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Lessons of 1848
Lessons of 1848
Crimean War (1853-56)Causes
Crimean War (1853-56)Causes
Crimean WarCourse
Crimean WarCourse
Crimean WarCourse
Crimean WarCourse
Crimean WarConsequences
Crimean WarConsequences
Italya Geographical Expression
Italya Geographical Expression
Italian Nationalism
Italian Nationalism
Piedmont-Sardinia and Cavour
Piedmont-Sardinia and Cavour
Cavours Diplomacy
Cavours Diplomacy
The Future of Italy
The Future of Italy
Germanythe 800-lb
Germanythe 800-lb
The Role of Prussia
The Role of Prussia
Bismarckiron and blood
Bismarckiron and blood
Constitutional Arrangements
Constitutional Arrangements
Bismarcks Realpolitik, Part II
Bismarcks Realpolitik, Part II
The Unification of Italy and Germany, 1848-1914
The Unification of Italy and Germany, 1848-1914
The German Empire
The German Empire
The Unification of Italy and Germany, 1848-1914

: Hinsdale South. , . , The Unification of Italy and Germany, 1848-1914.ppt zip- 2776 .

The Unification of Italy and Germany, 1848-1914

The Unification of Italy and Germany, 1848-1914.ppt
1The Unification of Italy and Germany, 11Mezzagiorno regionalism Assessmentthe
1848-1914. Nationalism and the Balance of passion of Mazzini, audacity of Garibaldi,
Power. cunning of Cavour.
2Key Questions. How was the Crimean War 12Germanythe 800-lb. Gorilla. Failed
a turning point in the diplomacy of the efforts at unity under Habsburgs Rise of
nineteenth century? How did Bismarck and Prussia (checked by Austria) Napoleon
Cavour apply the lessons of 1848 and use promoted German natlism abolished HRE
Realpolitik in the unification of Italy German Confederation (from C. of Vienna)
and Germany? Analyze the impact of these dominated by conservative Austria Passive
unifications on the European balance of Prussiastatus quo Failure of 1848major
power, 1871-1914. defeat for Liberals.
3Lessons of 1848. 1. Nationalism is a 13The Role of Prussia. Reforms of
powerful forceConservatives cannot ignore 1807army, admin., serfdom Zollverein
2. Slogans, assemblies, barricades cannot (1834) created by List Constitution of
achieve unity and revolutionneed armies, 1850 3 voting levels (favors Junkers)
bureaucracy, industryPOWER! 3. The Middle class up w/industrializ. Minister
intervention of outside powers must be resp. to king not Reichstag Humiliation of
avoided or courted 4. Ignore public Olmutz stops Prussia attempt Fred. Will.
opinion at your own perila new breed of IV (1840-61)insane absolutist William I
leader. (1861-88)intent on army reform &
4Crimean War (1853-56)Causes. an conservative control Army reforms
avoidable war with significant (1862)General Staff (von Moltke), needle
consequences The Eastern Question Fear gun, Landwehr, draft.
of the Russian colossus (the Straits). 14Bismarckiron and blood.
Immediate issueprotection of Christian PersonalityJunker, Romanticism,
minorities Russian ultimatum and Turkish diplomatic experience Allegiances evolve
declaration of war (w/French & British toward world statesman Appointed
backing). Chancellor in 1862 Constitutional
5Crimean WarCourse. * Russia defeats Crisiscontrol of finances & army
O.E., moves into Wallachia & Moldavia iron and bloodstrategy and rhetoric
Fr/G.B. intervene with ultimatum Russia Realpolitikdefinition and comparison
complies but war fever too strong w/Napoleon III & Hitler.
Austriawe will astonish the world with 15Bismarcks Realpolitik, Phase I.
our ingratitude Siege, rifled weapons, Approachchess player, opportunist,
trenches, supply/medical issues isolate opponents Polish Revolt
SymbolCharge of the Light Brigade The (1863)wins over Russia Danish War (1864)
only heroFlorence Nightengale. Schleswig/Holstein (occup. by Denmark)
6Crimean WarConsequences. Alexander II Ignores Germ. Conf. & ties Aust. to
(1855-81) and need for reform Treaty of Prussian aims Conv. of Gasteinadmin. of
ParisRussia disgorges territory & provinces Austro-Prussian War (1866)Seven
demilitarizes Black Sea Concert of Europe Weeks War Goaleliminate Austria from
destroyedgo ones own way Austria German politics Buys French neutrality
isolated, Balkan conflict w/Russia w/vague promises in Rhineland Italy,
G.B.Splendid isolation until 1900 Russia, and G.B. neutral or friendly
Francefalse impression of leadership, Prussia wins quicklyRRs, organization,
Napoleon III and nationalism weapons Peace of PragueAustria surrenders
Piedmont-Sardinias bid for friends Sets Venetia, bows out of German affairs, Dual
the stage for unification diplomacy and Monarchy (1867).
patterns leading to WWI. 16Constitutional Arrangements. Indemnity
7Italya Geographical Expression. Bill (1866)causes split of Liberals
Historical lack of unity, issue of HRE (National Liberals) North German
conflict but Pope and Emperor Conf.universal male suffrage (Bismarcks
Habsburg-Valois Wars & foreign idea), key role of Chancellor and Prussian
domination Napoleonspreads nationalism, Minister of State Alliances with South
rev. goals, republics Congress of Vienna German States (Catholic)looks to French
places Italy under foreign control hostility.
Revolutions of 1848role of Piedmont, 17Bismarcks Realpolitik, Part II.
Roman Republic, etc. Isolation of France Vacancy of Spanish
8Italian Nationalism. Garibaldi. throneHohezollern cousin of William I
Mazzini and Young Italy (republican) William I withdraws but Nap. Overplays Ems
Garibaldi and Red Shirts (exile) Carbonari Dispatchred flag for the Gallic bull
and Metternich Possible govts.republic, Prussian prepRRs, staff, landscape
confederation under Pope, constitutional painters French military disorganized
monarchy (Piedmont). (Nap. captured at Sedan) Paris Commune
9Piedmont-Sardinia and Cavour. Count (Nov. 1870-Jan. 1871)class struggle &
Camillo Benso di Cavourmoderate Liberal creation of Third Republic (bad start)
& pragmatic, Il Risorgimento, Treaty of Frankfurt (1871)5 billion franc
personality, fortune in shipping, banking, indemnity, loss of Alsace-Lorraine (ethnic
industry Econ. expansioncanals, roads, identity and issues)concern
RRs, shipping, industry Creates modern w/non-Germans. Bismarck, Roon, von Moltke.
tax/budget system and army. 18
10Cavours Diplomacy. Crimean War 19The German Empire. How Germany was
Plombieres (1858) Magenta & madeauthoritarian, militaristic,
SolferinoNapoleons fear Revolutions anti-Liberal Assessing the work of
(1860) and plebiscites in other states Bismarck & his tactics Effect on BOP
Garibaldi & Red Shirts into Two A Satisfied Giant until 1890 when
Sicilies, up peninsula (Papal States), Bismarck dismissed THEN..
Piedmont intervenes, Garibaldi 20Disraelis Quote. There is not a
relinquishes conquest. diplomatic tradition which has not been
11The Future of Italy. Proclaimed swept away. You have a new world, new
3/17/1861 Cavour dies 3 mos. later from influences at work, new and unknown
overwork picking up piecesalliance objects and danger with which to cope.The
w/Prussia gets Venetia (1866) & Rome balance of power has been entirely
(1870) Problemseconomic underdev., destroyed, and the country which suffers
opposition of Papacy, aggressive most, and feels the effect of the change
nationalism, corruption (trasformismo), most, is England..
The Unification of Italy and Germany, 1848-1914.ppt

The Unification of Italy and Germany, 1848-1914

The Unification of Italy and Germany, 1848-1914

1914 - 1917 , . ( 1939). . , , . , . !

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1914-1918 - 1917 . . . . . .. .. . . . . : 8- 11 75 .

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