Курсы английского
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Reading Strategies for English Language Learners
Reading Strategies for English Language Learners
Factors that Influence Learning to Read for English Language Learners
Factors that Influence Learning to Read for English Language Learners
Understanding Bilingual Students' Cognitive Reading Processes
Understanding Bilingual Students' Cognitive Reading Processes
Graphic Organizers (Current Practice Alerts; Ellis & Howard, 2007)
Graphic Organizers (Current Practice Alerts; Ellis & Howard, 2007)
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Reading Strategies for English Language Learners

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1Reading Strategies for English 27?Por que es importante ense?ar
Language Learners. Janette Klingner estrategias de comprensi?n? Las
University of Colorado at Boulder. estrategias de comprensi?n reflejan los
2Factors that Influence Learning to procesos o t?cticas mentales utilizados
Read for English Language Learners. por lectores de gran habilidad cuando
Learning context. Reading skills in L1 est?n activamente envueltos con el texto.
& L2. Teacher’s skills & La instrucci?n de las estrategias de
behaviors. Oral proficiency in L1 & comprensi?n est? basada en la premisa de
L2. Instructional practices. que a?n los estudiantes que tienen
3The Relationship b/w Oral Proficiency dificultades entendiendo el texto se les
and Second-Language Reading. L2 oral puede ense?ar con ?xito a aplicar las
proficiency and L2 reading are positively estrategias usadas por los lectores de
related, particularly at higher grade gran habilidad, y de que cuando los
levels—the best predictor of English lectores que tienen dificultades aprenden
reading in grades 3 through 5 may be L1 a aplicar est?s estrategias, su
reading ability, but in grades 6 through 8 comprensi?n de la lectura mejorar?. Las
the best predictor may be oral English estrategias de comprensi?n benefician a
proficiency. ELLs need some knowledge of todos los lectores, pero son esenciales
English before they can successfully draw para los estudiantes con problemas del
on L1 reading abilities when reading in aprendizaje.
English. There seems to be a reciprocal 28ACTIVITY.
relationship between oral proficiency and 29Swedes Win! Switzerland put one stone
reading achievement, with instruction in in the middle and piled guards in front of
L2 reading comprehension facilitating it before Swedish second Cathrine Lindahl
gains in L2 oral skills. took out two stones with one shot to get
4Factors that Influence Learning to the edge back. With her first stone, Swiss
Read for English Language Learners. skip Mirjam Ott curled her rock around a
Learning context. Reading skills in L1 guard, but it didn't get inside the
& L2. Teacher’s skills & Swedish rock that was sitting on the lip
behaviors. Oral proficiency in L1 & of the red 4-foot circle. Norberg cleared
L2. Instructional practices. one of the stones away from the front so
5Understanding Bilingual Students' she would have a clean shot at the target,
Cognitive Reading Processes. Concepts or house, if she needed it. If Norberg
learned in one’s first language transfer could convert with the hammer, the gold
to English when the appropriate English medal was theirs. They called timeout. The
vocabulary is learned. Native language crowd made some noise. And then it fell
literacy instruction promotes literacy in quiet again. Norberg pushed out of the
English. Common Underlying Language hack and let the rock slide. It bounced
Proficiency. first off one yellow-handled Swiss rock
6Differences b/w Second Language and then the other, clearing them out of
Readers and Native English Readers. the scoring zone. As it came to rest in
Translation, cognate awareness, and the white 8-foot circle - alone in the
information transfer across languages are house - the Swedes celebrated.
strategies unique to bilingual reading. 30Influence of Schema. Second language
Unknown vocabulary is an obstacle for readers better comprehend and remember
bilingual readers in a way that it is not passages that either are compatible with
for the monolingual reader. Good their native cultures or are considered
second-language readers focus much more on more familiar. When texts are inconsistent
word meaning than do good monolingual with the reader’s expectations,
readers. Cohesive signals (e.g., referents comprehension is negatively affected and
such as “them” or “it”) are more recall may be distorted. Activating
problematic for second language readers. background knowledge improves
7Differences b/w More and Less comprehension.
Proficient Second Language Readers. 31Prior Knowledge. Ask students to
Proficient bilingual readers differ from brainstorm what they already know about a
marginally proficient or struggling topic. Help students make connections
bilingual readers. They: actively transfer between new content and prior learning.
information across languages, translate Help students connect new learning with
from one language to another, access “real life” experiences outside of school.
cognates, use more schematic knowledge, Provide common experiences that build
use a greater variety of metacognitive and students prior knowledge. Teach using
cognitive strategies and use them more thematic units that help students build in
frequently, take more action on plans to depth knowledge about a topic. Use graphic
solve breakdowns in comprehension and organizers when introducing new topics—add
check their solutions more often, and make info as the unit progresses.
better and/or more inferences. 32Graphic Organizers (Current Practice
8Factors that Influence Learning to Alerts; Ellis & Howard, 2007).
Read for English Language Learners. 33Oral Language and ELLs. Optimal
Learning context. Reading skills in L1 programs for ELLs include a focus on oral
& L2. Teacher’s skills & English language development. ELLs benefit
behaviors. Oral proficiency in L1 & from frequent opportunities to engage in
L2. Instructional practices. structured, supported, academic talk. This
9Contexts for Literacy Instruction. We focus on oral language development
can close the achievement gap for includes not only vocabulary, but also
culturally and linguistically diverse common language structures. When students’
students by changing their learning oral language improves, so do their
contexts (Alvermann, 2005). Culturally and reading fluency and comprehension.
linguistically diverse students are more 34Motivation. Snow, Burns, and Griffin
likely to excel academically when: they (1998) emphasized the importance of
are provided access to high quality motivation in the precursor to the
teachers, programs, curricula, and National Reading Panel report, “Preventing
resources; they are taught with the most Reading Difficulties in Young Children,”
effective practices; and their culture, noting that “motivation is crucial.” To
language, heritage, and experiences are promote motivation, include: opportunities
valued and used to facilitate their for social interaction and collaborative
learning and development--every learner learning; choices about reading materials
“brings a valid language and culture to and tasks; independent reading activities
the instructional context.”. that are purposeful and a good reader-text
10Factors that Influence Learning to match; instruction that is at an
Read for English Language Learners. appropriate level and provides students
Learning context. Reading skills in L1 with many opportunites for success; and
& L2. Teacher’s skills & meaningful, interesting, engaging tasks
behaviors. Oral proficiency in L1 & that connect with outside-of-school
L2. Instructional practices. experiences.
11Teachers of ELL Students Need to Know: 35Examples. Note: All examples are from
Instructional strategies linked to real classrooms with English language
academic growth for culturally and learners, most at beginning levels of
linguistically diverse students The English proficiency. What would you do?
language acquisition process and the 36The class was learning about the five
unique needs of ELLs Assessment procedures senses....The teacher said, “The last
for monitoring progress, particularly in sense is the sense of touch. That means
language and literacy How to differentiate you feel.” The teacher directed students
instruction for students who do not seem to feel the floor with their elbows. “Can
to be responding. you feel it?” [Observer’s Comments: I
12Factors that Influence Learning to noted that kids couldn’t follow this,
Read for English Language Learners. didn’t understand what to do.] The teacher
Learning context. Reading skills in L1 yelled, “Some of you are being extremely
& L2. Teacher’s skills & rude. You are moving all around.” Then she
behaviors. Oral proficiency in L1 & asked more calmly, “So you did feel the
L2. Instructional practices. floor with your elbows, but do you
13Evidence-based Literacy Instruction normally feel with your elbow?” A few
for ELLs. Includes explicit instruction in students responded, “No.” The teacher
oral language, phonological awareness, the asked, “What am I using to pick this up?”
alphabetic code, fluency, vocabulary Next she yelled again, “You just finished
development, and reading comprehension. telling me you were listening, Ezekiel.
Builds on students’ prior knowledge, Were you lying to me? I’m only going to
interests, motivation, and home language. call on the people who are listening.”
Helps students make connections. Includes Then she asked, “What am I using?” A girl
frequent opportunities to practice reading said that she was using her hands and the
with a variety of materials in meaningful teacher responded, “Excellent.” Then she
contexts. Promotes engagement. said, “Jefferson, touch my leg.” “Go
14Phonological Awareness and ELLs. ahead…what are you going to use to touch
Phonological awareness transfers from L1 my leg?” Jefferson responded, “I use my
to L2. Instruction in phonological hand.” The teacher next snapped her
awareness benefits ELLs. Phonological fingers... She turned to a boy standing in
awareness (in English) can present special the corner (being disciplined), “I’m very
challenges to ELLs. Some phonemes may not unhappy with you. Turn around.” To
be present in the student’s native everyone else, she asked, “If I wanted to
language and, therefore, might be eat cake, what sense would I use?” … The
difficult to distinguish auditorily from teacher said, “My point is that you use
similar sounds. Sound placement in words your sense of taste to decide if you like
differs across languages. Phonological it.” She yelled, “Pay attention to me, not
tasks with unknown words are more his shoes! His shoes aren’t going to give
difficult. Teachers can help ELLs by you a grade. I will.” “If one more person
finding out which phonemes exist and do touches shoes, I’m going to throw it in
not exist in their native language and the garbage. It’s important to make sure
helping them hear new sounds. your shoes are tied, but not while I’m
15Alphabetic Principle, Decoding, and teaching.” (Harry & Klingner, 2006).
ELLs. The process of learning to read in 37Students are seated in a circle on the
English is faciltated when students are alphabet rug. Teacher asks them to stand
already literate in their L1 and the up, and says, “Let’s do the alphabet rap
orthographic systems of the two languages song.” Teacher begins to rap and makes
are similar; it is more challenging when motions with her hands to symbolize
they are not. Spanish and English share sound-letter correspondence. Sings
many similarities (e.g., the sounds A-Alley, B-Bubba, C-Catina, D-Deedee…
represented by the letters b, c, d, f, l, Students are trying to mimic the teacher,
m, n, p, q, s, and t). However, vowels however, they are falling behind.
look the same in Spanish and English but [Students are not understanding this--the
represent different sounds. Therefore, teacher is going too fast.] Teacher says,
English vowel sounds and their various “Let’s try it one more time.” More and
spellings can be very challenging for more students are falling behind to the
ELLs. Unfamiliar phonemes and graphemes point where the majority are just looking
make decoding and spelling difficult. Not around and bumping into each other. They
knowing English vocabulary prevents ELLs look like bumper cars. These students
from using word meaning to figure out how cannot keep up with the song and hand
to read a word. motions. Teacher, “S is for Sammy Snake
16Fluency and ELLs. Fluency includes (making a slithering motion)... V is for
both word recognition and comprehension Vinny Vampire (motioning with her hands to
ELLs typically have fewer opportunities to her mouth that she had vampire fangs)….W
read aloud in English with feedback is Willie Weasel….” (Orosco, 2007).
Effective practices Opportunities to hear 38The whole Class is sitting in a circle
a more expert reader model fluent, (on the A-B-C rug), with the teacher
expressive reading (e.g., echo reading, seated at the head. Teacher says,
tape-recordings) Ensuring students “Yesterday, how many of you knew your
understand text before they read it sight words? One student speaks out,
Repeated reading Classwide peer tutoring; “One?” Another, “Three?” Teacher replies,
partner reading. “You are right. Three students were able
17Vocabulary and ELLs. Some ELLs are to tell me their sight words. We need to
able to read phonetically (word calling) practice these words; we are really
yet do not understand what they read. ELLS behind. Every one of you should know these
begin school knowing fewer English words sight words by now. You need to practice
and sayings than their peers. ELLs and these at home. Don’t you practice these at
English speakers may have different home?” Teacher says this with frustration
concepts for the same label. Words with in her face and voice. Teacher states,
multiple meanings, anaphora, and idioms “Only those 3 students will be able to
can all cause confusion. ELLs literate in pull from the treasure chest.” … Teacher
an L1 that has many cognates with English begins sight words practice and holds up
have an important resource. index cards with-Big, My, See, Like, I,
18Pre-teach vocabulary using explicit At, This, And, Up, Have, Too. Students
instruction. Use visuals, diagrams, and repeat sight words as Teacher holds up
concept maps. Paraphrase and demonstrate. index cards. This is a repetitive process.
Teach how to use: cognates, prefixes, She then holds up the word “Big” without
suffixes, and root words to figure out saying anything. One student says the word
word meanings, context clues, resources “Big.” She holds up a another. “See.” The
such as dictionaries and glossaries. Teach same student says the word again. She
basic words as well as key words Help holds up the word “see” again and tells
students access and connect with their the student who knew the previous answer
prior knowledge; build schema. Provide not to say anything. Pause. Another says
multiple exposures and frequent “see.” She continues to go through this
opportunites to practice. process with all the words, and says,
19ACTIVITY: Remembering Vocabulary. “Okay guys, you need to practice these at
20Sample Tree Diagram. home, you are not paying attention, you
21Sample Concept Map. Animal. Insect. should have known these words by now.”
Main Category. CHARACTERISTICS. Has no (Orosco, 2007).
backbone. Subordinate Category. Body has 3 39Selected References. August, D. &
parts. Has 6 or more legs. Many have Shanahan, T. (2006). Developing literacy
wings. EXAMPLES. Ants. Flies. Spiders. in second-language learners: Report of the
22Sample Word Map. Example. My cat when National Literacy Panel on
she is sleeping in the sun. Tranquil. language-minority children and youth.
Upset. Antonym. Synonym. Calm. Me when I Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Echevarria,
get in trouble. Non-example. J., & Graves, A. (2006). Sheltered
23Semantic Feature Analysis. Metals. content instruction: Teaching
Metals. Metals. Metals. Metals. Metals. English-language learners with diverse
Metals. Yellowish. Malleable. Brittle. abilities. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Strong. Pure. Mixture. Steel. -. -. -. +. Fitzgerald, J. (1995).
-. +. Iron. -. -. +. +. +. -. Copper. +. English-as-a-second-language learners’
+. -. -. +. -. Gold. +. +. -. -. +. -. cognitive reading processes: A review of
Silver. -. +. -. -. +. -. Aluminum. -. +. research in the United States. Review of
-. -. +. -. Bronze. +. -. -. +. -. +. Educational Research, 65, 145-190.
24Reading Comprehension and ELLs. Francis, D. J., Rivera, M., Lesaux, N.,
Reading comprehension is a complex process Kieffer, M., & Rivera, H. (2006).
of constructing meaning by coordinating a Research-based recommendations for
number of skills related to decoding, word instruction and academic interventions:
reading, and fluency and the integration Practical guidelines for the education of
of background knowledge. Many factors English language learners. Houston, TX:
affect the reading comprehension of ELLs, Center on Instruction. Hoover, J.,
such as: language proficiency, vocabulary Klingner, J. K., Baca, L., & Patton,
knowledge, ability to use comprehension J. (2007). Methods for teaching culturally
strategies, differences in text structure, and linguistically diverse exceptional
culture influences, schema. learners. Upper Saddle River, NJ:
25Reading Comprehension Strategies. Merrill/Prentice Hall. Klingner, J. K.,
Typically little attention is paid to & Vaughn, S. (2004). Strategies for
teaching ELLs how to use comprehension struggling second-language readers. In T.
strategies, even in the upper grades, L. Jetton & J. A. Dole (Eds.),
because teachers tend to focus on word Adolescent Literacy Research and Practice
recognition, pronouncing words correctly, (pp. 183-209). New York: Guilford.
and answering literal comprehension 40For more information… Janette Klingner
questions. Teach BEFORE, DURING, and AFTER University of Colorado at Boulder School
reading comprehension strategies. Provide of Education 249 UCB Boulder, CO
opportunities for collaboration. 80309-0249 E-mail:
26ACTIVITY. Janette.Klingner@Colorado.EDU.
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