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What is a Game (3 of 3)
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The Game Development Process

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The Game Development Process

The Game Development Process.ppt
1The Game Development Process. Game 57done? 1 most everything, 2 for changing
Design. difficulty But many not done: Why cant
2Outline. The Creative Process Core you say to computer opponent: Hey, lets
Design Postmortems. build up a big army before we fight or
3Nurturing the Creative Process. Dont attack me since Im having fun
Creativity is not intellectual anarchy building Or, why cant you switch sides
Thoughts are associative generate new in a battle? Avoid making mutant versions
ideas by combining others (picture of of films, novels or even board games Use
lattice of association) Trick is to notice imagination for interactivity. Based on
patterns in association Say, similarity Chapter 3, Game Architecture and Design,
between post office delivery and network by Rollings and Morris.
traffic routing Facilitate creative 58Concentrate on Why not just What.
process Stuff head with concepts and Doesnt have to be about what happens Ex:
associations Cant notice association ER. Noah Wylie is avatar. With a sick
between Post Office and Network Routing if patient does he follow rules, give
dont know anything about either How? Read experimental drug, play basketball? But
(All great game designers?). Based on Ch not only way to be interactive. Instead,
7, On Game Design, by Chris Crawford and follow Noah, switch to patient, go to
Ch 2.2, The Game Development Process. other Dr., back to Noah (learn about
4Nurturing the Creative Process - Read. characters, the Why) Drama unfolds
Make reading a lifelong process Broaden because of understanding of characters
your reading More than SciFi and Fantasy True in non-interactive drama, so true in
books History, Religion, Politics, Culture games, too Ex: D&D dungeon, series of
Game Design books Wonder as you read (Why rooms w/monsters. Much richer if why
is the sky blue? Why do some coins have behind scenes. Why were dwarves there? Why
serrations on their edges?) Tightens up did they die? How orcs break in? Goal of
Web of associations Find answers to entertainment is to make audience care Use
wonders Once you find why sky is blue, interactivity as a way to powerful
will tell you why sunset is red (tightens technique to help this.
associations further) Help build overall 59Core Design. Brief, since overlaps
creative foundation. Based on Ch 7, On material in IMGD 1000. Critical Studies of
Game Design, by Chris Crawford and Ch 2.2, Interactive Media and Games Topics What is
The Game Development Process. a Game (Overmars + Ch2) Gameplay (Ch 3)
5Nurturing the Creative Process Play Game Balance (Ch 5) Look and Feel (Ch 6).
Games. More than computer games board Based on Game Architecture and Design, by
games Columbia Games, Avalon Hill, RPGs Rollings and Morris.
Example: LOTR Confrontation, Reiner Knizia 60Game Balance - Introduction. Beauty in
Even computer games, broaden Pick titles balanced games Like Rolls Royce or Ball
you would not otherwise play Like FPS Machine in Airport Game without balance
games? Fine. But try different genres often unsatisfying and wasted effort
Become a student of games. Learn from (parts not in balance not used, so wasted
them. Bargain bin, even, maybe not great effort) Broadly, game balance includes:
games but maybe great ideas. Based on Ch Player-Player advantage only in skill
7, On Game Design, by Chris Crawford and (can be luck, but should be equal to both)
Ch 2.2, The Game Development Process. Player-Gameplay learning curve matched
6Nurturing the Creative Process by reward Gameplay-Gameplay Composite
Sources of Inspiration. Perhaps games not longbow does twice damage, should cost
as broad as film Shoot em ups like twice $. Based on Chapter 5, Game
Alien RPGs like D&D Safe: Its Architecture and Design, by Rollings and
like Medal of Honor but in Desert Storm Morris.
how creative is that? Draw upon wide range 61Mini-Outline. Broadly, game balance
of sources for inspiration Opera, Movies includes: Player-Player (next)
with subtitles, Random lectures, scuba Player-Gameplay Gameplay-Gameplay.
diving anything to remove stale thinking 62Player/Player Balance (1 of 2). Ex:
Originality in gameplay, story, setting, Virtua Fighter (ask: who has played?) Say,
interface Freshness to one, great game Sarah Bryant beats Lion every time? Does
Freshness to all, new genre! Stephen King that mean unbalanced? No, look more
originality when put familiar together closely Suppose friend said could beat
in unexpected ways Ex: vampire in pirate everyone as Sarah Bryant all the time.
setting (turns to shark). Based on Ch 1, Would say prove it Would only be a
Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings problem if beginner as Sarah always beat
and Morris. expert as Lion And if could choose
7Nurturing the Creative Process - characters? Sarah versus Sarah? Based on
Brainstorm. Brainstorming has been much Chapter 5, Game Architecture and Design,
studied, and there have been found some by Rollings and Morris.
common elements Intense emotional 63Player/Player Balance (2 of 2). Allow
involvement Care about problem Creator to arrange victory by skill and judgment
struggles, mightily, but fails Quiescent Avoid results mostly as stroke of luck
period, creator is distracted Finally, Right from the start or magnified as game
brainstorm itself and solution leaps to progresses (ex: start close to gold mine
forefront It may even seem obvious at that provides escalating advantage) Simplest
time. Based on Ch 7, On Game Design, by way is to have symmetry Same weapons,
Chris Crawford and Ch 2.2, The Game maneuvers, hit points (sports do this)
Development Process. (But note, not always the most
8Having the Idea. How many industries interesting. Want different moves on
can claim to deal in daydreams? Dreams fighters, say. More later.). Based on
are where every game begins With an idea, Chapter 5, Game Architecture and Design,
dont implement or tie down to technology by Rollings and Morris.
Genius is 1% inspiration, 99% 64Symmetry - Example. Two heroes square
perspiration Edison Enjoy the 1% off for duel, poised in kung fu stance
because everything else is hard work Think Hours pass. Days pass. Breeze comes by,
of many raw ideas to throw into game May spec of dust in ones eye Blinks, frowns
come up with hybrid Look at what can then bows Know result without fight tiny
contribute to others so get emergent game. asymmetry enough to decide outcome If
Based on Ch 1, Game Architecture and breeze or dust decided game, is that ok?
Design, by Rollings and Morris. No youd want your money back! Dont
9Nurturing the Creative Process want to decide by factors out of control
Growing the Idea. Most ideas shouldnt Keep symmetric. Based on Chapter 5, Game
grow further Just because it is a creative Architecture and Design, by Rollings and
idea, does not mean it is a good one Be Morris.
aggressive at this point in your own mind 65Symmetry. Symmetry is fine in abstract
in ripping into your own idea Others soon games (ex: chess, even basketball) In
will, so you should first Then, when realistic games, would be problem (ex:
pushing the idea (to, say, a publisher) U.S. versus Iraq, game symmetry would be
through to a concept, make sure can bothersome since not realistic) While
protect, perhaps with partner easy, kind of an insult Ex: LOTR BfME
politically skilled. Based on Ch 7, On Wargs same as horses but Wargs can bite
Game Design, by Chris Crawford. in book/movie! Better is functional
10The Creative Process The Beginning. symmetry that is not obvious. Based on
Once you have an idea Is it really good? Chapter 5, Game Architecture and Design,
Worth spending time and money on? Even if by Rollings and Morris.
rehash should bring improvement to 66Symmetry in Level Design. Can avoid
original and new challenges Discuss with obvious symmetry Ex: each player has
someone that can appreciate the idea. impassible region on flank (water or
Based on pages 233+, Gameplay and Design, mountain range) Knights and soldiers cant
by Kevin Oxland. cross Later on, advanced units can cross
11The Creative Process Define the Choice of unit depends upon barrier
Product. Consider target audience Gather Mountaineers to storm, ships to cross sea
feedback from colleagues Think about core Or bluff, and then go up middle Players
objectives List the challenges Will help can choose asymmetric start location
determine genre Determine how player will Should not be deciding factor (Ex: you
interface Define unique features, choose downwind port, so you lose)
essential to gameplay Has features been Avoiding making start location critical
done before? If not, is there a reason why decision Ex: potential mines in many
not? Consider theme (not graphical theme) spots, so not critical. Based on Chapter
Solidify in two- to three-page document. 5, Game Architecture and Design, by
Based on pages 233+, Gameplay and Design, Rollings and Morris.
by Kevin Oxland. 67Symmetry in Game Design (1 of 2). Make
12The Creative Process Involving all choices for players functionally the
Others. Never design by committee The same Ex: Warcraft 2 humans have griffons
only useful document ever designed by a and orcs have dragons; both flying
committee is the constitution But blend toughies. But even slight differences make
of like-minded people can be very interesting Ex: Warcraft 2 orc players
effective Meet with team with one-pager runes explode, making use in mountain
Keep early meetings focused on design and passes good Just broken asymmetry easier
not on technical Write all ideas down, may to manage than total asymmetry (can
come in handy later Incorporate changes compensate). Based on Chapter 5, Game
into 2-3 page document Move on to Concept Architecture and Design, by Rollings and
Document. Based on pages 233+, Gameplay Morris.
and Design, by Kevin Oxland. 68Symmetry in Game Design (2 of 2).
13Outline. The Creative Process Core Making choices for players different, yet
Design (next) Postmortems. balanced is tougher Ex: Starcraft:
14Core Design. Topics What is a Game Protoss, Zergs, Terrans all very
Gameplay Interactivity Game Balance Look different (Same with Command and Conquer
and Feel. Based on Game Architecture and Generals) Imagine the hours of
Design, by Rollings and Morris. playtesting! Recommend only for deep
15What is a Game? (1 of 3). Movie? (ask: pockets Starcraft is often a benchmark
why not?) ? no interaction, outcome fixed against which to judge other RTS game
Toy? (has interaction ask: why not?) ? balance Also, if re-creating historical
no goal, but still fun (players can simulation, tradeoff between fairness and
develop own goals) Puzzle? (has goal + authenticity Ex: Conquistadors vs. Aztecs
interaction ask: why not?) ? strategy Aztecs are doomed, but may be no fun.
and outcome is the same each time A Certainly not symmetric. Based on Chapter
computer game is a software program in 5, Game Architecture and Design, by
which one or more players make decisions Rollings and Morris.
through the control of game objects and 69Mini-Outline. Broadly, game balance
resources, in pursuit of a goal. includes: Player-Player Player-Gameplay
Definitions (from Ch 2.2): Play - (next) Gameplay-Gameplay.
Interactions to elicit emotions Game - 70Player/Gameplay Balance Introduction
Object that provides rule-bound play Frame (1 of 2). Means remembering that the
- The border of a games context Inside business is about interactivity think
the frame is in the game Outside the frame about players relationship to the game
is real life Aesthetics - Emotional Ex: If had to tune the T.V. every time
responses during play General enough to channel surf, would not do it much
cover everything. Chapter 2.2, Likewise, should not struggle for small
Introduction to Game Development. reward Ex: Baldurs Gate (ask: whos
16What is a Game (2 of 3). A Computer played?) Attributes are 3-18 (ask: why?),
Game is a Software Program Not a board can re-roll if dont like. So, re-roll
game or sports Consider: chess vs. soccer until all 18s. Ugh. Test of endurance!
vs. Warcraft Ask: What do you lose? What Based on Chapter 5, Game Architecture and
do you gain? Lose: 1) physical pieces, 2) Design, by Rollings and Morris.
social interaction Gain: 1) real-time, 2) 71Player/Gameplay Balance Introduction
more immersive, 3) more complexity A (2 of 2). Player/Gameplay balance entails
Computer Game involves Players No, Duh. balancing challenges against players
But stress because think about audience. improvement curve Many RPGs have monsters
The game is not for you but for them. get tougher with level Ex: Diablo 2 does
Dont just think about your story or the this But boring if that is all since will
graphics or the interface, but consider feel the same Want widening options, too
the players. Ex: complicated flight Ex: character gets more abilities Three
simulator (say, you are a flying geek) but rules 1) Reward the player 2) Let the
audience is beginner. Based on Tutorial: machine do the work 3) Make a game that
What is a Good Game?, by Mark Overmars. you play with, not against. Based on
17What is a Game (3 of 3). Playing a Chapter 5, Game Architecture and Design,
Game is About Making Decisions Ex: what by Rollings and Morris.
weapon to use, what resource to build Can 72Reward the Player. Player will have to
be frustrating if decision does not matter learn. Will make mistakes (discouraging).
Want good gameplay (next major topic) Want to offset with reward when do
Playing a Game is About Control Player something right Ex: Virtua Fighter, takes
wants to impact outcome Uncontrolled longer to learn complicated moves Sarahs
sequences can still happen, but should be backflip. Reward comes from seeing flip
sparing and make logical Ex: Riven uses (eye candy) and punch in kidneys (payoff)
train system between worlds A Game Needs a Best when expand game options Ex: Now
Goal Ex: Defeat Ganandorf in Zelda Long with backflip, I can see new use for
games may have sub-goals Ex: recover reverse punch In general, better to
Triforce first, then Sword of Power reward player for something right than
Without game goals, a player develops punish for something wrong Punishment
his/her own (a toy). Based on Tutorial: makes players not want to play. Based on
What is a Good Game?, by Mark Overmars. Chapter 5, Game Architecture and Design,
18What a Game is Not (1 of 2). A bunch by Rollings and Morris.
of cool features Necessary, but not 73Let the Machine do the Work. Interface
sufficient May even detract, if not should show player the world and let
careful, by concentrating on features not him/her manipulate Computer is tool to
game A lot of fancy graphics Games need take care of wide-range of tedious tasks
graphics just as hit movie needs special If tasks are not fun, dont make player do
effect but neither will save weak idea them There is a blur of boundary between
Again, may detract Game must work without chore and game feature RPG could provide
fancy graphics Suggestion: should be fun graph so player can manually draw map as
with simple objects When a designer is explore but is that fun? Ex: In D&D,
asked how his game is going to make a can tell D.M. we go back to the dungeon
difference, I hope he talks about entrance. Easy, fun. What if a game makes
gameplay, fun and creativity as opposed player walk back over map that has been
to an answer that simply focuses on how seen? Boring, no fun. Ex: Myst provided
good it looks Sid Meier (Civilizations, lightning bolt move to avoid tedium (Ask:
Railroad Tycoon, Pirates). Based on other examples?) Also, if game option is
Chapter 2, Game Architecture and Design, no-brainer, consider AI taking care of it.
by Rollings and Morris. Based on Chapter 5, Game Architecture and
19What a Game is Not (2 of 2). A series Design, by Rollings and Morris.
of puzzles All games have them But not 74Make a Game that you Play With, Not
gameplay in themselves Puzzles are Against. Consider great story, graphics,
specific, game systems spawn more generic immersion but only progress by trial and
problems An intriguing story Good story error is this fun? Ex: crossbowman
encourages immersion But will mean nothing guards exit Run up and attack. Hes too
without gameplay Example: Baldurs Gate, fast. Back to save point (more on save
linear story. Going wrong way gets you points next). Drink potion. Sneak up. He
killed. But not interactive. Interaction shoots you. Back to save. Drop bottle as
in world all leads to same end. Based on distraction. He comes looking. Shoots you.
Chapter 2, Game Architecture and Design, Back to save. Drink potion. Drop bottle.
by Rollings and Morris. He walks by you. You escape! Lazy design!
20Games are Not Everything. Most Should succeed by skill and judgment, not
important is it fun, compelling, trial and error. Based on Chapter 5, Game
engaging? And these come from a superset Architecture and Design, by Rollings and
of games Computers are good at Morris.
interactivity Allow for interactive fun 75Specific Example - The Save Game
Interactive Media and Game Development ? Problem (1 of 2). Designer talking about
Examples: SimCity - very compelling, but RPG Designer: Ive got a great trap!
mostly no goals. More of toy than a game, platform goes down to room. Player thinks
but still fun. Grim Fandango - good treasure but really flame throwers. Player
visuals, story, etc. But need to do is toast! Tester: What if player jumps
puzzles to proceed. Could have skipped to off? D: Thinks its a loophole Ok,
just watch story. Would still have been teleport in then toast T: What is the
fun without the gameplay. solution? D: There isnt one.
21Core Design. Topics What is a Game (surprised) Its a killer trap. It will
Gameplay Game Balance Look and Feel. be fun. T: So, theres no clue for
22Approaching Game Design. Used to be player? Charred remains on platform or
thought that could not teach game design something? D: No. Thats what the Save
more of an art But you can teach art! feature is for.. Based on Chapter 5, Game
(AR1000 + ) Even to art, there are Architecture and Design, by Rollings and
technical disciplines such as in music, Morris.
film, poetry So, consider computer game 76Specific Example - The Save Game
designs as are an art form ? Game design Problem (1 of 2). Should be used only so
practices can be taught. Chapter 2.2, players can go back to their Real Lives?
Introduction to Game Development. in between games Or maybe to allow player
23Game Theory. Some designers approach to fully see folly of actions, for
Game Theory thinking it will help design exploratory and dabbling Dont design game
games Rather, it is a theory about games around need to save Has become norm for
are played Game theory is Branch of many games, but too bad Ex: murderous
economics Systems governed by rules level can only get by trying all combat
Mathematically analyzed to determine options Beginner player should be able to
payoffs of various end points. Game theory reason and come up with answer Challenges
assumes rational players Abstract model get tougher (more sophisticated reasoning)
players not real people Always try to as player and game progress, so appeals to
maximize their potential utility Solve more advanced player But not trial and
problems using pure logic Always fully error. Based on Chapter 5, Game
aware of the state of the game. Chapter Architecture and Design, by Rollings and
2.2, Introduction to Game Development. Morris.
24Gameplay. Gameplay Collective 77Mini-Outline. Broadly, game balance
strategies to reach end points of game includes: Player-Player Player-Gameplay
theory Specific to game activities What Gameplay-Gameplay (next).
the player does Includes Utility - A 78Gameplay/Gameplay Balance. Challenges
measure of desire associated with an when balancing aspects of gameplay? Want
outcome Payoffs - The utility value for a variety of interesting choices, rather
given outcome Preference - The bias of than single, dominant choice Best choices
players towards utility Note, gameplay is depend upon choices of other players (or
not everything Choice of car in GTA is not on AI) Not easy to see how frequently
always about payoff, but about what is fun different choices will be worth making,
Software doesnt have to have gameplay to but need to know to balance game Sounds
be entertaining consider SimCity No one like catch-22? Can use simple concepts to
expects gameplay in movies or plays Who make first guess Then lots of play testing
says: Hey, where is the gameplay in to fine tune! ? Based on Chapter 5, Game
Hamlet? Rule 1: It should be fun Architecture and Design, by Rollings and
(entertainment) Rule 2: It should be Morris.
interactive (make use of computer, else 79Component Balance. Two levels to
perhaps use film) Rule 3: It can have balancing: component and attribute
gameplay (but that is choice). Based on Component balance deals with relative
Chapter 3, Game Architecture and Design, values (ex: cost and strength) Attribute
by Rollings and Morris. involves interaction of abilities (ex:
25Gameplay Example (1 of 2). Adventure speed versus hit points) Talk about
game: knight, dwarf, priest, thief During component first, attribute later Establish
combat, knight and dwarf in front, thief the value of each game choice For game
fires arrows Priest casts spells (assume balance, each choice must be reducible to
all cost the same) E-bolts (do damage simple value and factors must even out Ex:
equal to sword) Band-aids (heal equal to Pirate game Dreadnoughts > Galleons
sword) Which spell should Priest cast? > Brigantines All have identical
Ask: against single opponent (they are functions If Dreadnoughts 2x powerful,
equal) Ask: against opponent with 6 arms then (for balance) Galleons should take ?
(bolts) Ask: against many opponents with time to spawn. Based on Chapter 5, Game
weak attacks (band-aids) ? Can always Architecture and Design, by Rollings and
decide which is better Not so interesting. Morris.
Based on Chapter 3, Game Architecture and 80What if Not Easily Reducible? Ex:
Design, by Rollings and Morris. Starcraft Mutalisks fly over any terrain,
26Gameplay Example (2 of 2). Now, but cannot fight other fliers Wraiths are
suppose Band-aids still affect single not as tough, but can attack other fliers
target but e-bolts have an area affect Observers can see enemy, but not fight ?
E-bolts do less damage, but armor doesnt There is no expression for values since
make a difference Now, which spell should different things! Ex: Pirate game
Priest cast? Answer isnt as easy. Dreadnoughts slowest, Brigantines fastest
Interesting choices. Good gameplay. A ? Interesting from gameplay, but what
game is a series of interesting choices. about balance? Based on Chapter 5, Game
- Sid Meier (pirates, civilization). Architecture and Design, by Rollings and
Based on Chapter 3, Game Architecture and Morris.
Design, by Rollings and Morris. 81Attribute Balance. Involves not the
27Implementing Gameplay (1 of 4). Choice relative values, but the way the choices
A question asked of the player Outcome The interact Ex: How important is ship speed
end result of a given choice Possibility relative to combat strength? Envision as a
space Represents the set of possible set, where relative values based on one
events A landscape of choice and factor only: Speed: Brigantines >
outcome. Chapter 2.2, Introduction to Game Galleons > Dreadnoughts Tuffness:
Development. Dreadnoughts > Galleons >
28Implementing Gameplay (2 of 4). Brigantines Range: Can then combine to
Choices must be non-trivial, with upside get average set combining all factors
and downside If only upside, AI should Then, adjust component values (often,
take care of it If only downside, no-one through play testing) so all units are
will ever use it Note, this is only useful. Based on Chapter 5, Game
regarding game theory Ex: Could have ray Architecture and Design, by Rollings and
gun that plays music. Cool, but soon Morris.
gimme the BFG Ex: Nintendos Smash Bros 82Component versus Attribute Balance.
has Taunt ask: what for? Ask: other Mnemonic to remember: Component choices
examples from popular games? Gameplay are about artifacts Ex: Hmm. Should I use
value when upside and downside and payoff the ion cannon or laser? Attribute
depends upon other factors Ex: Rohan choices are more abstract regarding use:
horsemen, but what if other player Ex: I should sneak past troll or take
recruits pikemen? Ex: Bazooka, but what if extra health Attribute balance is harder
other player gets out of tank? Based on (set of all problems) But if can get
Chapter 3, Game Architecture and Design, approximate picture of better strategies,
by Rollings and Morris. can tweak component costs to get game
29Implementing Gameplay (3 of 4). balance. Based on Chapter 5, Game
Well-designed choice Often desirable and Architecture and Design, by Rollings and
undesirable effects Should relate to Morris.
player goals Qualities of Choice (from 83Intransitive Game Mechanics (1 of 5).
book, Ch 2.2) Hollow lacking consequence Rock. Paper. Scissors. Rock. 0. -1. +1.
Obvious leaves no choice to be made Paper. +1. 0. -1. Scissors. -1. +1. 0.
Uninformed arbitrary decision Weighted Payoff, match your choice with opponent
good and bad in every choice Dramatic Suppose I always picked rock. Then
strongly connects to feelings Immediate opponent would notice and pick paper. Then
effects are immediate Long-term effects I would start to always pick scissors,
over extended period Orthogonal choices then spiral to center of triangle where
distinct from each other. Chapter 2.2, all options equal only break even, like
Introduction to Game Development. thermodynamics. Based on Chapter 5, Game
30Implementing Gameplay (4 of 4). Should Architecture and Design, by Rollings and
be series of interesting choices Ex: Use Morris.
of health potion now may depend upon 84Intransitive Game Mechanics (2 of 5).
whether have net for capturing more Suppose scissors costs most, rock costs
fairies Having net may depend upon whether least May use rock more often, scissors
needed space for more arrows for bow less But wait, that would mean paper less
Needing arrows may depend upon whether useful, too what is optimum choice now?
killed all flying zombie bats yet Hence, Suppose scissors costs 3 ki, paper costs 2
well designed game should require strategy ki, rock costs 1 ki and hit does 5 ki
Game must display complexity But doesnt damage. Rock. Paper. Scissors. Rock. 0.
mean it must be complex! Dont make too -4. +7. Paper. +4. 0. -4. Scissors. -7.
many rules. Less if more. Real world +4. 0. Ex: I choose scissors, you choose
example: termites place one piece of mud. rock. Ki diff is 2. Plus damage is 5, so
Results in hive, with cooling vents, etc. 7 total.
Emergence from interaction of rules Ex: 85Intransitive Game Mechanics (3 of 5).
Priests convert, but not if already in Say payoff is R, P, S and frequency r, p,
combat (Me: see what game) Ask: examples s Want to know how often used (r, p, s)
from popular games? Based on Chapter 3, Net payoff R is (0 x r) + (-4 x p) + (7 x
Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings s) 1) R = -4p + 7s 2) P = 4r 4s 3) S =
and Morris. -7r + 4p Sum must be zero (zero sum game,
31The Dominant Strategy Problem. whatever one player gains other loses.
Articles with 10 killer tactics or Both cannot have net gain.) R + P + S = 0
ultimate weapon Ask: what are these All costs must be equal else would favor
doing? ? Taking advantage of flaws in the (remember, triangle example) R = P = S.
game design! Should never have a option Based on Chapter 5, Game Architecture and
not worth using Dominated strategy Should Design, by Rollings and Morris.
never have an option that is so good, it 86Intransitive Game Mechanics (4 of 5).
is never worth doing anything else Solve: (3 equations in 3 unknowns) (eq1)
Dominant strategy. Based on Chapter 3, -4p + 7s = 4r 4s (eq2) 11s = 4r + 4p ? s
Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings = (4r+4p) / 11 (eq2) 0 = 4r 4(4r+4p)/11
and Morris. 0 = 44r 16r - 16p 0 = 28r - 16p ? p =
32Near Dominance. Worth looking for near (7/4)r (eq3) 0 = -4(7/4)r + 7s 0 = 7r + 7s
dominance, too Near-dominated useful r = s Ratio ? r:p:s = 1 : 1.75 : 1 Rock
only very narrow circumstance and Scissors used 27%, Paper about 46%
Near-dominant used most of the time Ex: Probably not what expected. Often result
stun gun only useful against raptors, so if one option more expensive, others are
only useful on raptor level (near most affected. Based on Chapter 5, Game
dominated) Do I want it used more often? Architecture and Design, by Rollings and
How much effort on this feature? Should I Morris.
put in lots of special effects? Ex: flurry 87Intransitive Game Mechanics (5 of 5).
of blows most useful attack (near Can use technique to adjust costs Ex: if
dominant) by Monk Should we spend extra it turns out too many tanks relative to
time for effects? Based on Chapter 3, Game infantry Enhance to more choices. Ex:
Architecture and Design, by Rollings and could do combination moves. Rock +
Morris. Scissors + Scissors = Garden Shears Could
33Avoid Trivial Choices (1 of 2). be countered with Paper Weight Strategy
Horsemen ? Archers ? Pikemen Transitive, becomes complicated (Can also use to
not so interesting Horsemen ? Archers ? justify spending more artistic assets on
Pikemen ? Horsemen (picture) Ask: what paper!) Fine, all is balanced. Players
game does this look like? must avoid predictability because clever
(rock-paper-scissors) Intransitive, more opponent will exploit. But that is barely
interesting Ex: from LOTR Battle for above where have only 1 choice! To balance
Middle Earth Horsemen fast, get to archers so interesting, must have attribute
quickly with lances Pikemen spears hurt factors that interact (remember, the
horsemen bad Pikemen slow, so archers wail Battle of Hastings). Based on Chapter 5,
on them from afar. (Will look at game Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings
balance in depth, next topic). Based on and Morris.
Chapter 3, Game Architecture and Design, 88Other Intransitive Relationships. Can
by Rollings and Morris. extend RPS? Sure (otherwise not useful)
34Avoid Trivial Choices (2 of 2). A More than 3 options ? Table 5.3 and Case
beats B, B beats C, C beats A (could Study 5.5 Less regular are 4 options ?
hardwire) But could also have how much Table 5.4 Figure 5.7 discusses another
better 1) Single horseman can beat any 4-way relationship Infantry dominated But,
number of archers: Horseman ? Archers (?) looking further, infantry only one that
2) Single horseman barely beat an archer: doesnt have to move Can hold territory!
Horseman ? Archers (1.1) Ask: Which is (In game that needs that) Ex: In AoE,
better? Trick question! Both are bad Case could teleport supplies by building
1) equal number of each, all others lose base. Didnt need to hold territory.
Case 2) doesnt matter which you choose Infantry useless. Even making them cost
Dont want to hardwire. Sometimes A way less doesnt (expansion pack). Still great
better than B, sometimes a bit better, game, but didnt need. Based on Chapter 5,
sometimes worse The answer should depend Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings
upon the game situation, weather, terrain, and Morris.
time also what opponent is doing. Based 89Combinatorial Explosions. How many
on Chapter 3, Game Architecture and attributes should there be to make
Design, by Rollings and Morris. interesting? Too few? Then becomes trivial
35Environment + Rules = Gameplay. Battle (Ex: in Hastings, only way to change power
of Hastings, 1066 A.D. King Harold tired, base is to put infantry on hill) Too many?
mostly infantry Duke William more archers, Then too hard to have skilled play Rule of
cavalry Archers beat slower infantry ? thumb: N factors that could modify core
game over Not quite Harold on hill mechanics, and each boolean (hill or not,
(arrows less effective) and defensive mode rain or not ) ? 2N possible combinations
Archers tire ? game over Not quite explodes rapidly Err on the side of
William also smart, cavalry approach, but caution In Populous (EA god-game), should
retreat. Infantry break ranks since they have lots of characters or half-dozen?
are frustrated, charge Arrows now shred Noticed would be easier to understand game
Infantry ? Harold loses, game over Point: experience with few, versatile units
ways to change balance between different rather than many specific ones. Richard
troop types. A good commander isnt the Leinfellner, Exec in charge of Bullfrog.
one with the best army; he is the one who Based on Chapter 5, Game Architecture and
knows how to use it best. Design, by Rollings and Morris.
http://www.battle1066.com/. Based on 90Design Scalability. Intransitive
Chapter 3, Game Architecture and Design, designs are inflexible If have 5 way
by Rollings and Morris. relationship and remove one, will have
36Ensuring Interesting Choices (1 of 3). dominated strategy Ex: RPS and remove R
Ex: Elite (early 80s, ask: who played?) always choose S If project lead says
Accumulate wealth by trading When 1000 behind schedule, so dont include 5th orc
credits, trade lazer for better lazer and type ? Elegant design falls like a house
have 400 left over for trading. No of cards But is relatively easy to add
brainer. Always a win. What if could buy components Doesnt have to be symmetrical,
lazer with 600? Then no credits left over. can be redundant or useful in only a few
Decision is tougher. Point: keep difficult cases Ex: scout, or special spell Lesson,
choices in hands of player Ask: other if you are going to scale, scale up not
examples? Based on Chapter 3, Game down. Based on Chapter 5, Game
Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Architecture and Design, by Rollings and
Morris. Morris.
37Ensuring Interesting Choices (2 of 3). 91A Game Balance Checklist (1 of 3).
Kinds of choices in gameplay can involve Player-Player ensures game is fair.
options: 1) Should sometimes be taken, Increasingly important as multiplayer
sometimes not 2) Timing is critical and increases. Symmetry works for this, but
depends upon context (upgrade armor or asymmetry may be needed or more appealing
build more troops) 3) Makes little (try just broken). Make sure any
difference whether taken or not 4) Always asymmetry doesnt magnify imbalance as
worth taking (target nearest) 5) Never game progresses. Golden rule: a player
worth taking (remove armor, pay guy for should never be put in an unwinnable
tapestry in Vici) First and Second most situation through no fault of their own.
interesting Third valid, but really only Based on Chapter 5, Game Architecture and
chrome Fourth should be handled by AI Design, by Rollings and Morris.
Fifth should seriously consider removing. 92A Game Balance Checklist (2 of 3).
Based on Chapter 3, Game Architecture and Player-Game ensures player never becomes
Design, by Rollings and Morris. frustrated. Continually brings player back
38Ensuring Interesting Choices (3 of 3). for more. Interface should not present
Interesting choices require good judgment obstacles. Small rewards are needed to
on the part of the player Correct choice guide player (fancy animation or new
must vary with circumstances Aim as powers). Best rewards widen options.
designer, ensure circumstances dont Golden rule: The game should be fun to
stagnate and have only one right way to learn as well as to play, and it should be
win No method for finding best choices more fun the more you master it. Based on
Thats where creativity comes in (art) Chapter 5, Game Architecture and Design,
Still, some tips Based on Chapter 3, by Rollings and Morris.
Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings 93A Game Balance Checklist (3 of 3).
and Morris. Gameplay-Gameplay makes sure no element
39Toolbox of Interesting Choices. redundant or useless. Can do briefly by
Strategic versus Tactical Supporting making factor table for each attribute
Investments Versatility Compensating (fire, range ) Make sure each best at
Factors Impermanence Shadow Costs. something. RPS ensures each component
40Strategic versus Tactical (1 of 3). dynamically best rather than statically
Strategic choices affect course of game so. Oblige player to alter tactics. Dont
over medium or long term Tactical choices have to have every component equally
apply right now Ex: build archers or useful. But cost, availability and ease of
swordsmen (strategic) Ex: send archers or use should reflect value. Get right
swordsmen to defend against invading force through playtesting. Golden rule: all
(tactical) Strategic choices have effect options in game must be worth using
on tactical choices later Ex: if dont sometime, net cost of each option must be
build archers, cant use tactically later. on par with payoff. Based on Chapter 5,
Based on Chapter 3, Game Architecture and Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings
Design, by Rollings and Morris. and Morris.
41Strategic versus Tactical (2 of 3). 94Look and Feel. (Me: consider skipping
Ex: StarCraft Strategic choice: 1 ) this whole section) Create a sense of
upgrade range of marines, 2) upgrade alternate reality Immersion Ambience
damage, or 3) research faster fire Which Interface Storytelling. Based on Chapter
to choose? If armored foes, Protoss 6, Game Architecture and Design, by
Zealot, more damage If fast foes, Rollings and Morris.
Zerglings, maybe faster fire Other 95Ambience. Everything that contributes
factors: number of marines, terrain, on to innate look and feel of game Not just
offense or defense. Based on Chapter 3, spiffy graphics - GLFOPS and trilinear
Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings filtering Rather, how graphics are used
and Morris. Two fighters on bare stage. Fine. How
42Strategic versus Tactical (3 of 3). about dirty street, realistic crowd
Ex: Warzone 2100 (ask: who played?) Build hooting and hollering. Dark skies Ex:
factories to spawn war machines If build Fiery hell when battling boss in
in level, then spawn quickly but factory Battlegrounds Ambience is about providing
only used for that level If build at base, background for story Broadly Sound,
spawn slowly (have to ship to front lines) Vision, Touch. Based on Chapter 6, Game
but factory can be used in subsequent Architecture and Design, by Rollings and
levels Lesson: Good gameplay should have Morris.
different choices leading to different 96Sound. Wistful guitar in Diablo Ethnic
kinds of payoff Reduces the risk of rhythms in AoE Stirring call to arms in
trivial choices Increase scope for good Warcraft Whimsical in QBicles Best does
judgment. Based on Chapter 3, Game ambience plus gameplay Ex: Thief Come out
Architecture and Design, by Rollings and taffer, looking for you Just a rat, you
Morris. are safe Ex: LOTR Stirring music when
43Supporting Investments. Often game has level nearly over (but can still die!).
primary goal (ex: beat enemy) but Based on Chapter 6, Game Architecture and
secondary goals (ex: build farms for Design, by Rollings and Morris.
resources) Some expenditures directly 97Vision. The "look" of the
impact primary goal (ex: hire soldier), game Concept art Broad strokes, not pixel
while others indirect (ex: build farm) finished detail Rough sketches of
called supporting investments Primary characters or settings. - Paolo Piselli.
goals are one-removed Ex: improve Based on Chapter 6, Game Architecture and
weapons, build extra barracks Supporting Design, by Rollings and Morris.
goals are two-removed Ex: build smithy 98Vision Example. Movie. Concept Art.
can then improve weapons Ex: research 99Touch. Not really touch, but
construction lets you build smithy and physicality of games look and feel
build barracks (two and three removed) handling of game Ex: early animation
Most interesting since strategic Payoff characters did not move right Disney
will depend upon what opponents do. Based pioneered with physical attributes that
on Chapter 3, Game Architecture and felt right, moved with weight Contrast Ex:
Design, by Rollings and Morris. comic-book acrobatics in Smash Bros Ex:
44Versatility (1 of 2). Rule of thumb is bouncing vehicles in Mario Kart Ex:
to ask what is best and worst about realistic crashes in Mid-town Madness Ex:
choices: 1) This move does most damage, super-players in Lego Soccer Ex: realism
but slowest 2) This move is fastest, but in Madden (actually, guys 1.5 times
makes defenseless 3) This move best faster). Based on Chapter 6, Game
defense, but little damage 4) This neither Architecture and Design, by Rollings and
best nor worst, but most versatile Most Morris.
should be best in some way Versatile good 100Interface. Ideal is transparent Ex:
for beginners flexibility (against LOTR BfME novel way when click expands
unpredictable or expert opponent). Based with choices Ex: Status can be in
on Chapter 3, Game Architecture and formation or appearance (not health
Design, by Rollings and Morris. hit-points, say) Doesnt have to be
45Versatility (2 of 2). Ex: beam can invisible Ex: racing game expects dash Ex:
mine asteroids and shoot enemies flight sim interface can look like cockpit
Versatility makes it good choice Speed is Ex: less is more (small square more
common way for versatility Dont make fast annoying than framing with interface) Can
units best If a versatile unit is also enhance look and feel. Based on Chapter 6,
cheapest and most powerful ? no Game Architecture and Design, by Rollings
interesting choice (See Compensating and Morris.
Factors, next). Based on Chapter 3, Game 101Storytelling. No need of story? After
Architecture and Design, by Rollings and all, supposed to be interactive. If you
Morris. want to tell a story, write a book. Bah.
46Compensating Factors. Consider Consider choose your own adventure Ex:
strategy game where all units impeded by Doom two factions 1) Strong setting and
some terrain Ships cant go on land, tanks backstory enhance game 2) Story? We dont
cant cross water, camel riders only in need no stinking story! Action takes care
dessert Assume flying unit that can go of itself Interactive can help user create
anywhere (Ask: how to balance?) 1) Make story Ex: Half-life Stronger want to
slow 2) Make weak, easily destroyed 3) suspend disbelief of user but need to make
Make low surveillance range (unrealistic) them want to suspend Ex: Starwars merely
4) Make expensive Note, last choice common some sword fights and vehicle chases. Need
but uninteresting since doesnt change to know who Luke is, why hes in the
tactical use Choice should be clear to spaceship. Why the battle Based on
player. Dont make a gamble before they Chapter 6, Game Architecture and Design,
know. Ex: pick troops (cold weather) then by Rollings and Morris.
find in jungle. Based on Chapter 3, Game 102Toolbox of Storytelling Techniques.
Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Best ? not chunks of action with static
Morris. facts Details revealed to audience let
47Impermanence (1 of 2). Some permanent them figure it out Get emotional
(ex: you get to treasure first), others involvement from audience Storytellers
not (ex: I got storage near mine, but you knew tricks for creating good stories long
can grab it off me) Really, another kind before Shakespeare Game Designers should
of compensating factor I.e. impermanence employ Obstacles, Plot Points,
can compensate for something being really Foreshadowing (More next). Based on
good Can be used for interesting choices Chapter 6, Game Architecture and Design,
Ex: choice of medium armor for rest of by Rollings and Morris.
game or invulnerable for 30 seconds? 103Obstacles. Old man runs to hero in
Advantage (or disadvantages) can be inn. Says Vampire on hill. You have to
impermanent in number of ways: Based on kill it. Poor Old man enters inn. Avoids
Chapter 3, Game Architecture and Design, hero. Purchases crucifix from another.
by Rollings and Morris. Mumbles you better have one if you are in
48Impermanence (2 of 2). (Examples these parts. Not great, but better. Has
mostly from Magic the Gathering obstacle Viewer must find out
Battlegrounds) Can be destroyed himself/herself Tricked into level of
(enchantments, ex: gratuitous violence acceptance not obtained if just told, too
makes units tough, but can be destroyed) artificial. Based on Chapter 6, Game
Can be stolen or converted (ex: threaten Architecture and Design, by Rollings and
steals or converts enemy for short time) Morris.
Can be applied to something you dont 104Foreshadowing. A story depicts the
always have (ex: goblin king gives bonus intrusion of the world on status quo Ex:
to goblins, but must have goblins) Certain AoE settlement grows to large city Ex:
number of uses (ex: three grenades, but Total Recall construction worker spy
grenade spamming) Last for some time Foreshadowing occurs early, before
(wears off, ex: Mario invulnerable star) intrusion, hints at what is to come Ex:
Common in games, but deserves special AoE small bandits come, fought off Ex:
attention. Based on Chapter 3, Game Total Recall dream of spy. Based on
Architecture and Design, by Rollings and Chapter 6, Game Architecture and Design,
Morris. by Rollings and Morris.
49Shadow Costs (1 of 2). In a game, 105Personalization. Novice author Ex:
continually presented with costs and save the world, because big But not
trade-offs. But not all direct. Ex: compelling, so only you can save it Still
soldiers for gold, but need armory first weak Need to add person reason so audience
for weapons and barracks for soldiers cares Ex: you have two hours to save the
Called shadow costs for supporting world versus you have two hours to find
investments Can make flow chart mapping your niece lost at sunset Ex: Luke told
shadow costs. Based on Chapter 3, Game must save galaxy. Why? Drawn in by
Architecture and Design, by Rollings and personal (Princess Leia) Careful not to
Morris. make personal hook in backstory might
50Shadow Costs (2 of 2). Ex: Age of skip. Based on Chapter 6, Game
Mythology has wood and food. Food is Architecture and Design, by Rollings and
inexhaustible, wood is finite Charioteer Morris.
Costs 60 wood, 40 food and 40 seconds to 106Resistance. Back of mind saying it
spawn Shadow costs vary over game Early isnt true Need to pull them along Ex:
on, food and wood expensive, spawn doesnt Bruce Willis, drinking at dingy strip
matter Mid-game, much food and wood, spawn club. Two suits say you must save
makes it harder to pump out new units president from terrorist. Does he jump up
End-game, no wood, spawn is priceless Use and get to work? No. Snarls Im retired.
variability to add subtlety to game. Vary Takes another drink. We want him to change
environment and vary shadow costs (ex: his mind. Rooting for him before main
more trees to vary cost of wood) Challenge character does. Based on Chapter 6, Game
for level designer Expert players will Architecture and Design, by Rollings and
appreciate. Based on Chapter 3, Game Morris.
Architecture and Design, by Rollings and 107Plot Points (1 of 2). Importance of
Morris. confounding expectations Ex: Gandalf on
51Review: Use Tools from Toolbox of quest to Mount Doom. Boring if that is
Interesting Choices. Strategic versus exactly what happens Gets killed early on
Tactical Supporting Investments (and comes back), not expected Adventure
Versatility Compensating Factors games benefit most, but can do for other
Impermanence Shadow Costs Groupwork: Use games, too Aristotle reversal,
1-2 in a game about graduating from discovery, calamity Ex: trying to save
college. Discuss. kid, causing her death (reversal) Ex:
52Synergies (1 of 2). Synergies are finding Swiss account number on victim
interaction between different elements of (discovery) Ex: bomb going off, killing
players strategies (note, terms may be hero (calamity). Based on Chapter 6, Game
different than ch 2.2). Positive Feedback Architecture and Design, by Rollings and
Economies of Scale the more of one type, Morris.
the better (ex: wizards draw strength from 108Plot Points (2 of 2). Games, too. Ex:
each other) Economies of Scope the more strategy game find cliff so army built
of a set, the better, or advantage of up wont work (reversal) Ex: tunnel for
combined arms (ex: trident and net, small commando force (discovery) Whammo
infantry and tanks). Negative Feedback every 10 minutes, turn story in different
Diseconomies of scale first is most direction Big ones (Luke, I am your
useful, others have less benefit (ex: father) divide into levels or acts Movies
diminishing returns from more peasants - setup, conflict, resolution But games
entering a mine since get in each others whole season (40 hours), not one movie
way) Diseconomies of scope (ex: mixed Best if can integrate in game without
troops go only as fast as slowest). cut-scenes Early plot points deepen
53Synergies (2 of 2). Ideally, all go mystery, later clear it up (not always
together at once, but can emphasize Ex: completely) Overarching structure,
Chess is a game of positive feedback Small hierarchical in plot points. Based on
advantage early on, exploited to crushing Chapter 6, Game Architecture and Design,
advantage Game of negative feedback needs by Rollings and Morris.
other ways to keep interesting Ex: trench 109Suspense. Ex: Unbeatable foe (Gorgon,
combat makes a catch-up factor, or as only beat by lure to trap). With save
get far from base, supply long grows, game game let hero try. After 9 times, try
lasts a long time Ex: Super NES NBA Jam something else. Death of lead character
catch up setting as an equalizer Be aware destroys illusion Instead, provide clues,
of each. suspense. Bodies, rotting, see NPC get
54Final Word on Gameplay. Need to make eaten. Hear sounds. Can see gorgon survive
sure choices interact Ex: no fun winning rock crash. Based on Chapter 6, Game
just because out-optimize guy on resource Architecture and Design, by Rollings and
production Ex: no fun if winning just Morris.
because know right thing to do else lose ? 110Dialog. One picture worth a thousand
no game, just forgone conclusion Want words Dont have needless dialog when
choices to interact with choices of visual will do Good dialog serves more
opponent, want it to depend. than one purpose Ex: telling about bomb.
55Interactivity versus Gameplay. How long? Plenty of time smoke
Gameplay is important because it allows cigarette, call mom dont read War and
you to take the experience someplace Ex: Peace. Reminds of mortality. Dont tell
Kick the soccer ball around, practice what know, but also reveal Do you expect
headers, bicycle kicks, etc. me to talk? No, Mr. Bond, I expect you
(interactivity) Play a game of soccer on to die Surprise. Based on Chapter 6, Game
the pitch (interactivity + gameplay) Can Architecture and Design, by Rollings and
you have gameplay without interactivity? Morris.
Maybe. But even so, gameplay without 111Resolution. Should be: Hard won no
interactivity could be fun (ie- reward is satisfying if too easy (most
television), but would start wondering if computer games not this) Not obvious
time is better spent doing something else dont want ending one been seeing for 10
Interactivity is more important that hours (yet should still make sense looking
gameplay Interactivity without gameplay back) Satisfying usually morally (hero
can be fun Ex: Black and White, Sims wins) but could be aesthetically (tragedy)
Interactivity is the heart and soul of Consistent with character, style
entertainment software. Based on Chapter development Achieve closure resolve
3, Game Architecture and Design, by story Many examples of stories/games where
Rollings and Morris. above fails Diablo 2 defeat Diablo
56Kinds of Interactivity (1 of 2). Can then 60 seconds to end. Might and Magic 2
interact in many ways game designers long struggle, mystery. Very end,
sometimes restrict themselves to facts Ex: control panel 15 minutes to decode
if you hit w/BFG, do 50 points damage Fourscore and seven years Solved it,
Think broadly. Player could potentially: asteroid missed, thank you and go home Ex:
1) Directly control characters (Ex: move A Christmas Story decoder ring drink
Laura Croft) 2) Affect world (Ex: make Ovaltine. Based on Chapter 6, Game
Stronghold guys insane) 3) Influence Architecture and Design, by Rollings and
characters actions at one remove (Ex: give Morris.
weapons, like Zeus to a hero) 4) Influence 112Change. Stories set in interesting
at two removes (Ex: provide inspiration, times No Sir Gawain shops for bread.
like a Muse) 5) Decide who to follow, Rather, marries hag, one week until green
rather than what to follow (Ex: observer knight chops head off Sometimes, return
mode) 6) Select what parts are interesting to normal Inner change is often point of
and give more time to that (Ex: like a story No Frodo lives in Shire with
child with a bedtime story, Saahil likes friends, rather learns of evil,
the hero build up and powers most). Based innocence to self-knowledge. Based on
on Chapter 3, Game Architecture and Chapter 6, Game Architecture and Design,
Design, by Rollings and Morris. by Rollings and Morris.
57Kinds of Interactivity (2 of 2). (Ask: 113Whats Next? Art (2d, 3d, audio)
others?) In the above list, how many are Architecture Wrap up.
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The Game Development Process

The Game Development Process

The green movement - Their features. Management of each such branch in which head there is a chief executive, carries out national board. "Green" movement in the world. The main objective to achieve the decision of global environmental problems, including by attraction to them of attention of the public and the authorities.

The animals - The animals which live in the forest. LIZARD. The animals which live in the polar regions. GRIFFIN. STARFISH. FOX. EMU. WHALE. BOBCAT. BEAR. The animals which live in the OCEAN. BISON. PARROT. SCORPIO. ZEBRA. The ANIMALS of our planet. HIPPO. KANGAROO. PANDA. REINDEER. GIRAFFE. The animals which live in Australia.

The english-speaking countries - Scotland. Disneyland. USA. Australia. The English-speaking countries. Great Britain.

the woman - . Un homme- . A man - . . Chickens mind- . . Der mann- . . As great a pity to see a woman cry as a goose go barefoot. = .

The black death - Over the next few years a quarter of them died. Yersinia pestis. Plaque doctor. The disease struck and killed people with terrible speed. The causative agent of the plague is Yersinia pestis bacterium. It is estimated to have killed 25 million people or 30% of the population of China. Then it was known as "the great plague" or "the great contagion".

House - AIR MAIL. : (house & home). I live (3) ______ 16 Queen Street. I am (1) ______ England. . My first letter is p. My fifth letter is p too. : (). . house home. .

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