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Mikhail Lomonosov
Mikhail Lomonosov
Early life and family
Early life and family
Early life and family
Early life and family
He remained at Denisovka until he was ten, when his father decided
He remained at Denisovka until he was ten, when his father decided
Education in Moscow
Education in Moscow
Education abroad
Education abroad
Education abroad
Education abroad
Return to Russia
Return to Russia
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1Творческая работа на английском языке 7released and pardoned in January 1744
«М.В. Ломоносов – учёный, поэт, гражданин» after apologising to all involved.
Выполнил: студентка группы ПС-1-13 Троян Lomonosov was made a full member of the
Надежда Проверил: Преподаватель Academy, and named professor of chemistry,
английского языка 2014 г. in 1745. He established the Academy's
2Mikhail Lomonosov. Mikhail Vasilyevich first chemistry laboratory. Eager to
Lomonosov (19 november 1711 – 15 april improve Russia’s educational system, in
1765) was a Russian polymath, scientist 1755, Lomonosov joined his patron Count
and writer, who made important Ivan Shuvalov in founding the Moscow State
contributions to literature, education, University.
and science. Among his discoveries was the 8Physicist. In 1756, Lomonosov tried to
atmosphere of Venus. His spheres of replicate Robert Boyle's experiment of
science were natural science, chemistry, 1673. He concluded that the commonly
physics, mineralogy, history, art, accepted phlogiston theory was false.
philology, optical devices and others. Anticipating the discoveries of Antoine
Lomonosov was also a poet, who created the Lavoisier, he wrote in his diary:
basis of the modern Russian literary "Today I made an experiment in
language. hermetic glass vessels in order to
3Early life and family. Lomonosov was determine whether the mass of metals
born in the village of Denisovka (later increases from the action of pure heat.
renamed Lomonosovo in his honor) in the The experiments– of which I append the
Arkhangelsk Governorate, on an island not record in 13 pages– demonstrated that the
far from Kholmogory, in the Far North of famous Robert Boyle was deluded, for
Russia.[1] His father, Vasily Dorofeyevich without access of air from outside the
Lomonosov, was a prosperous peasant mass of the burnt metal remains the
fisherman turned ship owner, who amassed a same". He regarded heat as a form of
small fortune transporting goods from motion, suggested the wave theory of
Arkhangelsk to Pustozyorsk, Solovki, Kola, light, contributed to the formulation of
and Lapland.[1] Lomonosov’s mother was the kinetic theory of gases, and stated
Vasily’s first wife, a deacon’s daughter, the idea of conservation of matter in the
Elena Ivanovna Sivkova. following words: "All changes in
4He remained at Denisovka until he was nature are such that inasmuch is taken
ten, when his father decided that he was from one object insomuch is added to
old enough to participate in his business another. So, if the amount of matter
ventures, and Lomonosov began accompanying decreases in one place, it increases
Vasily on trading missions. Learning was elsewhere. This universal law of nature
young Lomonosov's passion, however, not embraces laws of motion as well, for an
business. The boy's thirst for knowledge object moving others by its own force in
was unbounded. Lomonosov had been taught fact imparts to another object the force
to read as a boy by his neighbor Ivan it loses" (first articulated in a
Shubny, and he spent every spare moment letter to Leonhard Euler dated 5 July
with his books. He continued his studies 1748, rephrased and published in
with the village deacon, S.N. Sabelnikov, Lomonosov's dissertation "Reflexion
but for many years the only books he had on the solidity and fluidity of
access to were religious texts. When he bodies", 1760).
was fourteen, Lomonosov was given copies 9Astronomer. In 1762, Lomonosov
of Meletius Smotrytsky's Modern Church presented an improved design of a
Slavonic (a grammar book) and Leonty reflecting telescope to the Russian
Magnitsky's Arithmetic. In 1724, his Academy of Sciences forum. His telescope
father married for the third and final had its primary mirror adjusted at four
time. Lomonosov and his stepmother Irina degrees to telescope's axis. This made the
had an acrimonious relationship. Unhappy image focus at the side of the telescope
at home and intent on obtaining a higher tube. There the observer could view the
education, which Lomonosov could not image with an eyepiece without blocking
receive in Denisovka, he was determined to the image. However, this invention was not
leave the village. published until 1827, so this type of
5Education in Moscow. In 1730, at telescope has become associated with a
nineteen, Lomonosov joined a caravan similar design by William Herschel, the
traveling to Moscow. Not long after Herschelian telescope. Lomonosov was the
arriving, Lomonosov obtained admission first person to hypothesize the existence
into the Slavic Greek Latin Academy by of an atmosphere on Venus based on his
falsely claiming to be a priest’s son. observation of the transit of Venus of
That initial falsehood would nearly get 1761 in a small observatory near his house
him expelled from the academy a few years in Petersburg.
later when discovered. Lomonosov lived on 10Chemist. Lomonosov was the first
three kopecks a day, living off only black person to record the freezing of mercury.
bread and kvas, but he made rapid progress Believing that nature is subject to
scholastically.[7] After three years in regular and continuous evolution, he
Moscow he was sent to Kiev to study for demonstrated the organic origin of soil,
one year at the Kyiv-Mohyla Academy. He peat, coal, petroleum and amber. In 1745,
quickly became dissatisfied with the he published a catalogue of over 3,000
education he was receiving there, and minerals, and in 1760, he explained the
returned to Moscow several months ahead of formation of icebergs.
schedule, resuming his studies there. He 11Mosaicist. Lomonosov was proud to
completed a twelve-year study course in restore the ancient art of mosaics. In
only five years, graduating at the top of 1754, in his letter to Leonard Euler, he
his class. In 1736, Lomonosov was awarded wrote that his three years of experiments
a scholarship to Saint Petersburg State on the effects of chemistry of minerals on
University. He plunged into his studies their colour led to him became very
and was rewarded with a two-year grant to involved into the mosaics art. In 1763, he
study abroad at the University of Marburg, set up a glass factory that produced the
in Germany. first stained glass mosaics outside of
6Education abroad. The University of Italy. There were forty mosaics attributed
Marburg was among Europe's most important to Lomonosov, with only twenty-four
universities in the mid-18th century due surviving to the present day. Among the
to the presence of the philosopher best is the portrait of Peter the Great
Christian Wolff, a prominent figure of the and the Battle of Poltava, measuring 4.8 ?
German Enlightenment. Lomonosov became one 6.4 meters.
of Wolff’s personal students while at 12Poet. In 1755, he wrote a grammar that
Marburg. Both philosophically and as a reformed the Russian literary language by
science administrator, this connection combining Old Church Slavonic with the
would be the most influential of vernacular tongue. To further his literary
Lomonosov’s life. Lomonosov quickly theories, he wrote more than 20 solemn
mastered the German language, and in ceremonial odes, notably the Evening
addition to philosophy, seriously studied Meditation on the God's Grandeur. He
chemistry, discovered the works of 17th applied an idiosyncratic theory to his
century English theologian and natural later poems– tender subjects needed words
philosopher, Robert Boyle, and even began containing the front vowel sounds E, I,
writing poetry. He also developed an YU, whereas things that may cause fear
interest in German literature. He is said (like "anger", "envy",
to have especially admired G?nther. His "pain" and "sorrow")
Ode on the Taking of Khotin from the needed words with back vowel sounds O, U,
Turks, composed in 1739, attracted a great Y. That was a version of what is now
deal of attention in Saint Petersburg. called sound symbolism. Lomonosov
During his residence in Germany, Lomonosov published a history of Russia in 1760. In
boarded with Catharina Zilch, a brewer’s addition, he unsuccessfully attempted to
widow. He fell in love with Catharina’s write an epic about Peter the Great, to be
daughter Elisabeth Christine Zilch. They based on the Aeneid by Vergil. In 1761, he
were married in June 1740. Lomonosov found was elected a foreign member of the Royal
it extremely difficult to maintain his Swedish Academy of Sciences. In 1764,
growing family on the scanty and irregular Lomonosov was appointed to the position of
allowance granted him by the Russian secretary of state. He died one year later
Academy of Science. As his circumstances in Saint Petersburg. Most of his
became desperate, he resolved to return to accomplishments were unknown outside
Saint Petersburg. Russia until long after his death.
7Return to Russia. Lomonosov returned 13Legacy. A lunar crater bears his name,
to Russia in 1741. A year later he was as does a crater on Mars. In 1948, the
named adjutant to the Russian Academy of underwater Lomonosov Ridge in the Arctic
Science in the physics department. In May Ocean was named in his honor. Moscow State
1743, Lomonosov was accused, arrested, and University was renamed ‘’M. V. Lomonosov
held under house arrest for eight months, Moscow State University’’ in his honor in
after he supposedly insulted various 1940.
people associated with the Academy. He was
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