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The English Language and Its Varieties
The English Language and Its Varieties
The English Language and Its Varieties
The English Language and Its Varieties
The English Language and Its Varieties
The English Language and Its Varieties
US History: early settlement
US History: early settlement
US History: early settlement
US History: early settlement
The English Language and Its Varieties
The English Language and Its Varieties
War of Independence: or Revolutionary War 1775-83
War of Independence: or Revolutionary War 1775-83
War of Independence: or Revolutionary War 1775-83
War of Independence: or Revolutionary War 1775-83
Football vs
Football vs
Football vs
Football vs
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The English Language and Its Varieties

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1The English Language and Its 15at Jamestown, Virginia, in 1607 In 1620 a
Varieties. ship named Mayflower brings 102
2Notes and explanations. English Englishmen. They call themselves “Pilgrim
belongs to the family of Germanic Fathers”. They settle in Massachusetts.
languages. Other major language families They are puritans. In October 1621 they
in Europe: Slavonic and Romance languages. celebrate good harvest: Thanksgiving.
variety – kind, type (Polish: odmiania) 16
Abbreviations: BrE – British English AmE – 17War of Independence: or Revolutionary
American English. War 1775-83. 1773 - Boston Tea Party,
3Two important aspects of English. American patriots dressed as Indians throw
Important language – an official language tea to the sea. 1775 – the war begins.
in many countries on all continents with 1776 – Declaration of Independence 1783 –
large number of „native speakers”. USA is recognized by Britain. They sign a
Important language in international peace treaty in Paris. 1787 – the American
communication – modern lingua franca. Also Constitution.
called international English. 18Differences between British and
4 American varieties of English. distance
5Countires with English as a first and separation influences of local, native
language. USA, UK, Canada, Australia, culture (Indians). influences of the
Ireland, South Africa, New Zealand. immigrants. specific local conditions
English is spoken on all continents. It is (plants and animals).
natural that there should be differences 19Football vs. soccer.
between kinds of English spoken in 20Pronunciation differences 1. box stop
different parts of the world. spot God top a lot shot.
6They are called varieties or dialects. 21Pronunciation 2. city better new sue.
In Polish we also have a number of 22Pronunciation: r. car star hard.
dialects and local accents (Silesian 23Spelling. Americans simplified some of
dialect, Kaszubski etc.). How do we call the spelling conventions of English.
the differences within a language? 24Spelling – or / our. honour colour
7Most famous varieties. British English labour behaviour neighbour odour. honor
American English Australian English There color labor behavior neighbor odor. BrE.
are differences in vocabulary (words), AmE.
pronunciation (way of speaking) and 25spelling – ise / ize. BrE. AmE.
grammar. organise analyse criticise paralyse
8Common language? George Bernard Shaw: idealyse. organize analyze criticize
“two countries divided by a common paralyze idealyze.
language“. Oscar Wilde: “We have really 26-station / -zation. BrE. AmE.
everything in common with America organisation civilisation generalisation.
nowadays, except, of course, the organization civilization generalization.
language“. 27-re / -er. BrE. AmE. theatre centre
9Dialects of English. Dialect a calibre metre fibre litre. theater center
regional variation In British English: caliber meter fiber liter.
Received Pronunciation (Queen’s English, 28double consonant. BrE. AmE. traveller
BBC English – only about 2% of the kidnapper wollen councillor. traveler
population are speakers), Estuary English kidnaper wolen councilor.
(London area), Liverpool and Manchester, 29-ce / -se. BrE. AmE. defence licence
Scottish English. In American English: offence practice. defense license offense
difference between the Northern accent and practise.
Southern accent (Boston vs. Huston). 30Some other differences in spelling.
10 BrE. AmE. cheque cosy disc programme tyre
11English in India. About 4% of the whisky. check cozy disk program tire
Indian population use English regularly whiskey.
That is around 30 million people! 31Vocabulary. BrE. AmE. flat dustbin
12 luggage bank note bill (in a restaurant)
13Language or dialect? AmE is not a coach shop assistant. apartment trash /
separate language. There are many garbabe can baggage bill check bus clerk.
differences between BrE and AmE but they 32vocabulary 2. BrE. AmE. lift autumn
are not enough to call the two varieties chips petrol off-licence shop post film.
of English separate languages. Usually a elevator fall French fries gasoline / gas
person from America has no problems with liquor store mail (post) movie.
communicating with a person from Britain. 33vocabulary 3. BrE. AmE. cinema toilet
14English in Northern America. 1607 – (public convenience) time-table sidewalk
the first group of colonists from Britain motorway lorry holidays. movie theater
settle in Northern America. The first restroom schedule pavement highway truck
group had 120 people. The pace where they vacation.
settled was called Virginia 1620 the 34some other differences. BrE. AmE. in
Mayflower voyage – the Puritans from top gear football American football ground
England establish their settlements around floor. in high gear soccer football first
the modern area of Boston. floor.
15US History: early settlement. The 35BrE. AmE.
first permanent English colony in America 36BrE. AmE.
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