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Elements of comparison: expenditure
Elements of comparison: expenditure
Elements of comparison: expenditure
Elements of comparison: expenditure
The direction of policy: refining the National Curriculum in England

: Lebus. , . , The direction of policy: refining the National Curriculum in England.ppt zip- 63 .

The direction of policy: refining the National Curriculum in England

The direction of policy: refining the National Curriculum in England.ppt
1The direction of policy: refining the 17National Curriculum (size, focus,
National Curriculum in England. Tim Oates underpinning theory, and design
Chair of the Expert Panel advising on principles) Curriculum coherence
National Curriculum Review 2011 Group content, pedagogy, assessment, support
Director Assessment Research and materials, drivers and incentives Teacher
Development Cambridge Assessment. quality and teaching quality Demarcations
2Background: the need for reform. The between national requirement and school
National Curriculum Review 2011. autonomy locus of control School ethos
31989, 1995, 1999 continuous refinement and balance between National Curriculum
2009 KS3/4 dislocation A break with elements, taught elements and untaught
principles Buta failure of ideas? elements Family culture and national
Schizophrenia of the State social culture General attitude to
overprescribesbut if its not in the innovation Investment in education. A
National Curriculum we wont teach it responsible approach to transnational
Models of ability progression Diversity comparisons (note not identical to control
in the system dampening of innovation factors).
Views of the aims of schooling and the 18Note on populations Singapore
status of knowledge. Fine-tuning or 4,839,400 (world bank) Finland 5,313,399
fundamental re-orientation. (worldbank) Hong Kong 6,977,770
4Why the concept of future curriculum (worldbank) Mass 6,593,587 (uscensus)
is vital. The undue pace of change, Alberta 2,974,807 (finance and enterprise
ripping capacity from the system The role Alberta) England 51,460,000 (office for
of stability in monitoring and fine-tuning national statistics) Korea 48,747,000
systems The need for principled change (worldbank). Elements of
Attending to the precise form of knowledge comparisons.size.
in a National Curriculum The skills versus 19Elements of comparison: expenditure.
knowledge dichotomy; observation, 20Policy potential: understanding the
mathematising Attending to true signals relative performance of different national
regarding important capitals; Bynner, systems through control factors. 1
Vignoles Importance of capitals for social curriculum content (nc specifications,
cohesion and reduction of inequalities The support materials, etc) 2 assessment and
powerful knowledge thesis, a radical qualifications 3 national framework for
shift in thinking QCA futures as future 2, qualifications 4 inspection 5 pedagogy 6
proposed curriculum as future 3 A professional development 7 institutional
curriculum for 30 years? The pattern of development 8 institutional forms and
the change cycle. structures (eg size of schools, education
5Policy potential: understanding the phases) 9 allied social measures (linking
relative performance of different national social care, health care and education) 10
systems through control factors. 1 funding 11 governance (autonomy versus
curriculum content (nc specifications, direct control) 12 accountability
support materials, etc) 2 assessment and arrangements 13 labour market/professional
qualifications 3 national framework for licensing 14 allied market regulation (eg
qualifications 4 inspection 5 pedagogy 6 health and safety legislation; insurance
professional development 7 institutional regulation).
development 8 institutional forms and 21Some overall comparisons. Mathematics
structures (eg size of schools, education primary Basic structure similar to other
phases) 9 allied social measures (linking nations Number curriculum narrower and
social care, health care and education) 10 less demanding Data handling broader and
funding 11 governance (autonomy versus more demanding Visualization and
direct control) 12 accountability transformational geometry unique to
arrangements 13 labour market/professional England Science primary Different
licensing 14 allied market regulation (eg structural division - greater
health and safety legislation; insurance disaggregation in some other nations
regulation). Scientific enquiry shared - but this not a
6Evidence paper November 2010. The structural element in some other nations
tendency towards introspection Benefits Physical processes narrower and less
and ills The importance of subjects demanding than majority of other nations
Clarity in statutory elements Concepts, Life processes narrower but not less
principles, fundamental operations and key demanding overall Scientific enquiry and
knowledge The importance of transnational Materials level of demand similar to other
comparisons Coherence and curriculum nations Nfer study of Taipei, Hong Kong,
control. Latvia, Netherlands, Ontario, Singapore,
7benefits. 1 The concept of British Colombia, Sweden Rudduck G &
entitlement has been highly effective in Sainsbury M Comparison of the Core Primary
raising attainment (Chitty C 2004; Colwill Curriculum in England to those in other
I & Peacey N 2003) 2 Structure high performing Countries DfES 2008.
progression in the National Curriculum has 22Stand out element. In Primary, fewer
reduced inappropriate repetition of things in greater depth Concentration on
content as children progress through a small number of attainable goals, mostly
education (Chitty C op cit; Evangelou et of an academic variety or concerned with
al 2008) 3 The rate and pattern of pupil the individuals relationship to society,
progression has been enhanced (Chitty C op rather than a spread of effort across many
cit; Tymms P 2004; Whetton et al 2007) 4 academic, social, affective and moral
Balanced coverage has emerged in the goals Reynolds and Farrell 1996.
primary phase, particularly in respect of 23The revised specifications available
science (Harlen W 2008) 5 The common on DfE website
structure has supported more effective http://www.education.gov.uk/schools/teachi
pupil transfer, which previously affected gandlearning/curriculum/nationalcurriculum
vulnerable groups of children in b0075667/national-curriculum-review-update
particular (Dobson J & Pooley CE 2004: English Early acquisition, highly fluent
Strand S 2002) 6 The curriculum reading by end KS2 and reading for
entitlement has enhanced performance of enjoyment Structure and range in writing
girls in maths and science (Machin S & Development of spoken language Language
McNally S 2006) 7 The structured approach of grammar, rules and exceptions
to content and assessment has led to Cognitive development through memorising
identification of issues such as the Key writing and poetry Mathematics Developing
Stage 3 dip (Powell R, Smith R, Jones G, proportional reasoning Working with
Reakes A 2006; Doddington C, Flutter J decimals and fractions Secure
& Rudduck J 1999) 8 The National understanding of key concepts Fluency and
Curriculum has led to higher expectations confidence in four operations Science
of young people (Barber M 2002; Hopkins D Separate sciences, for conceptual clarity
2001; Tabberer R 1997). Classification Life processes,
8ills. However, problems have inheritance, evolution Forces, physical
accumulated in respect of: 1 Acute structure, properties, states of matter,
overload, with resulting pressure on sound and light Science through the lives
teachers to move with undue pace through of scientific figures Observation, safe
material and encouraging a tick list tests, recording.
approach to teaching (Black P & Wiliam 24Ability models and pedagogy.
D 1999; Alexander R (ed) 2010; Dearing R Concentration on a small number of
1994; House of Commons Children, Schools attainable goals, mostly of an academic
and Families Committee 2008) 2 All groups variety or concerned with the individuals
clamouring to ensure that subject content relationship to society, rather than a
which reflects their interest is included spread of effort across many academic,
in the core content of the National social, affective and moral goals.
Curriculum leading to a lack of clarity Mechanisms to ensure that things are
as to what should legitimately be taught properly the first time around, and
included, or not included (Rawling E 2001) that there is no trailing edge of
3 Overbearing assessment with adverse children who have to be returned to later
impact on teaching and learning (Black (an example from Taiwan is that children
& Wiliam op cit; Pollard A, Broadfoot have to repeat in the homework books any
P, Croll P, Osborn M & Abbott D 1994; exercises that they got wrong in their
ARG & TLRP 2009; Mansell W 2007), with previous homework). The use of the same
specific problems emerging in relation to textbooks by all children, which permits
narrow drilling for tests (Pollard A, teachers to channel their energy into
Broadfoot P, Croll P, Osborn M & classroom instruction and the marking of
Abbott D op cit; ARG & TLRP op cit; homework, rather than into the production
TES 2005) and a failure of the assessment of worksheets that is so much a feature of
to provide policymakers with robust English teaching. Reynolds and Farrell
information on national standards (Oates T 1996 p56.
2005; Statistics Commission 2005; Tymms P 25Transnational analyses do NOT supply a
2007; Massey A, Green S, Dexter T & judgement-free solution Using the
Hamnett L 2003). control factors Understanding patterns of
9Background to the reforms: a incentives The partial role of the
fundamental shift in underpinning National Curriculum Embedding the
principles. The National Curriculum 1995 distinction between National Curriculum
and 2007. and School Curriculum Key elements
10The National Curriculum 1995. Science Revision of inspection Review of EYFS
- key stage 3 Materials and properties. Review of teacher supply Review of
Chemical Reactions that when chemical national assessment Examination of role of
reactions take place, mass is conserved; textboooks and materials Review of
that virtually all materials, including capacity in Primary phase Development of a
those in living systems, are made through broader range of performance metrics -
chemical reactions; to represent chemical including EB Prudent policy involves
reactions by word equations; that there relaxing some factors and tightening
are different types of reaction, including others Recognising that control is a
oxidation and thermal decomposition; that system characteristic, not a top down
useful products can be made from chemical mechanism. Chasing the right demarcation
reactions, including the production of between control and autonomy.
metals from metal oxides; about chemical 26Expert Panel recommendations
reactions, e.g. corrosion of iron, importance of curriculum aims Yes
spoiling of food, that are generally not standards emerging from transnational
useful; that energy transfers that comparisons Yes considerable detail in key
accompany chemical reactions, including subjects Yes two-year block structure to
the burning of fuels, can be controlled content No reduced scope (crucial
and used; about possible effects of elements) but increased specificity
burning fossil fuels on the environment. (greater precision) Yes using the existing
11National Curriculum 2007. Chemical and legal categories for the level of
Material Behaviour In their study of prescription in different subjects No
science, the following should be covered: change retain statutory breadth to 16 but
chemical change takes place by the with less prescription in specification No
rearrangement of atoms in substances; change - importance of curriculum
there are patterns in the chemical coherence Yes - change to structure of key
reactions between substances; new stages - KS2 in particular No change
materials are made from natural resources challenge of models of progression in
by chemical reactions; the properties of a primary phase Yes assessment which links
material determine its uses. to the specifics of the curriculum
12Where are we now and why? Science in remove levels Yes importance of spoken
the National Curriculum ATs statements of language including rich pedagogy Yes
attainment 1991 Original specification 4 emphasis on teaching quality, leadership
KS3 96 KS4 139 1995 Dearing Revision 5 KS3 and intelligent accountability Yes
166 KS4 221 1999 QCA-led revision 4 KS3 language learning in Primary Phase yr3-6
121 KS4 189 2007 QCA-led revision 4 KS3 37 Yes additional requirements (2012) to
KS4 30 Dramatic contraction in 2007 publish year on year school curriculum.
Mysterious reappearance, in June 2009, of How much detail, in which areas of the
the 1999 National Curriculum Significant National Curriculum?
reduction in conceptual demand Upward 27Has statutory breath decreased? No -
drift in, and removal of, demanding and fl has been added at primary Have
material Decay of understanding of overall aims of the curriculum been
original purpose of National Curriculum neglected, including 'broader aims' of
Confusion between curriculum and education regartding development of the
National Curriculum Generic (imprecise) child? No - they've been re-inforced Is it
statements driven by a commitment to all about facts? No - the importance of
consensus Confusion regarding an powerful knowledge has been emphasised;
up-to-date and motivating curriculum deep conceptual learning is emphasised as
Confusion between context and concepts. well as 'joy of reading' 'understanding
13Policy potential: understanding the the wonder of the natural world' 'rich
relative performance of different national oral exchange' It is over prescriptive
systems through control factors. 1 is increase in autonomy illusory? No -
curriculum content (nc specifications, fewer things have been described with
support materials, etc) 2 assessment and clarity and precisionm, making room for
qualifications 3 national framework for choice over high quality teaching and
qualifications 4 inspection 5 pedagogy 6 learning But what if all subjects are
professional development 7 institutional stated in the same level of detail as Eng
development 8 institutional forms and Maths Sci in primary? They won't be -
structures (eg size of schools, education that's one way in which things are being
phases) 9 allied social measures (linking freed up Does it prescribe what happens
social care, health care and education) 10 each week, each year? No - the legal
funding 11 governance (autonomy versus requirement remains reaching a high
direct control) 12 accountability standard at the end of each key stage -
arrangements 13 labour market/professional that's the existing law and it will stay
licensing 14 allied market regulation (eg that way - schools can depart from the
health and safety legislation; insurance precise year on year scheduling - the year
regulation). on year specification is to bring greater
14Curriculum coherence is crucial a clarity to expectations, not
National Curriculum is one means of over-determine the shape of the school
establishing this note the conundrum curriculum. The reality of the proposed
regarding textbooks Focus on concepts, changes.
principles and fundamental operations 28Scheduling. Originally: Phase 1
arranged in an age-related framework subjects English, mathematics, sciences,
Stable, sparse listing Contextualisation and PE Specifications in schools by Sept
should be controlled by teachers No 2012 for first teaching in Sept 2013 Phase
slavish commitment to a common structure 2 subjects to be determined
across subjects, bar attending to Specifications in schools by Sept 2013 for
necessary links Rapid action allied to first teaching in Sept 2014 Now: Phase 1
appropriate long-term direction. My and Phase 2 - now on same timetable
conclusions regarding direction 2010 Specifications in schools by Sept 2013 for
policy paper. first teaching in Sept 2014.
15Revised specifications in the Primary 29The National Curriculum is important,
phase: English, Science and Mathematics. but it is not the sole control factor
The current review. the locus of control issues are not to be
16NAHT n500 54% teach 12x12, long underestimated autonomy can deliver
division 80% add subtract multiply and curriculum coherence but there is a lot to
divide fractions 66% algebra 44% taught play for and a lot which can go wrong
subjunctive 88% learned names of planets Quality of teaching is critical Focus on
in solar system 90% taught foreign key concepts and secure learning The model
language, 83% in yr3 If implemented in of progression in primary seems to be
current form 13% help 38% hinder 30% make vital Maintaining statutory breadth is
no difference 19% dont know Detail 26% challenging, and requires a subtle policy
About right 47% too much 5% not enough 22% approach Continuing problems regarding MFL
dont know. Initial reactions NAHT and classical languages Strong
survey summer 2012. stereotypical participation in public
17Character and structure of the examinations. Issues.
The direction of policy: refining the National Curriculum in England.ppt

The direction of policy: refining the National Curriculum in England

The direction of policy: refining the National Curriculum in England

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