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NORTHERN, MIDLAND & SOUTHERN EXPANSION WESTWARD (Shuy 294)
NORTHERN, MIDLAND & SOUTHERN EXPANSION WESTWARD (Shuy 294)
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1PRAGMATICS See also “African American 30[grizi] with [wI?] spoon (noon) [spjun]
English” “Ethnicity” “Indian- American creek [krIk] roof [rUf] However, wash with
Humor” “Jewish Humor” and an intrusive [r] is not so much regional
“Spanish-American Contrasts”. by Don L. F. as rural. 51. 30.
Nilsen and Alleen Pace Nilsen. 51. 1. 31PHONOLOGICAL DISTINCTIONS THAT ARE
251. 2. BECOMING LOST. cot-caught witch-which
3It was on this date that Donati’s mourning – morning However, pin-pen is
comet was visible over large parts of remaining stable. 51. 31.
Southern England. The comet is barely 32BRITISH-AMERICAN PRONUNCIATION
visible in the picture. The people in the DIFFERENCES. calf, bath, pass, aunt learn,
picture are not looking at the comet. They fork, core, brother carry, very either,
are gathering shells, talking to each neither, potato, tomato clerk, schedule
other, or doing other unrelated things. captain, bottle (glottals [in Cockney])
Mey says that the comet is like (Fromkin Rodman Hyams [2007] 454). 51. 32.
“pragmatics,” which happens mostly beneath 33BRITISH-AMERICAN STRESS DIFFERENCES.
people’s levels of awareness. (Mey aluminum applicable cigarette dictionary
329-330). 51. 3. formidable kilometer laboratory necessary
4Pragmatics is the study of language in missionary secretary stationery territory
its social context. It assumes that words (Fromkin Rodman Hyams [2007] 413). 51. 33.
have different meanings in different 34CALIFORNIA VALLEY-GIRL AND SURFER-DUDE
contexts. For example, what is the meaning SPEECH. Rising Inflections (like
of “club,” “spade,” “diamond,” and Australian English) Animated Body Language
“heart”? Or what is the meaning of “King,” (like sticking a finger down the throat)
“Queen,” “Jack,” “Ace,” or “ten”? 51. 4. Specialized Vocabulary (like “dude”, esp.
551. 5. relating to shopping malls, the beach, and
6You might say that all of these words personality types). 51. 34.
have different meanings in the social 35CANADIAN PHONOLOGY. out and about the
context of “playing cards,” but that’s not house schedule Canadian -eh. 51. 35.
the whole story. In Pinochle there are 36NEW ENGLAND PHONOLOGY. lot (New
expressions like “100 Aces,” “80 Kings,” England) park the car; Cuba-r-is merry –
“60 Queens,” “40 Jacks,” and “Jack of marry – Mary calf (pass, path, dance)
Diamonds and Queen of Spades” that have Brooklyn: dis, dat, dese, dose, dem. 51.
special significance. And in Pinochle 36.
there is no “two,” “three,” “four,” 37SOUTHERN PHONOLOGY. Mrs. [mIz] hog
“five,” “six,” “seven,” “eight,” or (frog, dog, Deputy Dog) south => souf
“nine.”. 51. 6. during => doin’, and going => gon,
7Consider also the word “bridge.” If help => hep test => tes ring =>
you’re playing cards, this word has a rang, boy => boah, car => cah POlice
different meaning than if you’re a dentist nasal twang (Texas and Oklahoma) southern
or a road builder. In cards, the “bridge” drawl (Fromkin Rodman Hyams [2007] 423).
is the partner of the person who wins the 51. 37.
bid. The bid winner plays both his hand 38GRAMMAR DIFFERENCES. Double Modals:
and the hand of the “bridge.” And in might could Negative Modals: hadn’t ought
“Bridge,” there are special meanings of Strange Past Participles: larnt Strange
“to bid,” “to trump,” “to pass,” and “to Possessive Pronouns: yourn, hisn, hern,
finesse.” And “seven” means “seven”; and ourn, theirn Strange Prepositions: a
there is no “eleven,” but in Dice, “seven” quarter before eight Strange Conjunctions:
and “eleven” are “craps,” which means you unless => without, lessen, thouten
win on the first throw but lose on all Strange Adverbs: anywheres, nowheres
subsequent throws with these numbers. 51. (Fromkin Rodman Hyams 416-417). 51. 38.
7. 39VOCABULARY DIFFERENCES. What do you
8And in Poker, things get really wild. fry your eggs in? creeper, fryer, frying
The “Joker” is always wild; but One-Eyed pan, fry pan, skillet, or spider What do
Jacks might be wild or not. And there is a you call a soft drink? pop, soda, soda
“raw deal,” and a “big deal,” and the “New pop, or tonic? What do you call a long
Deal,” in politics. And there are sandwich containing salami etc.? hero,
“straights,” “flushes,” and “full houses;” submarine, hoagy, grinder or poorboy. 51.
and there is “Stud Poker,” “Draw Poker,” 39.
“Texas Hold ‘Em,” and “Strip Poker.” And a 40What do you drink water out of?
person can “ante up,” into the “kitty,” be drinking fountain, cooler, bubbler or
“in” or “out,” and can “hold,” “fold” or geyser How do you get something from one
“raise.”. 51. 8. place to another? take, carry, or tote
9And in “21 Poker,” an Ace can count as What do you carry things in? a bag, a
either “one” or “eleven,” and all face sack, or a poke How do you speculate?
cards count as “ten.” And in “Hearts,” the reckon, guess, figgure, figger, suspect,
hearts count one point, and the Queen of imagine (Fromkin Rodman Hyams [2007] 414).
Spades counts 27 points. And you want to 51. 40.
get as few points as possible. Unless you 41BRITISH-AMERICAN VOCABULARY
think you can get all of the points. Only DIFFERENCES. bird, bobby, bonnet, boot,
for Alice in Wonderland could it be more braces, clothes peg, first floor, flat,
complicated. 51. 9. lift, lorry, nickers, peruque, petrol,
10DIALECTS OF FORMALITY. Frozen: Prissy pram, pub, public school, queue, spanner,
Text Book Formal: Most Text Books tele, torch, trousers, tube, westcoat
Consultative: Conversations among girl, cop, hood (of a car), trunk (of a
Strangers or Large Groups Casual: car), suspenders, clothes pin, second
Conversations among Close Friends floor, apartment, elevator, truck,
Intimate: Conversations among Family underwear, wig, gasoline, baby buggy, bar,
Members or Lovers Martin Joos The Five private school, line, monkey wrench,
Clocks: 51. 10. television, flashlight, pants, subway,
11DISAMBIGUATION. Explain how context vest (Fromkin Rodman Hyams [2007] 414,
could help to disambiguate the following: 456). 51. 41.
He waited by the bank. Is he really that 42SOUTHERN VOCABULARY. chitlins and
kind? The proprietor of the fish store was grits to buy a pig in a poke “Carry me
the sole owner. The long drill was boring. Back to Old Virginie”. 51. 42.
When he got the clear title to the land, 43BRITISH-AMERICAN SPELLING DIFFERENCES.
it was a good deed. 51. 11. Cheque centre, theatre colour, honour
12It takes a good ruler to make a defence, offence labelled, travelled
straight line. He saw that gasoline can Pyjamas tyre. 51. 43.
explode. You should see her shop. Every 44BRITISH EXPRESSIONS TO WATCH OUT FOR.
man loves a woman. Bill wants to marry a fag or faggot (wood for the fireplace, or
Norwegian woman. 51. 12. cigarette) soliciter (lawyer) to knock
13OBSCENITIES. Obscenities are based on someone up (wake them up in the morning).
taboos, and taboos are culturally 51. 44.
determined and change through time. The 45COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG. apples and
religious right is offended by words pears (stairs) Aristotle (bottle) pig’s
relating to certain body parts and ear (beer) Mother Hubbard (cupboard)
functions, or other vulgarities, plates and dishes (Mrs.). 51. 45.
obscenities, profanities, swearing, etc. 46ETHNIC HUMOR TO INVESTIGATE
The liberal left is offended by words STEREOTYPES. 51. 46.
degrading to particular genders, 47HEAVEN AND HELL. In Heaven, all the
ethnicities, disabilities, etc. 51. 13. cooks are French; all the mechanics are
14Something obscene in one culture is German; all the musicians are Italian. In
not obscene in a different culture. Hell, all the cooks are English; all the
Consider the following: derriere fag or mechanics are French; all the soldiers are
faggot Grand Tetons Mountain Range Italian. 51. 47.
solicitor to knock someone up NOTE: 48BRITISH DIALECT ETHNICITY. A guy wakes
Refined foreign students discussing up, finds himself in a British hospital,
American slang often don’t realize the and says, “Did I come here to die?” The
power of American obscenities. 51. 14. Cokney nurse responds, “No, I think it was
15The name Voldemort is taboo and is not yesterdie.”. 51. 48.
to be uttered by anyone at Hogwarts 49BRONX DIALECT ETHNICITY. In a New York
Academy. The words corset, shirt, leg, and City Park one guy turns to another guy and
woman used to be taboo words in English. says, “Look at de boids.” The other guy
In Shaw’s Pygmalion, Professor Higgins says, “Those aren’t ‘boids.’ They’re
asked, “Are you walking across the Park, ‘birds.’” The first guy says, “Cheez,
Miss Doolittle?” and Eliza Doolittle dat’s funny, dey choip like boids.”. 51.
responded, “Walk! Not bloody likely. I am 49.
going in a taxi.” This use of bloody 50LIGHTBULB JOKES TO INVESTIGATE
startled London when the play was first STEREOTYPES. How many New Yorkers? Three:
produced in 1910. (Fromkin Rodman Hyams One to do it and two to criticize. How
[2007] 443). 51. 15. many grad students? Three: Two, plus a
16FOUR-LETTER WORDS. English has many professor to take the credit How many
Anglo-Saxon or four letter words; however Jewish mothers? None: I’ll just sit in the
for each of these it is possible to find a dark. (Nilsen & Nilsen 176). 51. 50.
Latinate paraphrase that is more polite. 51!SOUTHERN ETHNICITY. “A radio comedian
Think without speaking of the four-letter once remarked that ‘the Mason-Dixon line
words associated with each of the is the dividing line between you-all and
following: 51. 16. youse-guys.” (Fromkin Rodman Hyams [2007]
17Defecate Eliminate Expectorate Feces 412). 51. 51.
Fornicate Intercourse Mammary gland Penis 52!!COMEDY TEAMS ARE ETHNICALLY OR
Vagina (Fromkin Rodman Hyams [2007] 244). GENDER DETERMINED. 43 out of the 500
51. 17. entries in Ronald L. Smith’s Who’s Who in
18ORIENTATION. Charles Fillmore says Comedy are about comedy teams. There are
that a three-dimensional box has six many reasons for this high number: Teams
sides. But if you put it on the floor, it are often more recognized and more
has four sides and a top and a bottom. And memorable than are the individuals who
if you place it against a wall, it has two make up the teams. 51. 52.
sides a top a bottom and a front and a 53!!!Good “chemistry” enhances
back. And if you put drawers in it, it has creativity and enjoyment. Through
a right side, a left side, a top, a interacting with each other, team members
bottom, a front and a back. And “right” can revitalize old gags. Differing
and “left” are your right and left as you appearances, personalities and voices
face it, not the dresser’s right and left provide for contrast and for the efficient
which is “facing” you. 51. 18. creation of stock characters. With teams,
19PIDGINS AND CREOLES. Pidgins and audiences can enjoy both surprise and
creoles tend to be quite metaphorical and anticipation because while teams do new
poetic. Here are some examples: Fella material they usually have a style that
belong Mrs. Queen = Prince Philip, Husband carries over from one performance to
of Queen Elizabeth II muckamuck = to eat, another. (Nilsen & Nilsen 82). 51. 53.
drink, or pucker the mouth him brother 54PRAGMATICS WEB SITE. BIBLIOGRAPHY OF
belong me = friend lamp belong Jesus = sun PRAGMATICS (JOHN BENJAMINS):
gubmint catchum-fella = policeman grass http://www.benjamins.com/online/bop/topbar
belong face = whiskers him belly allatime html. 51. 54.
burn = thirsty man him cow pig have 55References: Alvarez, Lizette Alvarez.
kittens = Has the Master’s sow given birth “It’s the Talk of Nueva York: The Hybrid
to a litter yet? (Fromkin Rodman Hyams called Spanglish” (Clark, 483-488). Apte,
[2007] 434-436). 51. 19. Mahadev L. Humor and Laughter: An
20Haitian Creole is a creole based on Anthropological Approach. Ithaca, NY:
French. Jamaican Creole is a creole based Cornell University Press, 1985. Boskin,
on English. Gullah is an English-based Joseph. Rebellious Laughter: People’s
creole spoken by descendants of African Humor in American Culture. Syracuse, NY:
slaves off the coasts of Georgia and South Syracuse University Press,1997. Brown,
Carolina. Louisiana Creole is spoken in Penelope, and Stephen C. Levinson.
Louisiana. Tok Pisin as a Melanesian Politeness: Some Universals in Language
Pidgin English spoken in Papua, New Usage. Cambridge, England: Cambridge
Guinea. (Fromkin Rodman Hyams [2007] 437). University Press, 1987. Clark, Virginia,
51. 20. Paul Eschholz, and Alfred Rosa. Language:
21PRECONDITIONS FOR SPEECH ACTS. Explain Readings in Language and Culture, 6th
how linguistic and social context help in Edition. New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press,
understanding the following sentences: You 1998. Davies, Christie. Jokes and Their
make a better door than a window. It’s Relation to Society. New York, NY: Mouton,
getting late. The restaurants are open 1998. 51. 55.
until midnight. If you’d diet, this 56Dolitsky, Marlene. “Humor and the
wouldn’t hurt so badly. I thought I saw a Unsaid.” Journal of Pragmatics 7 (1983):
fan in the closet. 51. 21. 39-48. Dundes, Alan. Cracking Jokes:
22Mr. Smith dresses neatly, is Studies of Sick Humor Cycles and
well-groomed, and is always on time to Stereotypes. Berkeley, CA: Ten Speed
class. Most of the food is gone. John or Press, 1987. Dundes, Alan, and Carl R.
Mary made a mistake. Did you make a Pagter. Never Try to Teach a Pig to Sing:
doctor’s appointment? Do you have the play Still More Urban Folklore from the
tickets? Does your grandmother have a Paperwork Empire. Detroit, MI: Wayne State
live-in boyfriend? How did you like the Univ Press, 1996. Dundes, Alan, and Carl
string quartet? What are Boston’s chances R. Pagter. Sometimes the Dragon Wins: Yet
of winning the World Series? 51. 22. More Urban Folklore from the Paperwork
23Do you own a cat? LAURA: Did you mow Empire. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse Univ Press,
the grass and wash the car like I told you 1996. Dundes, Alan, and Carl R. Pagter.
to? JACK: I mowed the grass. LAURA: Do you When You’re Up to Your Ass in Alligators…:
want dessert? JACK: Is the Pope Catholic? More Urban Folklore from the Paperwork
When did you stop paying alimony to your Empire. Detroit, MI: Wayne State Univ
ex-wife? (Fromkin Rodman Hyams [2007] Press, 1987. Dundes, Alan, and Carl R.
219). 51. 23. Pagter. Work Hard and You Shall be
24SLANG, JARGON AND ARGOT. Slang, Jargon Rewarded: Urban Folklore from the
and Argot are all gate-keeping languages Paperwork Empire. Bloomington, IN: Indiana
used as much to identify members of a Univ Press, 1975. 51. 56.
particular group as to communicate. Slang 57Eckert, Penelope. Constructing Meaning
is age related—mainly high school and in Sociolinguistic Variation. Paper
college students. Jargon is profession presented at the Annual Meeting of the
related—every profession has its own American Anthropological Associatin in New
jargon. Argot is underworld related—it’s Orleans, 2002. Eschholz, Paul, Alfred
designed to communicate to the group and Rosa, and Virginia Clark. Language
not to the authorities. (Fromkin Rodman Awareness: Readings for College Writers.
Hyams [2007] 439-442). 51. 24. New York, NY: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2009
25Carl Sandburg said, “Slang is language Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman, and Nina
which takes off its coat, spits on its Hyams. “Language and Society.” An
hands—and goes to work. SLANG EXAMPLES: Introduction to Language, 8th Edition.
spaced out, right on, to barf, to dis Boston, MA: Thomson Wadsworth, 2007; 9th
someone, rave (wild party), ecstasy Edition, 2011, 430-487. Goffman, Erving.
(drug), crib (home), posse (friends) Interaction Ritual: Essays on Face-to-Face
JARGON EXAMPLES: phoneme, morpheme, case, Bahavior. Garolen City, NY:
lexicojn, phrase structure rule ARGOT Anchor/Doubleday, 1967. Kotthoff, Helga.
EXAMPLES: “He was hoopty around dimday “Pragmatics of Performance and the
when some mud duck with a tray-eight tried Analysis of Conversational Humor.” HUMOR
to take him out of the box.” TRANSLATION: 19.3 (2006): 271-304. 51. 57.
“He was in his car about dusk when a woman 58Labov, William. Social Stratification
armed with a .38 caliber gun tried to kill of English in New York City. Washington,
him. (Fromkin Rodman Hyams [2007] DC: Center for Applied Linguistics, 1966.
439-441). 51. 25. Mey, Jacob. Pragmatics: An Introduction,
26Penelope Eckert said, “the use of 2nd Edition. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2001.
variation does not simply reflect, but Nilsen, Alleen Pace, and Don L. F. Nilsen.
constructs, social categories and social Encyclopedia of 20th Century American
meaning.” (Eckert 4). THE SOCIAL Humor. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2000.
CONSTRUCTION OF MEANING. 51. 26. Nilsen, Don L. F. Humor in Irish
27SOCIAL-VARIABILITY IN LINGUISTIC Literature. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1996.
RULES. Minimal Pairs Word Lists Reading 51. 58.
Style Careful Speech Casual Speech 59Raskin, Victor: “Introduction: The
(William Labov’s Categories). 51. 27. Pragmatics of Humor.” Journal of
28WEBSTER’S THIRD NEW INTERNATIONAL Pragmatics 35 (2003): 1287-1294. Raskin,
DICTIONARY. This dictionary, published in Victor. The Primer of Humor Research. New
1961, was the first major dictionary that York, NY: Mouton de Gruyter, 2008 Shuy,
obliterated the “older distinction between Roger. “Dialects: How They Differ” (Clark,
standard, substandard, colloquial, vulgar, 292-312). Yamaguchi, Haruhiko. “How to
and slang.” (Fromkin Rodman Hyams [2007] Pull Strings with Words: Deceptive
418) Is this a good thing or a bad thing? Violations in the Garden-Path Joke.”
Explain. 51. 28. Journal of Pragmatics 12 (1988): 323-337.
29NORTHERN, MIDLAND & SOUTHERN Yus, Francisco. “Humor and the Search for
EXPANSION WESTWARD (Shuy 294). 51. 29. Relevance.” Journal of Pragmatics 35
30PHONOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES. greasy (2003): 1295-1331. 51. 59.
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