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The suez crisis 1956

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1THE SUEZ CRISIS 1956. 12extremely successful and Pearson won the
2 Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts.
3 13The United Nations. The UN responded
4Aswan Dam Project. to the crisis when actual conflict started
5Aswan Dam Project. Nasser angered by with the invasion of Egypt. The UN
the British halting its funding for the condemned the actions of France and
Dam; retaliated by declaring the Britain and the members of the Security
nationalization of the Suez Canal (which Council proposed an end to hostilities.
was initially British and French owned) - However this was vetoed by France and
leaders of Middle East, who were overjoyed Britain. The discussion of the crisis was
that Western control of this important eventually moved to the General Assembly
gateway had ceased. To them it was the where a resolution was passed for cease
symbol of a new era and an end to foreign fire. Also a proposal by Pearson for a
domination. peace keeping force was supported and the
6RECAP: THEREFORE..... UN sent a force of 6000 soldiers to Egypt
7The Suez Crisis 1956. Great Britain on the first peace keeping mission. This
and France asked Israeli to help for was one of the UN’s early successes and
reoccupation of the canal; the three easily the greatest success it had until
responded to the Egyptian nationalization that point.
of the Suez Canal by invading the Sinai 14United States. The US were totally
Peninsula. ........... Operation Kadesh. against the actions taken by Britain and
8Operation Kadesh. Consisted of 4 France. The US pressured the UN to take
military objectives: 1) Sharm el-Sheikh: action and pressured the Western forces to
capturing the town = Israel have access to withdraw from Egypt. The US held up oil
the Red Sea & allow it to restore the supplies to Europe. They also proved
trade benefits of secure passage to Indian support for the UNEF.
Ocean 2) Arish & Abu Uwayulah: 15UK and France after the War. Eden’s
important places for soldiers and centres actions during the crisis would lead to
of command and control of Egyptian Army in his resignation in the aftermath. Britain
Sina 3) Gaza Strip was a place where Egypt would lose it’s status as a superpower.
troops could launch attacks on Israeli The French government was humiliated and
troops; wanted to take over so Egypt could the French Fourth Republic would collapse
not attack. the next year. The failure of the British
9Operation Kadesh. The Royal Navy of and the French encouraged nationalism in
Britain owned powerful warships and former colonies.
aircraft and established long-range 16USSR after the War. The Soviet Union
bombers French owned the battle tank did not participate in the Suez Crisis as
AMX-13 (lightly-armoured & fast) they decided to deal with the Hungarians
Israel Defense Forces used weapons from while the world was preoccupied with the
France including AMX-13; Israel Navy also middle east. However after the crisis the
used torpedo boats, destroyers and etc. USSR agreed to fund the building of the
Egypt had many fighters, bombers, Aswan Dam. This had a positive impact on
self-propelled guns and rifles Ultimately USSR-Egypt relations and their influence
to push back Egyptian troops and allow for in the Middle-East.
British, French and Israeli advancement 17Israel and Egypt after the War. While
Result: was not successful due to UN Israel had the military might to defeat
intervention. Egyptian forces and take over Gaza and
10 most of Sinai, they were forced to forfeit
11The Conclusion of the Suez Crisis. On their gains. They were given a guarantee
October 29, 1956, Israeli forces attacked that passage through the Straits of Tiran
Egypt and started the second Arab-Israeli would be open to them. Israel would also
war. This was a part of a plan between seek the support of the US after the
France, Britain and Israel to occupy the crisis as well as better relations. After
Suez Canal and remove Nasser from power. the crisis, Egypt came out as a clear
Israel captured most of Gaza and were winner. They emerged with control over the
close to the canal within a day. Britain Suez Canal as well as support to build the
and France issued an ultimatum asking both Aswan Dam. Furthermore Nasser was seen by
parties to withdraw. However Egypt refused the Arab people as a savior and a great
and appealed to the UN. UK and France leader. He would lead Egypt until his
would invade Egypt. They would be death in 1970.
condemned throughout the world for their 18
actions in Egypt. However they continued 19Stability after the War. After the
their attacks on Egypt and dominated the crisis Egypt was left in a position where
Egyptian forces. At the UN a call for an it could exist without the harassment of
end to hostilities was raised however the western powers of Britain and France,
France and Britain both vetoed the motion. the two countries being humiliated. The
However on November 2nd the UN General Suez Canal was under Egyptian ownership
Assembly met, for the first time, in an and there was no more need for conflict
emergency session and passed an American over the canal. Thus the situation over
resolution calling for a ceasefire. PM the Suez Canal was effectively dealt with
Eden stalled in his decision, which and had a stable resolution. However the
allowed for almost another week of fighting over the canal formed the
fighting with the Western forces capturing groundwork for continued conflict between
Port Said and taking control of the Suez Israel and Egypt which would result in the
Canal. However, due to condemnation by Six Day Wars. Tensions between the
various countries, criticisms from foreign Israelites and the Arabs were not dealt
figures as well as from the British and a with in the after math of the crisis and
lack of confidence from the British no peace treaty was drawn up for the two
populace lead to PM Eden calling a countries. Also, after the crisis, the
ceasefire that would be the end to the Eisenhower Doctrine was drawn up which
conflict. detailed that a country could request
12Lester B. Pearson. Was the Canadian American economic assistance and/or aid
foreign minister during the events of the from U.S. military forces if it was being
crisis. Proposed the first UN peace threatened by armed aggression from
keeping force. Initially his idea was to another state. Eisenhower singled out the
use the invading British and French forces Soviet threat in his doctrine by
as actual peace keepers however his idea authorizing the commitment of U.S. forces
is met with harsh criticism and anger from "to secure and protect the
the US. So Pearson changes his idea to territorial integrity and political
using a UN force without any invading independence of such nations, requesting
forces within the UN force. While his role such aid against overt armed aggression
was limited during the Security Council’s from any nation controlled by
discussions (Canada lacked a permanent international communism."
seat), he was able to argue his ideas once 20Political Cartoon III.
the debate was moved to the General 21Bibliography. Cannon, Martin. 20th
Assembly. On November 4th, 1956, the Century World History: Course Companion.
General Assembly supported Pearson’s Oxford: Oxford UP, 2009. Print. United
proposal for the first peace keeping States. Eisenhower Doctrine. Department of
force. The United Nations Emergency Forces State. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Feb. 2013. N.a
arrived in Egypt within two weeks. The LESTER PEARSON & THE SUEZ CRISIS.
UNEF helped to maintain peace and order as N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Feb. 2013.
British and French forces left by the end 22Political Cartoon II.
of 1956 and helped to facilitate the 23Political Cartoon I. Chicago Daily
evacuation of Israeli forces having all News from 1922 to 1952 by Shoemaker (this
Israeli forces withdrawn by the spring of cartoon-1957).
1957. The peacekeeping effort was
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