Курсы английского
<<  Leveraging Intellectual Property (IP) Assets for Business Success; Introduction to Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) Managing Intellectual Property Assets for Enhancing the Competitiveness of SMEs  >>
Intellectual Property Management for Enhancing the Competitiveness of
Intellectual Property Management for Enhancing the Competitiveness of
Easy to read, practical, business friendly guides
Easy to read, practical, business friendly guides
http://www
http://www
Distribution of IP PANORAMA CD
Distribution of IP PANORAMA CD
The physical goods/service continuum
The physical goods/service continuum
1961 Coca Cola original vintage advertisement
1961 Coca Cola original vintage advertisement
1961 Coca Cola original vintage advertisement
1961 Coca Cola original vintage advertisement
1961 Coca Cola original vintage advertisement
1961 Coca Cola original vintage advertisement
1961 Coca Cola original vintage advertisement
1961 Coca Cola original vintage advertisement
1961 Coca Cola original vintage advertisement
1961 Coca Cola original vintage advertisement
1961 Coca Cola original vintage advertisement
1961 Coca Cola original vintage advertisement
1961 Coca Cola original vintage advertisement
1961 Coca Cola original vintage advertisement
1961 Coca Cola original vintage advertisement
1961 Coca Cola original vintage advertisement
1961 Coca Cola original vintage advertisement
1961 Coca Cola original vintage advertisement
Innovative branding - with a sense of humour
Innovative branding - with a sense of humour
Innovative branding - with a sense of humour
Innovative branding - with a sense of humour
Innovative branding - with a sense of humour
Innovative branding - with a sense of humour
Innovative branding - with a sense of humour
Innovative branding - with a sense of humour
The Key is Collaboration
The Key is Collaboration
‘Closed Innovation: Single Track’
‘Closed Innovation: Single Track’
Examples of Focus Strategies
Examples of Focus Strategies
Examples of Focus Strategies
Examples of Focus Strategies
Examples of Focus Strategies
Examples of Focus Strategies
Examples of Focus Strategies
Examples of Focus Strategies
Examples of Focus Strategies
Examples of Focus Strategies
Examples of Focus Strategies
Examples of Focus Strategies
Examples of Focus Strategies
Examples of Focus Strategies
Example 1
Example 1
Example 1
Example 1
Example 1
Example 1
Example 1
Example 1
Example 2
Example 2
Example 2
Example 2
Intellectual Property Management for Enhancing the Competitiveness of
Intellectual Property Management for Enhancing the Competitiveness of
Example 3
Example 3
Example 3
Example 3
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1Intellectual Property Management for 73establish a small-firm channel to take
Enhancing the Competitiveness of SMEs and advantage of the speed difference MIT
Other Creative Communities. G S Jaiya, Industrial Liaison Program manages
Director, SMEs Division World Intellectual university research to meet the
Property Organization. expectations of corporate sponsors.
2 74Impact of Open Innovation.
3Easy to read, practical, business Historically, internal R&D was a
friendly guides. strategic asset Nowadays, companies
4http://www.wipo.int/sme/en/multimedia/ commercialize both their own
5Distribution of IP PANORAMA CD. To ideas/inventions as well as those from
member states of WIPO To the partner of others; for example, of other companies,
SMEs division. public research organizations (PROs) and
6Spotlight is on knowledge in today’s research universities Industries embracing
economy. Knowledge, Weightless, open innovation view public research
Information, Digital or Service Economy organizations (PROs) and research
Factors of production: Land, Labor, universities as a source of graduates and
Capital, Intangibles (Knowledge) Knowledge applied research Researchers in companies
as useful Information (or Service) have shifted to advanced technologies and
Information as a “Public Good” Information product development.
as Property. 75A Network View of Innovation.
7Market-oriented Economy. Playing Depending on a firm’s strengths, different
Field: Unfair competition; free riding firms play different roles in open
National Legal Systems: Diversity innovation value chain Some firms generate
(bilateral/regional/ international innovations Some integrate the innovations
treaties or agreements) Adding Value : of others Some have a fully integrated
Meeting or exceeding market needs or model An open innovation system is a
expectations Market research: Consumers’ networked system.
needs, competing products or substitutes, 76Supply Chain for Innovation in SMEs.
gaps Technological innovation as an Preconditions. Awareness Intermediaries
element of marketing. Profitability. Public support. Innovation
8The challenge of adding value in Awareness & Audits. Outsourced RTD.
today’s economy. Raw materials/Inputs: Investment in human capital. Seed capital.
Processing (Value addition) = Value added In-house innovation. Proof of concept.
output/component; product; sale; Profit Market. Productive investment. Market
Value addition: Cheaper, Faster, Better: pressure. Risk shared innovation. IPR
Functional/technological or protection. Tools. Financial schemes
aesthetic/non-technological; Technology & technical centres IPR
Rational/Emotional (More for Less) Price; supports Clusters. SME – Universities
access/availability; consistency interface.
Individual, Enterprise (legal person), 77From a network IN an organization ….
Chains, Networks; consortia; Open To the network IS the organization.
Innovation (Industry-Government-Academia) Hierarchy. Matrix. Network.
Ownership vs. access to knowledge Value 78TYPES OF NETWORKS. Task Networks:
Addition, Value Delivery and Value involve the exchange of specific
Extraction. job-related resources including
9Competition and Cooperation in the information, expertise, professional
Knowledge Economy. Property: Right to advice, political access, and material
Exclude/use/enjoy Share/leverage Physical resources. Social Networks: involve
vs. Intellectual Property One to one vs. relationships characterized by higher
one to many Physical manifestation/link to levels of closeness and trust than those
carrier/medium or fixation Nature of that are exclusively task-related. They
competing/substitute products: Functional, usually consist of people who share a
equivalent, class, set, related goods. common background or interest. Since
10Levels of Product. Core Benefit or people have more leeway in choosing their
Service. Augmented Product. Installation. friends than their co-workers, these
Packaging. Features. Brand Name. Delivery networks tend to be less closely
& Credit. After- Sale Service. Design. determined by formal organizational
Quality Level. Warranty. Core Product. arrangements and work assignments. Social
Actual Product. networks, however, often play a critical
11Selling Products Customers who care role in mobilizing resources, transmitting
about products “on their own terms”: is information, and providing peer coaching.
this the right product for me? Build the Innovation Networks must combine both!
“best” product Best designed Lowest cost Thanks to H. Ibarra.
Most reliable. Selling Interconnected 79Building an IP Strategy. Build Your
Systems Customers who care about the total Portfolio Strategic Patenting/Branding
system experience: will this connect with Purchase Patents/Brands Deploy Your
the rest of my world? Control the Portfolio Design Freedom Manage
architecture Or Influence the architecture Competition Enter new Markets Deliver
and build the best products within it. Revenue.
12What’s the Difference? A product A 80A Hierarchy of IP/IC Management.
commodity A brand. Integrated. Profit Center. (Manage for
13Would you Buy? A Libyan watch? Profitability). Cost Control. (Control
Japanese coffee? A Kenyan car? Costs, Improve Productivity). Defensive.
14Your answer in all these cases is very (Build Portfolio, Protect Markets and
probably “NO” Reason? NO REPUTATION Technology). Visionary. (Manage for
Reputation is the Soul of a Brand. Growth). (Drive Growth).
15How Important is Branding? The NUMMI 81Exploiting IP Assets.
plant in California produces two nearly Commercialisation of IP. License.
identical models called the Toyota Corolla Strategic Alliance. Co-Development.
and the Chevrolet Prizm. Toyota sold Co-Marketing. Passive. Partnership.
230,000 Corollas compared to sales of 82Commercialisation of IP. License.
52,000 Prizms. And Toyota’s net price is Strategic Alliance. Co-Development.
$650 higher! Co-Marketing. $. $. Sk. IP.
16A Brand is More Than a Product. Brand. 83Passive features of a license.
Product. Organizational associations. Licensor grants exploitation rights to a
Symbols. Brand Personality. Country of licensee Licensee pays royalties and other
origin. Scope Attributes Uses remuneration to the Licensor Licensor is
Quality/value Functional benefits. passive Has no further exploitation rights
Brand/customer relationships. User Licensor has no need to actively do
Imagery. Self-expressive benefits. anything Licensor passively sits by and
Emotional benefits. collects royalties. Licensor. Licensee.
17The physical goods/service continuum. IP. $.
18Continuum of Evaluation for Different 84Strategic Alliance. In a strategic
Types of Products. Most Services. Most alliance both parties contribute to their
Goods. High in search. High in experience. joint venture their respective resources
High in credence. Clothing Jewelry and capability Aim is to add greater value
Furniture Houses Automobiles Restaurant to their respective positions By doing so,
meals Vacations Haircuts Child care to Increase their financial return To
Television repair Legal services Root access the capability of their partner
canals Auto repair Medical diagnosis. Easy which they themselves lack To acquire
to evaluate. Difficult to evaluate. skills that they themselves may lack.
19Modern Value is in Brands. 74% of the Strategic Partner. Strategic Partner.
value of the New York Stock Exchange and 85Co-Development Agreements Co-Marketing
72% of that of the London Stock Exchange Agreements. Co-Development Agreement
is in brands, management know-how and Partners collaborate scientifically to
patents True value is no longer in bricks further develop the IP Take the IP further
and mortar. along the development path Licensor
20Brand Equity as a Percent of Firm increase the value of the IP as a result
Tangible Assets. Industry Brand Equity of the collaboration Co-Marketing
Apparel 61 Tobacco 46 Food Products 37 Agreement Partners co-market the products
Chemicals 34 Electric machinery 22 of their alliance One may manufacture
Transportation 20 Primary metals 01. only, and the other may sell products only
21The Value of Brands. Global Brand They may sell products competitively in
Scoreboard 1. Coca-cola 67.52$ billion 2. the same territory Or, they may sell in
Microsoft 59.95$ billion 3. IBM 53.37$ different territories Licensor retains
billion 4. GE 46.99$ billion 5. Intel some marketing rights, achieving greater
35.58$ billion (German survey January 17, financial upside.
2006). 86KNOWLEDGE AGE. Universities and high
22What is a Brand? A brand is a “name, schools become the raw material of
term, sign, symbol, or design, or a economic development as coal mines were
combination of them intended to identify the raw material of the industrial age !
the goods and services of one seller or 873 M’s of ENTREPRENEURSHIP.
group of sellers and to differentiate them 88Entrepreneurship 1. Entrepreneurship
from those of competition.” Source: drives innovation, competitiveness, job
American Marketing Association. A product creation and economic growth. It allows
is something that is made in a factory; a new/innovative ideas to turn into
brand is something that is bought by a successful ventures in high-tech sectors
customer. A product can be copied by a and/or can unlock the personal potential
competitor, a brand is unique. A product of disadvantaged people to create jobs for
can be quickly outdated; a successful themselves and find a better place in
brand is timeless. Source: Stephen King, society.
WPP Group, London A brand is something 89Entrepreneurship 2. Entrepreneurship,
that resides in the minds of consumer. in small business or large, focuses on
23What is a Brand? Identifies "what may be" or "what can
product/service of seller and be". One is practicing
differentiates it from competitors. entrepreneurship by looking for what is
Symbol. Term. Design. Name. Combination. needed, what is missing, what is changing,
Sign. Keller, Kevin Lane. Strategic Brand and what consumers will buy during the
Management: Building, Measuring, and coming years.
Managing Brand Equity. 1998. 90Entrepreneurship 3. Entrepreneurs
24KEY CHARACTERISTICS OF A BRAND. To be have: A passion for what they do The
effective, a brand needs the following: creativity and ability to innovate A sense
consistency to reduce buyers’ level of of independence and self- reliance
perceived risk to offer a range of (Usually) a high level of self confidence
functional and emotional attributes which A willingness and capability (though not
are of value to buyers. necessarily capacity or preference) for
25Names are Important in Branding. taking risks.
Donald Trump’s family name is Drumpf. But 91Entrepreneurship 4. Entrepreneurs do
he can’t call it Drumpf Towers. Alan not (usually) have: A tolerance for
Alda’s name was Alphonso D’Abruzzo. organizational bureaucracies A penchant
Chinese gooseberry was renamed kiwifruit. for following rules A structured approach
Paradise Island in the Bahamas used to be to developing and implementing ideas The
Hog Island. foresight to plan a course of action once
26A Brand Must be More Than a Name. A the idea is implemented and established.
brand must trigger words or associations 92Entrepreneurial Success. 1. People
(features and benefits). A brand should (Entrepreneur /Entrepreneurial Team) 2.
depict a process (McDonald’s, Amazon). A Opportunity (Marriage of Market and
great brand triggers emotions Product/Service) 3. Access to Resources
(Harley-Davidson). A great brand (Land. Labor, Capital, Knowledge And the
represents a promise of value (Sony). The fit amongst these three elements (Business
ultimate brand builders are your employees Model).
and operations, i.e., your performance, 93“Competitive strategy is about being
not your marketing communications. different. It means deliberately choosing
27Brand/Trademark. Trademark: Legal to perform activities differently or to
concept Brand: Marketing concept perform different activities than rivals
Registration of a brand adds value as it to deliver a unique mix of value.”.
protects its other inherent assets Brand Michael E. Porter.
profile and positioning may vary over 94Competitive Advantage. An advantage
time, but trademark protection remains the over competitors gained by offering
same. consumers greater value than competitors
28Trust is to Business What Trademark is offer.
to Brand. Brand Equity built on the 95Competitive Strategies. How does an
foundation of a protected Trademark organization improve their competitive
Brand/Trademark can: (a) be disposed off performance? Must establish a competitive
separately from other company assets advantage in 3 areas: Uniqueness: of
(Free-standing Institutions); and (b) give resources & processes (Bill Gates
rights that can be legally protected. knowledge of IBM) Value: where
29KNOWLEDGE underpins PERFORMANCE. products/services warrant a
Centrality of Knowledge. higher-than-average price or exceptionally
30But... Wolfgang Stofer, Director of low Difficult to imitate: when
BMW’s Treasury Department: “Whenever the products/services are hard to mimic or
technology becomes commoditized, we buy it duplicate.
from third parties”. 96Competitive Strategies. Basic
31In a highly competitive world where Competitive Strategies: Porter Overall
manufacturers are losing their pricing cost leadership Lowest production and
power, branding is seen as a way of distribution costs Differentiation
clawing back some of the lost influence. Creating a highly differentiated product
Role of Brands: For the Company. line and marketing program Focus Effort is
32Role of Brands: For the Company. Real focused on serving a few market segments.
and marketable asset Higher profit margin 97Competitive Strategies. Basic
(Price Premium) Incremental cash flow Competitive Strategies: Value Disciplines
Reduces cash flow sustainability risk. Operational excellence Superior value via
33Role of Brands: For the Company. price and convenience Customer intimacy
Accelerates speed of cash flow Increases Superior value by means of building strong
bonding and customer loyalty Increased relationships with buyers and satisfying
market share Entry barrier Limits growth needs Product leadership Superior value
of competitors. via product innovation.
34Role of Brands: For the Company. 98CORE COMPETENCES. Definition Hammel
Requires lower investment levels Better and Prahalad defined core competence as a
negotiating position with trade and other central value - creating capability of an
suppliers Facilitates higher product organization/enterprise.
availability (better distribution 99CORE COMPETENCES. Core competences are
coverage) Dealers order what customers activities or processes that critically
explicitly request. underpin an organisation competitive
35Role of Brands: For the Company. advantage. They create and sustain the
Extends products’ life cycle Allows lower ability to meet the critical success
cost brand extensions Can be the basis for factors of particular customer groups
international expansion Provides legal better than providers in ways that are
protection; Licensing; Franchising; difficult to imitate.
Merchandising Buffer to survive market or 100CORE COMPETENCES. Core competences are
product problems. distinctive capabilities that lead a
36Role of Brands: For the Company. Value company to a competitive advantage.
of Brands is a key determinant of Features of an enterprise that cannot be
enterprise value and stock market readily reproduced by a competitor.
capitalization Financial markets reward 101CORE COMPETENCES. Core competences can
consistently focussed brand strategies vary through the time depending on the
Brand management a vital ingredient for strategy adapted by the companies and the
success in corporate strategy. identification of the core competencies is
371961 Coca Cola original vintage the first step for a company to decide
advertisement. Features a Valentine's Day. which business opportunities to pursue.
38Innovative branding - with a sense of 102The Five Generic Competitive
humour. Mouse characters started to have Strategies.
themes Bio 2002 in Toronto. 103Low-Cost Provider Strategies. Keys to
39Innovative branding - with a sense of Success. Make achievement of meaningful
humour. Bio 2003 Washington DC. lower costs than rivals the theme of
40Innovative branding - with a sense of firm’s strategy Include features and
humour. Bio 2004 San Francisco. services in product offering that buyers
41SME Competitiveness (I). In a consider essential Find approaches to
knowledge-based economy, competitiveness achieve a cost advantage in ways difficult
of enterprises, including SMEs, is for rivals to copy or match. Low-cost
increasingly based on ability to provide leadership means low overall costs, not
high-value-added products at a competitive just low manufacturing or production
price Globalization and trade costs!
liberalization has made it crucial for 104Differentiation Strategies.
most enterprises, including SMEs, to Incorporate differentiating features that
become internationally competitive even cause buyers to prefer firm’s product over
when operating wholly in the domestic brands of rivals Find ways to
market. differentiate that create value for buyers
42SMEs Competitiveness (II). To become and are not easily matched or cheaply
and remain competitive, SMEs need a copied by rivals Not spending more to
coherent business strategy to constantly achieve differentiation than the price
improve their efficiency, reduce premium that can be charged. Objective.
production costs and enhance the Keys to Success.
reputation of their products by: Investing 105Where to Find Differentiation
in research and development Acquiring new Opportunities in the Value Chain.
technology Improving management practices Purchasing and procurement activities
Developing creative and appealing designs Product R&D and product design
Effectively marketing their products. activities Production process /
43Everything Depends on 5 Key Choices: technology-related activities
Choosing the right business to be in Manufacturing / production activities
Creating the right strategy Building the Distribution-related activities Marketing,
right systems Designing the right sales, and customer service activities.
organization Getting the right people. 106How to Achieve a Differentiation-Based
44A business is a combination of ... Advantage. Incorporate product
Technology in the product or service, features/attributes that lower buyer’s
Technology used to make the product or overall costs of using product.
provide the service, Features of the Incorporate features/attributes that raise
product or service, and Customer needs met the performance a buyer gets out of the
by the product or service, … that creates product. Incorporate features/attributes
a potential or real economic relationship that enhance buyer satisfaction in
between a buyer and a seller. non-economic or intangible ways. Compete
45Business Strategy is ... the group of on the basis of superior capabilities.
dynamic, integrated decisions that Approach 1. Approach 2. Approach 3.
position the business in its competitive Approach 4.
environment. R&D Strategy Basic and 107Types of Differentiation Themes.
applied research Product/process Unique taste – Dr. Pepper Multiple
innovation Lead or follow. Marketing features – Microsoft Windows and Office
Strategy Product/market definition Pricing Wide selection and one-stop shopping –
Distribution Promotion Customer support. Home Depot, Amazon.com Superior service --
Objectives Growth Profitability FedEx, Ritz-Carlton Spare parts
Diversification Innovation Market share availability – Caterpillar Engineering
Working environment Corporate citizenship. design and performance – Mercedes, BMW
Production Strategy Facilities Integration Prestige – Rolex Product reliability –
Capacity Quality Production technology Johnson & Johnson Quality manufacture
Operations control People management. – Michelin, Toyota Technological
Financial Strategy Capital structure Cash leadership – 3M Corporation Top-of-line
flow. Legal Strategy Intellectual property image – Ralph Lauren, Starbucks, Chanel.
protection Corporate. 108Sustaining Differentiation: Keys to
46Strategy Sets a Dynamic Loop in Competitive Advantage. Most appealing
Motion. R&D Strategy. Execution People approaches to differentiation Those
Systems Organizational structures. hardest for rivals to match or imitate
Marketing Strategy. Production Strategy. Those buyers will find most appealing Best
Results. Legal Strategy. Financial choices to gain a longer-lasting, more
Strategy. profitable competitive edge New product
47SMEs Competitiveness (III). For this, innovation Technical superiority Product
SMEs must make significant investments of quality and reliability Comprehensive
time and resources Without intellectual customer service Unique competitive
property protection there is a strong risk capabilities.
that investments in R&D, product 109Best-Cost Provider Strategies. Combine
differentiation and marketing may be a strategic emphasis on low-cost with a
stolen/copied Intellectual property rights strategic emphasis on differentiation Make
enable SMEs to have exclusivity over the an upscale product at a lower cost Give
exploitation of their innovative new or customers more value for the money Deliver
original products, their creative designs superior value by meeting or exceeding
and their brands. The exclusivity creates buyer expectations on product attributes
an appropriate incentive for investing in and beating their price expectations Be
improving their competitiveness. the low-cost provider of a product with
48“Technology-Push Linear Model of good-to-excellent product attributes, then
Innovation”. Basic Research. Applied use cost advantage to under price
Research. Invention. Development. comparable brands. Objectives.
Production. Marketing. 110Focus / Niche Strategies. Involve
49The Innovation Process. An innovation concentrated attention on a narrow piece
starts as an idea/concept that is of the total market Serve niche buyers
evaluated, refined and developed before it better than rivals Choose a market niche
is applied or acted upon. Innovations may where buyers have distinctive preferences,
be inspired by reality (known problem). special requirements, or unique needs
The innovation (new or improved product Develop unique capabilities to serve needs
development) process, which leads to of target buyer segment. Objective. Keys
useful technology, requires: Research to Success.
Development (up-scaling, testing) 111Examples of Focus Strategies. Animal
Production Marketing Sale Use/Consume Planet and History Channel Cable TV Google
Experience with a product results in Internet search engines Porsche Sports
feedback and leads to incrementally or cars Cannondale Top-of-the line mountain
radically improved innovations. bikes Enterprise Rent-a-Car Provides
50New/Improved Product Development. rental cars to repair garage customers
Stages in a New/Improved Product Bandag Specialist in truck tire recapping.
Development process: Ideas Generation 112Focus / Niche Strategies and
Ideas Screening Concept Development and Competitive Advantage. Achieve lower costs
Testing Business Analysis Beta Testing and than rivals in serving a well-defined
Market Testing Technical Implementation buyer segment – Focused low-cost strategy.
Commercialization. Offer a product appealing to unique
51Ideas, Creativity and Innovation. preferences of a well-defined buyer
Creativity The ability to make or segment – Focused differentiation
otherwise bring into existence something strategy. Approach 1. Approach 2.
new, whether a new solution to a problem, 113The Evolution of Marketing.
a new method or device, or a new artistic Transactional Marketing. Relationship
object or form. Innovation 1 : The Marketing. Collaborative Marketing. Time
introduction of something new 2 : A new frame. 1950s. 1980s. Beyond 2000. View of
idea, method, or device Creativity = Idea value. The company offering in an
+ Action (Individual) Innovation = exchange. The customer relationship in the
Creativity + Productivity (Groups/teams) long run. Co-created experiences. View of
Innovation = Idea + Action + Productivity. market. Place where value is exchanged.
52Corporate Strategy: What is it? A Market is where various offerings appear.
defining statement containing the intent Market is a forum where value is
and direction of the corporation, & co-created through dialogue. Role of
delineating the strategic plans to achieve customer. Passive buyers to be targeted
its objective. A living guideline, that with offerings. Portfolio of relationships
focuses and directs efforts of the to be cultivated. Prosumers-active
corporation. Constantly tested and participants in value co-creation. Role of
modified as required. Not to be firm. Define and create value for
circumvented without deliberate consumers. Attract, develop and retain
modification. Balances and integrates the profitable customers. Engage customers in
following elements: Vision of strategic defining and co-creating unique value.
direction for long-term strength Market Nature of customer interaction. Survey
direction and needs Competitive effects customers to elicit needs and solicit
Technology strategy Product strategy Core feedback. Observe customers and learn
competency Resource alignment. Articulates adaptively. Active dialogue with customers
the ways in which the opportunities and communities. Adapted from Prahalad and
created by the firm’s capabilities can be Ramaswamy 2004.
exploited. 114Example 1. Patent for the fountain pen
53Basic Strategic Considerations: Key that could store ink Utility Model for the
Inputs to Strategy: Customer inputs – what grip and pipette for injection of ink
is working and not working. Market place Industrial Design: smart design with the
analysis – growing needs, emerging grip in the shape of an arrow Trademark:
applications and significant trends. provided on the product and the packaging
Competitive influences and barriers to to distinguish it from other pens Source:
entry. Internal competency assessment Japanese Patent Office.
regarding skills and ability. Corporate 115Example 2. Decades ago, Coca-Cola
business process benchmarking. Business decided to keep its soft drink formula a
strategic inflection point analysis. secret The formula is only know to a few
Resources available for commitment. Key people within the company Kept in the
Outputs of Strategic Dialog: Business vault of a bank in Atlanta Those who know
strategy – goals and objectives of the the secret formula have signed
organization. Technology strategy – non-disclosure agreements It is rumored
technologies to acquire or develop. that they are not allowed to travel
Marketing strategy – Why, where and how to together If it had patented its formula,
focus on customers? Product strategy – the whole world would be making Coca-Cola.
features and functions to be developed. 116
Intellectual property strategy – How will 117Example 3. Patent for stud and tube
IPR contribute to strategy? coupling system (the way bricks hold
54Effective Business Strategies address together) But: Today the patents have long
three key challenges: Markets. How will we expired and the company tries hard to keep
create value? Technologies. How will we out competitors by using designs,
capture value in the face of Competition? trademarks and copyright.
How will we build the organizational 118$. The Interaction of Intangible and
capabilities necessary to deliver it? Tangible Assets to Create Earnings.
55Effective Strategies answer three key Structural Capital (generic). Intellectual
questions: How will we Capture value? How Capital (unique). Complementary Business
will we Deliver value? How will we Create Assets (differentiated). Intellectual
value? Assets. Human Capital. Value Creation.
56From Three to Seven Critical Value Extraction. Intellectual Property.
Questions. How will we create value? How Manufacturing Facilities. Distribution
will the technology evolve? How will the Capabilities. Sales Force.
market change? How will we capture value? 119Intellectual Property Tuned To A
How should we design the business model? Company’s Business. ?%. Complementary
Where should we compete in the value Business Assets (Differentiated Assets).
chain? How should we compete if standards Intellectual Capital (Unique Assets).
are important? How will we deliver value? Structural Capital (Generic Assets). IP
How do we manage the core business and Value Is Created When Leveraged Through
growth simultaneously? How do we use our Complementary Assets When Companies Have
strategy to drive real resource Different Complementary Asset Strengths
allocation? They Will Need Different Intellectual
57Three key ideas: Uniqueness Property (Materials, Process, Use).
Controlling the knowledge generated by an Intellectual Assets. Human Capital (Lead
innovation Complementary assets Time). Intellectual Property. Sales Force.
Controlling the assets that maximize the Distribution Capabilities. Manufacturing
profits from innovating Understanding the Facilities. Value Creation. Value
dynamics of the value chain Should we buy Extraction. Copyrights. Patents.
our suppliers? Distributors? Should we Trademarks. Trade Secrets. Know-How.
outsource our manufacturing… distribution… 120Intellectual Property Tuned To A
sales… capability? Company’s Business Beverage Companies.
58What are Complementary Assets? Those Complementary Business Assets
assets that allow a firm to make money, (Differentiated Assets). Intellectual
even if the innovation is not unique: The Capital (Unique Assets). Structural
answer to the question: If our innovations Capital (Generic Assets). Line Shows the
were instantly available to our Percentage of Company Value (Market
competitors, would we still make money? Capitalization) That is Protected By This
Why? Asset Most value is in Trademark, Trade
59Types of Complementary Assets. Core Secret, Distribution and Sales.
technological know-how in innovation. Intellectual Assets. Human Capital (Lead
Competitive manufacturing. Sales and Time). Intellectual Property. Sales Force.
service expertise. Other. Complementary Distribution Capabilities. Manufacturing
technologies. Distribution channels. Facilities. Value Creation. Value
Other. Customer relationships. Brand name. Extraction. Copyrights. Patents.
60Types of Complementary Assets. Things Trademarks. Trade Secrets. Know-How.
you can do Manufacturing capabilities 121Intellectual Property Tuned To A
Sales and service expertise Things you own Company’s Business Paper Companies.
Brand Distribution channels Customer Complementary Business Assets
relationships. COMPETENCIES. RESOURCES. (Differentiated Assets). Intellectual
61Uniqueness & Complementary Assets Capital (Unique Assets). Structural
over the Life Cycle: Maturity. Takeoff. Capital (Generic Assets). Most value is in
Ferment. Complementary Assets. Uniqueness. Trademark, Know-How, Manufacturing and
62The ‘Commercialisation Pipeline’. Do Sales Some value in Patents. Intellectual
it yourself. Assign IP. Out-license IP. Assets. Human Capital (Lead Time).
Partner. Etc. Commercialization Decision. Intellectual Property. Sales Force.
Idea. Invention. IP. Distribution Capabilities. Manufacturing
63How are commercialisation strategies Facilities. Value Creation. Value
actually chosen? Ability to exclude Extraction. Copyrights. Patents.
incumbants1 Complementary asset Trademarks. Trade Secrets. Know-How.
environment1 Others Go where the easy 122Intellectual Property Tuned To A
money is Past Experience Internal Company’s Business Software Companies.
constraints & politics Business Complementary Business Assets
network of the entrepreneur Risk adversity (Differentiated Assets). Intellectual
Market forces etc. Capital (Unique Assets). Structural
64Build, Buy, Partner: Benefits and Capital (Generic Assets). Most value is in
Tradeoffs. Build. Cost & Risk. Buy. Human Creativity, Trademark, Copyright,
Partner. Time to Market & Control and Distribution. Intellectual Assets.
& Profit. Cons. Pros. Longest time to Human Capital (Lead Time). Intellectual
market Risk in market shifts High Property. Sales Force. Distribution
development costs Highest switching costs. Capabilities. Manufacturing Facilities.
Most product control Own the IP Most Value Creation. Value Extraction.
profit opportunity. Shorten time to market Copyrights. Patents. Trademarks. Trade
Own the IP. Acquisition costs Integration Secrets. Know-How.
costs. Shortest Time to Market Conserves 123Intellectual Property Tuned To A
Resources Try before you Buy Lowest Company’s Business Pharmaceutical
Switching Costs Credibility and access. Companies. Complementary Business Assets
Least Control Integration Costs Shared (Differentiated Assets). Intellectual
gross margins - Least Profit Opportunity. Capital (Unique Assets). Structural
65Which horse to pick? Capital (Generic Assets). Most value is in
66The Key is Collaboration. “Few if any Human Creativity, Patents, and Trademarks
companies today can hold all the pieces of Some value in Know-How, and Sales.
their own product technology…they simply Intellectual Assets. Human Capital (Lead
must collaborate with others if they want Time). Intellectual Property. Sales Force.
to survive and prosper…IP has become much Distribution Capabilities. Manufacturing
more of a bridge to collaboration” Facilities. Value Creation. Value
Marshall Phelps, Microsoft. Extraction. Copyrights. Patents.
67Eleven Modes of Collaboration Trademarks. Trade Secrets. Know-How.
Agreements: Illustration of Their Anchor 124Introduction to IP Management. Legal
Points. Technical Business Export Financial
68New Business Models Emerge. Relationships. Accounting Tax Insurance
69New Regional Model Emerge. Security Automation Personnel.
70New developments in innovation raise 125Understanding the Process of
new issues and problems. Greater emphasis Innovation. The Process/Steps of
on commercializing scientific discoveries, Innovation. Pre-IPO. Expansion. Legal
particularly in IT and the bio-sciences Entity Founders = Mgt Team Minimal Revenue
Speed and potential value of scientific Slow Growth. Start-Up. Seed. Idea /
progress leads to emphasis on solid and Concept. Viable Market acceptance Heading
well-designed portfolios of research to IPO or M&A. High Growth Head Count
projects Universites as active drivers of Multiple Cycles. Bright Idea Experimental
innovation: Academic entrepreneurship and Research Business Plan Proof of Concept.
the entrepreneurial university Support Functions Administration Marketing
University-industry partnerships Increased Revenue Growth.
search for radical innovation and top-line 126The Needs of Each Stage. IP Management
growth. Needed in all stages. Corporate and
71‘Closed Innovation: Single Track’. 1. Secretarial Financial Training PR and
2. 3. “Current Market Place”. 4. 5. Marketing Networking Business Development.
Research. Development. Commercialization. Expansion. Start-Up. Seed. Idea / Concept.
“Ideas & Investigations”. Based upon Recruitment Business Development A & P
‘Open Innovation: Researching a New Market Access. Business Plan Prototype/
Paradigm’ (2006) Henry Chesbrough, Wim POC Project Management Business Premises
Vanhaverbeke & Joel West. Project Management Management Training.
72‘Open Innovation: Three Lane Highway’. International support and Mkt. Access
Development. 1. 2. 3. “Current Market Diversification strategies and support
Place”. “New Market Place”. “Other firm’s Recruitment Training and Incentives.
Market Place”. 4. 5. Research. 127Basic Message 1. IP adds value at
Commercialization. “External Ideas & every stage of the value chain from
Investigations”. “External Technologies. creative/innovative idea to putting a new,
“Ideas & Investigations”. Insourcing better, and cheaper, product/service on
gate. Outsourcing gate. Technology the market: Trademarks/ GIs Ind.
spin-offs. licensing. Based upon ‘Open Designs/Patents/Copyright. Patents /
Innovation: Researching a New Paradigm’ Utility Models/Trade secrets. All IP
(2006) Henry Chesbrough, Wim Vanhaverbeke Rights. Industrial Designs/
& Joel West. Trademarks/GIs. Patents / Utility models.
73Open Innovation Interfaces and Invention. Commercialization Marketing.
Boundaries. Cultural differences Exporting. Financing. Product Design.
Successful partnerships have researchers Licensing. Literary / artistic creation.
in companies working with researchers in Copyright/Related Rights. All IP Rights.
the public research organizations (PROs) 128Basic Message 2. IP Strategy should be
and research universities Communication an integral part of the overall business
channels, working relationships Creating a strategy of an Enterprise BUT: Ignoring
company culture where external the IP system altogether is in itself an
contributions are accepted Functional IP strategy, which may eventually prove
organizations with specific responsibility very costly or even fatal IP Strategy is
to manage the external technology and influenced by the Business Model and
research function Example of Revenue Extraction Model of a business.
Hewlett-Packard University Relations Work 129Own Use Licensing Franchising
pace, expectations Since private R & D Merchandising (Mickey Mouse, Hello Kitty).
labs work more quickly, a company may Basic Message 3 (More for Less).
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