhi- Singh bitter about this,
in Chauri-Chaura and surrounding areas self-sacrifice and suffering etc) when
Later, 172 were sentenced to death for underwent a 63 day fast in jail demanding
this, and 19 were actually hung. Gandhi equal rights for Indian and British
mortified. Decided to call off the political prisoners. Won campaign. Hung
movement. So what does this case show? for shooting police officer in response to
propensity for violence on both sides. killing of Lala Lajpat Rai. Hung 1931 His
Violence met out with violence. Congress shooting of police officer was only
and Gandhi not yet get total control and discovered after he was arrested after
message of satyagraha not yet been bombing the Legislative Assembly of
internalised Criticisms Historiography- Central Government with Batikeshwera K.
Gandhi saw it as a bigger problem than it Dutt. One person injured claims position
was Gandhi was and continues to be of bomb etc meant didnt want to actually
criticised for his suspension of the kill anyone but ignored at trial. On
movement. Was deeply resented by almost leaflet he threw in with the bombs It is
all prominent Congress leaders and by easy to kill individuals but you cannot
younger activists. Did lose a lot of kill the ideas Violent resistance
support after this point (many resorted to displayed graver risks and less reward.
violent measures in the interim between Needed media support from outside, people
1922and 1928/30 e.g. Bhagat Singh. Look at less sympathetic to violence and Gandhi
decreased Congress membership and said not proving that were able to
donations) but Gandhi had repeatedly self-govern Few numbers compared to
warned that he was prepared to lead only a non-violent campaign, but cannot be
strictly non-violent campaign, and that ignored because did affect the movement
its aim was not class struggle or social significantly prompted others to act as
revolution. Thought was not an isolated such and for the movement to be called
incident, but a shocking episode in a off, and numerous fasts by Gandhi (fact
rising trend of violence which could have that his fasting worked in bringing back
degenerated into total mob violence, which peace is interesting point though)
would justify martial law and police Difference in age range (Congress 31-50,
suppression of even more civil liberties violence often much younger, see case of
Needed time to rethink and regroup. Singh and Azad- was the Congress campaign
12Gandhis calling off the movement directly engaging the younger population?)
1922. Subhas Chandra Bose (Gandhis Did hinder the movement? Tainted it but
biggest rival for leadership of Congress also used to advantage. Worse of two evils
in 1930) said of Gandhis decision; the scenario. Gandhi even said If you work
Mahatma opens a campaign in a brilliant with the Congress for all it is worth you
fashionmoves from success to success till will say goodbye to terrorismwithout that
he reaches the zenith of his campaign- but liberty there are thousands toward who are
after that he loses his nerveshortcomings sworn not to give themselves to peace or
inherent in the movement from the very to give the country peace (Round Table
beginning (what are these?) and which were Conference, 1931- perhaps not a successful
to reveal themselves more and more with argument then?).
the lapse of timetoo much power and 21Aftermath of 1930-31. Mid-1930s civil
responsibility was handed over to one disobedience suspended and raj still in
manthe promise of Swaraj within one place = Indian nationalists new course
year as not only unwise but childishno Gandhi continued as unifying symbol, when
leader worth the name should impose demanded, stepped briefly onto political
impossible conditions This is the third stage but mainly focused on constructive
time I have received a rude shock when I work such as liberating the untouchables,
have been on the eve of embarking upon and women, promiting village industries,
mass civil disobedience. The first was in reforming education and sanitation etc
April 1919 (Amritsar Massacre, 1516 Congress kept aiming for Indian
casualties with 1650 bullets- official independence, but after reforms of 1935
figures. General Dyer. ), the second in which expanded the electorate and enhanced
November last (Bombay, Prince of Wales the role of elected provincial
visit), and now I am violently agitated by legislatures (so was some lee-way as
the events in the Gorakhpur District Gandhi had anticipated with the Delhi
(Chauri-Chaura)The civil disobedience of Pact) so its leaders turned to working
Bardoli can make no impression upon the within the system rather than as a
country when disobedience of a criminal separate entity outside of it. Parlayed
character goes on in other parts of the its popular influence into votes. World
country, both for the same ends. The whole War II ended this participation. Oct 1939
conception of civil disobedience is based Congress ordered the resignation of its
upon the assumption that it works in and provincial ministers, and moved once more
through its completely non-violent into outright opposition (war without
character. I may be a bad judge of human consulting any Indian representatives and
nature to believe that such an atmosphere refused to meet nationalist demands as a
can ever be brought into a vast country reward for loyalty) 1942 Quit India
such as India, but that would be an resolution triggered a mostly spontaneous
argument for condemning my capacity for and violent popular rebellion, almost
sound judgement, not for continuing a 100,000 arrested and over 1000 killed.
movement which is in that case bound to be Outside India, Subhas Chandra Bose raised
unsuccessful. I personally can never be the INA (Indian National Army) and fought
party to a movement hald violent and half the British alongside the Japanese For the
non-violent, even though it may result in British, during the war the police had
the attainment of so-called swaraj, for it slipped badly in discipline and loyalty
will not be real swaraj as I have and reliability of Indian soldiers also in
conceived it (Gandhi in a letter to doubt. INA hailed as heroes. British
members of Congress Working Committee, post-war economy probs couldnt cope with
Bardoli, 8 February 1922) Chaura Chauri any new repression exerted in India Labour
1922 final straw Means and ends- ends do Party 1945, time ripe for change Any
not justify the means. Satyagraha way of political statement by now had to win
life, a faith, spiritual, not to be picked consent of not just Congress, but also the
up and dropped whenever you want Got to Muslim League- now question not of
win the opponent over, talk, they are not communal relationships in independent
our enemies and can be persuaded. India but rather possible creation of
Terrorism will only justify their separatist state (Gandhi didnt want this)
repression moral and spiritual high Sikhs threatened by this, homeland of the
ground essential great optimism in Punjab seemed likely to be partitioned
others Will only achieve their goals if between two states. 1946-7 violence.
can prove that India is capable of Gandhi fasts. Students march- 5000 Muslims
self-government, and resorting to violence alongside 5000 Hindus- not tension
proves the opposite Truth is God Had to everywhere India seemingly crumbling,
be whole nations effort and half of India Britain want to opt out The opposition
is too weak to offer a violent resistance that had schooled Indian leaders in the
(Gandhi to Viceroy, 1 August 1920) unity political skills crucial in operating a
Democracy Versus Mobocracy My greatest viable democracy. Free and democratic
anxiety about non-co-operation is not the (despite split and loss of Gandhis dream
slow response of the leadersBut the of unity- ultimately had to decide whether
greatest obstacle is that we have not yet wanted unity or independence).
emerged from the mobocratic stage (not 22Conclusion. Media. Very charismatic
ready for the challenge) Total and influential man but flaws to such
non-violence not easy and difficult to leadership too much responsibility,
hold all the movements together. Felt miracle stuff so ppl dont understand
sense of responsibility- fasted for five Congress worked well but even this had its
days to absolve himself as what he own problems- nothing runs smoothly Imposs
perceived as his role in the attacks> to have no violence Did achieve some goals
felt he had been too hasty in encouraging but success not as quickly as Gandhi and
a revolt against the British Raj, whilst the population had hoped Many improvements
not emphasizing enough the importance of made though, even if not obvious eg
ahimsa (nonviolence) and not training the changes to Congress played big role for
resisters enough. He had warned repeatedly future of Indian politics Good group of
that he was prepared to lead only a committed Congressmen Did pretty well to
strictly non-violent campaign, and that harness the nation Despite flaws, everyone
its aim was not class struggle or social makes mistakes Comparative advancements
revolution. Once Gandhi called the being made compared to violence First real
movement off, it collapsed, showing how indication of mass movement and people
indispensable he had become. The British power on a grand scale, and the influence
had dared not touch Gandhi while the one man can have If you want to know where
movement continued. Once it collapsed they the quotations came from or anything else,
arrested him (in March), tried him in just email me (see list in handbook).
Nationalism in India 1920-1947.ppt

Nationalism in India 1920-1947

Nationalism in India 1920-1947

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