Английская грамматика
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5.3 Associations and Multiplicity
5.3 Associations and Multiplicity
Labelling associations
Labelling associations
Analyzing and validating associations
Analyzing and validating associations
Analyzing and validating associations
Analyzing and validating associations
A more complex example
A more complex example
Association classes
Association classes
Association classes
Association classes
Reflexive associations
Reflexive associations
Directionality in associations
Directionality in associations
5.4 Generalization
5.4 Generalization
Avoiding unnecessary generalizations
Avoiding unnecessary generalizations
Avoiding unnecessary generalizations (cont)
Avoiding unnecessary generalizations (cont)
Handling multiple discriminators
Handling multiple discriminators
Handling multiple discriminators
Handling multiple discriminators
Avoiding having instances change class
Avoiding having instances change class
5.5 Object Diagrams
5.5 Object Diagrams
5.6 More Advanced Features: Aggregation
5.6 More Advanced Features: Aggregation
Aggregation hierarchy
Aggregation hierarchy
An example: constraints on Polygons
An example: constraints on Polygons
5.8 Detailed Example: A Class Diagram for Genealogy
5.8 Detailed Example: A Class Diagram for Genealogy
Genealogy example: Possible solutions
Genealogy example: Possible solutions
System domain model vs System model
System domain model vs System model
Actions versus associations
Actions versus associations
Actions versus associations
Actions versus associations
Tips about identifying and specifying valid attributes
Tips about identifying and specifying valid attributes
An example (attributes and associations)
An example (attributes and associations)
An example (generalization)
An example (generalization)
An example (responsibilities)
An example (responsibilities)
An example (class collaboration)
An example (class collaboration)
Class collaboration ‘b’
Class collaboration ‘b’
Class collaboration ‘c’
Class collaboration ‘c’
Class collaboration ‘d’
Class collaboration ‘d’
Class collaboration ‘e’
Class collaboration ‘e’
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Object-Oriented Software Engineering Practical Software Development using UML and Java

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1Object-Oriented Software Engineering 39System domain model vs System model.
Practical Software Development using UML Chapter 5: Modelling with classes. 39. ©
and Java. Chapter 5: Modelling with Lethbridge/Lagani?re 2005.
Classes. 40System domain model vs System model.
25.1 What is UML? The Unified Modelling The system domain model omits many classes
Language is a standard graphical language that are needed to build a complete system
for modelling object oriented software At Can contain less than half the classes of
the end of the 1980s and the beginning of the system. Should be developed to be used
1990s, the first object-oriented independently of particular sets of user
development processes appeared The interface classes architectural classes
proliferation of methods and notations The complete system model includes The
tended to cause considerable confusion Two system domain model User interface classes
important methodologists Rumbaugh and Architectural classes Utility classes.
Booch decided to merge their approaches in Chapter 5: Modelling with classes. 40. ©
1994. They worked together at the Rational Lethbridge/Lagani?re 2005.
Software Corporation In 1995, another 41Suggested sequence of activities.
methodologist, Jacobson, joined the team Identify a first set of candidate classes
His work focused on use cases In 1997 the Add associations and attributes Find
Object Management Group (OMG) started the generalizations List the main
process of UML standardization. Chapter 5: responsibilities of each class Decide on
Modelling with classes. 2. © specific operations Iterate over the
Lethbridge/Lagani?re 2005. entire process until the model is
3UML diagrams. Class diagrams describe satisfactory Add or delete classes,
classes and their relationships associations, attributes, generalizations,
Interaction diagrams show the behaviour of responsibilities or operations Identify
systems in terms of how objects interact interfaces Apply design patterns (Chapter
with each other State diagrams and 6) Don’t be too disorganized. Don’t be too
activity diagrams show how systems behave rigid either. Chapter 5: Modelling with
internally Component and deployment classes. 41. © Lethbridge/Lagani?re 2005.
diagrams show how the various components 42Identifying classes. When developing a
of systems are arranged logically and domain model you tend to discover classes
physically. Chapter 5: Modelling with When you work on the user interface or the
classes. 3. © Lethbridge/Lagani?re 2005. system architecture, you tend to invent
4UML features. It has detailed classes Needed to solve a particular
semantics It has extension mechanisms It design problem (Inventing may also occur
has an associated textual language Object when creating a domain model) Reuse should
Constraint Language (OCL) The objective of always be a concern Frameworks System
UML is to assist in software development extensions Similar systems. Chapter 5:
It is not a methodology. Chapter 5: Modelling with classes. 42. ©
Modelling with classes. 4. © Lethbridge/Lagani?re 2005.
Lethbridge/Lagani?re 2005. 43A simple technique for discovering
5What constitutes a good model? A model domain classes. Look at a source material
should use a standard notation be such as a description of requirements
understandable by clients and users lead Extract the nouns and noun phrases
software engineers to have insights about Eliminate nouns that: are redundant
the system provide abstraction Models are represent instances are vague or highly
used: to help create designs to permit general not needed in the application Pay
analysis and review of those designs. as attention to classes in a domain model
the core documentation describing the that represent types of users or other
system. Chapter 5: Modelling with classes. actors. Chapter 5: Modelling with classes.
5. © Lethbridge/Lagani?re 2005. 43. © Lethbridge/Lagani?re 2005.
65.2 Essentials of UML Class Diagrams. 44Identifying associations and
The main symbols shown on class diagrams attributes. Start with classes you think
are: Classes represent the types of data are most central and important Decide on
themselves Associations represent linkages the clear and obvious data it must contain
between instances of classes Attributes and its relationships to other classes.
are simple data found in classes and their Work outwards towards the classes that are
instances Operations represent the less important. Avoid adding many
functions performed by the classes and associations and attributes to a class A
their instances Generalizations group system is simpler if it manipulates less
classes into inheritance hierarchies. information. Chapter 5: Modelling with
Chapter 5: Modelling with classes. 6. © classes. 44. © Lethbridge/Lagani?re 2005.
Lethbridge/Lagani?re 2005. 45Tips about identifying and specifying
7Classes. A class is simply represented valid associations. An association should
as a box with the name of the class inside exist if a class possesses controls is
The diagram may also show the attributes connected to is related to is a part of
and operations The complete signature of has as parts is a member of, or has as
an operation is: members some other class in your model
operationName(parameterName: parameterType Specify the multiplicity at both ends
…): returnType. Chapter 5: Modelling with Label it clearly. Chapter 5: Modelling
classes. 7. © Lethbridge/Lagani?re 2005. with classes. 45. © Lethbridge/Lagani?re
85.3 Associations and Multiplicity. An 2005.
association is used to show how two 46Actions versus associations. A common
classes are related to each other Symbols mistake is to represent actions as if they
indicating multiplicity are shown at each were associations. Better: The. operation
end of the association. Chapter 5: creates a. , and. borrow. Loan. Bad, due
Modelling with classes. 8. © to the use of associations. the. operation
Lethbridge/Lagani?re 2005. sets the. return. returnedDate. that are
9Labelling associations. Each actions. attribute. Chapter 5: Modelling
association can be labelled, to make with classes. 46. © Lethbridge/Lagani?re
explicit the nature of the association. 2005.
Chapter 5: Modelling with classes. 9. © 47Identifying attributes. Look for
Lethbridge/Lagani?re 2005. information that must be maintained about
10Analyzing and validating associations. each class Several nouns rejected as
Many-to-one A company has many employees, classes, may now become attributes An
An employee can only work for one company. attribute should generally contain a
This company will not store data about the simple value E.g. string, number. Chapter
moonlighting activities of employees! A 5: Modelling with classes. 47. ©
company can have zero employees E.g. a Lethbridge/Lagani?re 2005.
‘shell’ company It is not possible to be 48Tips about identifying and specifying
an employee unless you work for a company. valid attributes. It is not good to have
Employee. Company. Chapter 5: Modelling many duplicate attributes If a subset of a
with classes. 10. 1. *. worksFor. © class’s attributes form a coherent group,
Lethbridge/Lagani?re 2005. then create a distinct class containing
11Analyzing and validating associations. these attributes. Chapter 5: Modelling
Many-to-many An assistant can work for with classes. 48. © Lethbridge/Lagani?re
many managers A manager can have many 2005.
assistants Assistants can work in pools 49An example (attributes and
Managers can have a group of assistants associations). Chapter 5: Modelling with
Some managers might have zero assistants. classes. 49. © Lethbridge/Lagani?re 2005.
Is it possible for an assistant to have, 50Identifying generalizations and
perhaps temporarily, zero managers? Open interfaces. There are two ways to identify
in Umple. Chapter 5: Modelling with generalizations: bottom-up Group together
classes. 11. © Lethbridge/Lagani?re 2005. similar classes creating a new superclass
12Analyzing and validating associations. top-down Look for more general classes
One-to-one For each company, there is first, specialize them if needed Create an
exactly one board of directors A board is interface, instead of a superclass if The
the board of only one company A company classes are very dissimilar except for
must always have a board A board must having a few operations in common One or
always be of some company. Open in Umple. more of the classes already have their own
Chapter 5: Modelling with classes. 12. © superclasses Different implementations of
Lethbridge/Lagani?re 2005. the same class might be available. Chapter
13Analyzing and validating associations. 5: Modelling with classes. 50. ©
Avoid unnecessary one-to-one associations Lethbridge/Lagani?re 2005.
Avoid this do this. Chapter 5: Modelling 51An example (generalization). Chapter
with classes. 13. © Lethbridge/Lagani?re 5: Modelling with classes. 51. ©
2005. Lethbridge/Lagani?re 2005.
14A more complex example. A booking is 52Allocating responsibilities to
always for exactly one passenger no classes. A responsibility is something
booking with zero passengers a booking that the system is required to do. Each
could never involve more than one functional requirement must be attributed
passenger. A Passenger can have any number to one of the classes All the
of Bookings a passenger could have no responsibilities of a given class should
bookings at all a passenger could have be clearly related. If a class has too
more than one booking The frame around many responsibilities, consider splitting
this diagram is an optional feature that it into distinct classes If a class has no
any UML 2.0 may possess. Chapter 5: responsibilities attached to it, then it
Modelling with classes. 14. © is probably useless When a responsibility
Lethbridge/Lagani?re 2005. cannot be attributed to any of the
15Association classes. Sometimes, an existing classes, then a new class should
attribute that concerns two associated be created To determine responsibilities
classes cannot be placed in either of the Perform use case analysis Look for verbs
classes The following are equivalent. Open and nouns describing actions in the system
in Umple and extended example. Chapter 5: description. Chapter 5: Modelling with
Modelling with classes. 15. © classes. 52. © Lethbridge/Lagani?re 2005.
Lethbridge/Lagani?re 2005. 53Categories of responsibilities.
16Reflexive associations. It is possible Setting and getting the values of
for an association to connect a class to attributes Creating and initializing new
itself. Open in Umple. Chapter 5: instances Loading to and saving from
Modelling with classes. 16. © persistent storage Destroying instances
Lethbridge/Lagani?re 2005. Adding and deleting links of associations
17Directionality in associations. Copying, converting, transforming,
Associations are by default bi-directional transmitting or outputting Computing
It is possible to limit the direction of numerical results Navigating and searching
an association by adding an arrow at one Other specialized work. Chapter 5:
end. Open in Umple. Chapter 5: Modelling Modelling with classes. 53. ©
with classes. 17. © Lethbridge/Lagani?re Lethbridge/Lagani?re 2005.
2005. 54An example (responsibilities).
185.4 Generalization. Specializing a Creating a new regular flight Searching
superclass into two or more subclasses A for a flight Modifying attributes of a
generalization set is a labeled group of flight Creating a specific flight Booking
generalizations with a common superclass a passenger Canceling a booking. Chapter
The label (sometimes called the 5: Modelling with classes. 54. ©
discriminator) describes the criteria used Lethbridge/Lagani?re 2005.
in the specialization. Chapter 5: 55Prototyping a class diagram on paper.
Modelling with classes. 18. © As you identify classes, you write their
Lethbridge/Lagani?re 2005. names on small cards As you identify
19Avoiding unnecessary generalizations. attributes and responsibilities, you list
Inappropriate hierarchy of classes, which them on the cards If you cannot fit all
should be instances. Chapter 5: Modelling the responsibilities on one card: this
with classes. 19. © Lethbridge/Lagani?re suggests you should split the class into
2005. two related classes. Move the cards around
20Avoiding unnecessary generalizations on a whiteboard to arrange them into a
(cont). Improved class diagram, with its class diagram. Draw lines among the cards
corresponding instance diagram. Open in to represent associations and
Umple. Chapter 5: Modelling with classes. generalizations. Chapter 5: Modelling with
20. © Lethbridge/Lagani?re 2005. classes. 55. © Lethbridge/Lagani?re 2005.
21Handling multiple discriminators. 56Identifying operations. Operations are
Creating higher-level generalization. needed to realize the responsibilities of
Chapter 5: Modelling with classes. 21. © each class There may be several operations
Lethbridge/Lagani?re 2005. per responsibility The main operations
22Handling multiple discriminators. that implement a responsibility are
Using multiple inheritance Using the normally declared public Other methods
Player-Role pattern (in Chapter 6). that collaborate to perform the
Chapter 5: Modelling with classes. 22. © responsibility must be as private as
Lethbridge/Lagani?re 2005. possible. Chapter 5: Modelling with
23Avoiding having instances change classes. 56. © Lethbridge/Lagani?re 2005.
class. An instance should never need to 57An example (class collaboration).
change class. Chapter 5: Modelling with Chapter 5: Modelling with classes. 57. ©
classes. 23. © Lethbridge/Lagani?re 2005. Lethbridge/Lagani?re 2005.
245.5 Object Diagrams. A link is an 58Class collaboration ‘a’. Making a
instance of an association In the same way bi-directional link between two existing
that we say an object is an instance of a objects; e.g. adding a link between an
class. Chapter 5: Modelling with classes. instance of SpecificFlight and an instance
24. © Lethbridge/Lagani?re 2005. of Airplane. 1. (public) The instance of
25Associations versus generalizations in SpecificFlight makes a one-directional
object diagrams. Associations describe the link to the instance of Airplane then
relationships that will exist between calls operation 2. 2. (non-public) The
instances at run time. When you show an instance of Airplane makes a
instance diagram generated from a class one-directional link back to the instance
diagram, there will be an instance of both of SpecificFlight. Chapter 5: Modelling
classes joined by an association with classes. 58. SpecificFlight.
Generalizations describe relationships Airplane. 0..1. *. © Lethbridge/Lagani?re
between classes in class diagrams. They do 2005.
not appear in instance diagrams at all. An 59Class collaboration ‘b’. Creating an
instance of any class should also be object and linking it to an existing
considered to be an instance of each of object e.g. creating a FlightLog, and
that class’s superclasses. Chapter 5: linking it to a SpecificFlight. 1.
Modelling with classes. 25. © (public) The instance of SpecificFlight
Lethbridge/Lagani?re 2005. calls the constructor of FlightLog
265.6 More Advanced Features: (operation 2) then makes a one-directional
Aggregation. Aggregations are special link to the new instance of FlightLog. 2.
associations that represent ‘part-whole’ (non-public) Class FlightLog’s constructor
relationships. The ‘whole’ side is often makes a one-directional link back to the
called the assembly or the aggregate This instance of SpecificFlight. Chapter 5:
symbol is a shorthand notation association Modelling with classes. 59. 1. ©
named isPartOf. Chapter 5: Modelling with Lethbridge/Lagani?re 2005.
classes. 26. © Lethbridge/Lagani?re 2005. 60Class collaboration ‘c’. Creating an
27When to use an aggregation. As a association class, given two existing
general rule, you can mark an association objects e.g. creating an instance of
as an aggregation if the following are Booking, which will link a SpecificFlight
true: You can state that the parts ‘are to a PassengerRole. 1. (public) The
part of’ the aggregate or the aggregate instance of PassengerRole calls the
‘is composed of’ the parts When something constructor of Booking (operation 2). 2.
owns or controls the aggregate, then they (non-public) Class Booking’s constructor,
also own or control the parts. Chapter 5: among its other actions makes a
Modelling with classes. 27. © one-directional link back to the instance
Lethbridge/Lagani?re 2005. of PassengerRole makes a one-directional
28Composition. A composition is a strong link to the instance of SpecificFlight
kind of aggregation if the aggregate is calls operations 3 and 4. 3. (non-public)
destroyed, then the parts are destroyed as The instance of SpecificFlight makes a
well Two alternatives for addresses. one-directional link to the instance of
Chapter 5: Modelling with classes. 28. © Booking. 4. (non-public) The instance of
Lethbridge/Lagani?re 2005. PassengerRole makes a one-directional link
29Aggregation hierarchy. Chapter 5: to the instance of Booking. Chapter 5:
Modelling with classes. 29. © Modelling with classes. 60. 1. 1. ©
Lethbridge/Lagani?re 2005. Lethbridge/Lagani?re 2005.
30Propagation. A mechanism where an 61Class collaboration ‘d’. Changing the
operation in an aggregate is implemented destination of a link e.g. changing the
by having the aggregate perform that Airplane of to a SpecificFlight, from
operation on its parts At the same time, airplane1 to airplane2 1. (public) The
properties of the parts are often instance of SpecificFlight deletes the
propagated back to the aggregate link to airplane1 makes a one-directional
Propagation is to aggregation as link to airplane2 calls operation 2 then
inheritance is to generalization. The calls operation 3. 2. (non-public)
major difference is: inheritance is an airplane1 deletes its one-directional link
implicit mechanism propagation has to be to the instance of SpecificFlight. 3.
programmed when required. Chapter 5: (non-public) airplane2 makes a
Modelling with classes. 30. © one-directional link to the instance of
Lethbridge/Lagani?re 2005. SpecificFlight. Chapter 5: Modelling with
31Interfaces. An interface describes a classes. 61. © Lethbridge/Lagani?re 2005.
portion of the visible behaviour of a set 62Class collaboration ‘e’. Searching for
of objects. An interface is similar to a an associated instance e.g. searching for
class, except it lacks instance variables a crew member associated with a
and implemented methods. Chapter 5: SpecificFlight that has a certain name. 1.
Modelling with classes. 31. © (public) The instance of SpecificFlight
Lethbridge/Lagani?re 2005. creates an Iterator over all the
32Notes and descriptive text. crewMember links of the SpecificFlight\
Descriptive text and other diagrams Embed for each of them call operation 2, until
your diagrams in a larger document Text it finds a match. 2. (may be public) The
can explain aspects of the system using instance of EmployeeRole returns its name.
any notation you like Highlight and expand Chapter 5: Modelling with classes. 62. ©
on important features, and give rationale Lethbridge/Lagani?re 2005.
Notes: A note is a small block of text 635.10 Implementing Class Diagrams in
embedded in a UML diagram It acts like a Java. Attributes are implemented as
comment in a programming language. Chapter instance variables Generalizations are
5: Modelling with classes. 32. © implemented using extends Interfaces are
Lethbridge/Lagani?re 2005. implemented using implements Associations
335.7 Object Constraint Language (OCL). are normally implemented using instance
OCL is a specification language designed variables Divide each two-way association
to formally specify constraints in into two one-way associations so each
software modules An OCL expression simply associated class has an instance variable.
specifies a logical fact (a constraint) For a one-way association where the
about the system that must remain true A multiplicity at the other end is ‘one’ or
constraint cannot have any side-effects it ‘optional’ declare a variable of that
cannot compute a non-Boolean result nor class (a reference) For a one-way
modify any data. OCL statements in class association where the multiplicity at the
diagrams can specify what the values of other end is ‘many’: use a collection
attributes and associations must be. class implementing List, such as Vector.
Chapter 5: Modelling with classes. 33. © Chapter 5: Modelling with classes. 63. ©
Lethbridge/Lagani?re 2005. Lethbridge/Lagani?re 2005.
34OCL statements. OCL statements can be 64Example: SpecificFlight. class
built from: References to role names, SpecificFlight { private Calendar date;
association names, attributes and the private RegularFlight regularFlight; ...
results of operations The logical values // Constructor that should only be called
true and false Logical operators such as from // addSpecificFlight SpecificFlight(
and, or, =, >, < or <> (not Calendar aDate, RegularFlight
equals) String values such as: ‘a string’ aRegularFlight) { date = aDate;
Integers and real numbers Arithmetic regularFlight = aRegularFlight; } }.
operations *, /, +, -. Chapter 5: Chapter 5: Modelling with classes. 64. ©
Modelling with classes. 34. © Lethbridge/Lagani?re 2005.
Lethbridge/Lagani?re 2005. 65Example: RegularFlight. class
35An example: constraints on Polygons. RegularFlight { private List
Chapter 5: Modelling with classes. 35. © specificFlights; ... // Method that has
Lethbridge/Lagani?re 2005. primary responsibility public void
365.8 Detailed Example: A Class Diagram addSpecificFlight(Calendar aDate) {
for Genealogy. Problems A person must have SpecificFlight newSpecificFlight;
two parents Marriages not properly newSpecificFlight = new
accounted for. Chapter 5: Modelling with SpecificFlight(aDate, this);
classes. 36. © Lethbridge/Lagani?re 2005. specificFlights.add(newSpecificFlight); }
37Genealogy example: Possible solutions. ... }. Chapter 5: Modelling with classes.
Open in Umple. Chapter 5: Modelling with 65. © Lethbridge/Lagani?re 2005.
classes. 37. © Lethbridge/Lagani?re 2005. 665.11 Difficulties and Risks when
385.9 The Process of Developing Class creating class diagrams. Modeling is
Diagrams. You can create UML models at particularly difficult skill Even
different stages and with different excellent programmers have difficulty
purposes and levels of details Exploratory thinking at the appropriate level of
domain model: Developed in domain analysis abstraction Education traditionally focus
to learn about the domain System domain more on design and programming than
model: Models aspects of the domain modeling Resolution: Ensure that tem
represented by the system System model: members have adequate training Have
Includes also classes used to build the experienced modeler as part of the team
user interface and system architecture. Review all models thoroughly. Chapter 5:
Chapter 5: Modelling with classes. 38. © Modelling with classes. 66. ©
Lethbridge/Lagani?re 2005. Lethbridge/Lagani?re 2005.
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