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Types of Forming Words

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1Types of Forming Words. Affixation. 243.2. PREFIXATION. CLASSIFICATION OF
Lecture 10. PREFIXES. Prefixation is the formation of
21. TYPES OF FORMING WORDS. words with the help of prefixes, which are
Word-formation is the system of derivative derivational morphemes, affixed before the
types of words and the process of creating derivational base. A prefix is a
new words from the material available in derivational morpheme preceding the
the language after certain structural and root-morpheme and modifying its meaning
semantic formulas and patterns. Driver = (understand – mis-understand, correct –
v+-er (a verbal stem + the noun-forming in-correct).
suffix –er). The meaning of the derived 25Prefixes can be classified according
noun driver - the meaning of the stem to different principles. According to the
drive- ‘to direct the course of a vehicle’ lexico-grammatical character of the base
and the suffix -er meaning ‘an active prefixes are usually added to, they may
agent’: a driver is ‘one who drives’ (a be: deverbal (those added to the verbal
carriage, motorcar, railway engine, etc.). base): re- (rewrite); over- (overdo); out-
31.1. Main Types of Forming Words. I. (outstay); denominal (those added to the
Word-derivation in morphology is a nominal base): - (unbutton); de-
word-formation process by which a new word (detrain); ex- (ex-president);
is built from a stem – usually through the deadjectival (those added to the
addition of an affix – that changes the adjectival base): un- (uneasy); bi-
word class and / or basic meaning of the (biannual). deadverbial (those added to
word. The basic ways of forming words in the adverbial base): un- (unfortunately);
word-derivation are: 1. Affixation is the in- independently).
formation of a new word with the help of 26According to the class of words they
affixes: pointless (from point). 2. preferably form prefixes are divided into:
Conversion is the formation of a new word verb-forming prefixes: en-/em- (enclose,
by bringing a stem of this word into a embed); be- (befriend); de- (dethrone);
different formal paradigm: a fall (from to noun-forming prefixes: non- (non-smoker);
fall), a cut (from to cut). II. sub- (sub-committee); ex- (ex-husband)
Word-composition is the formation of a new adjective-forming prefixes: un- (unfair);
word by combining two or more stems which il- (illiterate); ir- (irregular);
occur in the language as free forms: adverb-forming prefixes: un-
door-bell, house-keeper. (unfortunately); up- (uphill).
41.2. Minor Types of Forming Words. 27Semantically prefixes fall into:
shortening is the formation of a word by Monosemantic: the prefix ex- has only one
cutting off a part of the word. a) initial meaning ‘former’ – ex-boxer; Polysemantic;
(or aphesis):fend (v) < defend, phone the prefix dis- has four meanings: ‘not’
< telephone; b) medial (orsyncope): (disadvantage); ‘reversal or absence of an
specs < spectacles, fancy < fantasy; action or state’ (diseconomy, disaffirm);
c) final (or apocope): lab – laboratory, ‘removal of’ (to disbranch); ‘completeness
exam – examination; d) both initial and or intensification of an unpleasant
final: flu < influenza, fridge < action’ (disgruntled).
refrigerator;. 28According to their generalizing
5blending is the formation of a new denotational meaning prefixes fall into:
word by combining parts of two words: a) negative prefixes: un- (ungrateful); non-
additive type: smog – sm(oke) and (f)og; (non-political); in- (incorrect); dis-
b) restrictive type: telecast – television (disloyal); a- (amoral); reversative
+ broadcast. acronymy (or graphical prefixes: un2- (untie); de-
abbreviation) is the formation of a word (decentralize); dis2- (disconnect);
from the initial letters of a word pejorative prefixes: mis- (mispronounce);
combination. : a) acronyms which are read mal- (maltreat); pseudo-
as ordinary English words:UNESCO – (pseudo-scientific); prefixes of time and
[ju:'nesk?u] the United Nations order: fore- (foretell); pre- (pre-war);
Educational Scientific and Cultural post- (post-war), ex- (ex-president);
Organization; b) acronyms with the prefix of repetition: re- (rebuild,
alphabetic reading: BBC – [,bi:bi:'si:] rewrite); locative prefixes: super-
the British Broadcasting Corporation; (superstructure), sub- (subway), inter-
6sound-interchange is the formation of (inter-continental), trans-
a word due to an alteration in the (transatlantic).
phonetic composition of its root. 29According to their stylistic reference
Sound-interchange falls into 3 groups: a) prefixes fall into: those characterized by
vowel-interchange (or ablaut): full ? to neutral stylistic reference: over-
fill, blood ? to bleed, food – to feed. In (oversee); under- (underestimate);
some cases vowel-interchange is combined un-(unknown); those possessing quite a
with suffixation: long ? length, strong ? definite stylistic value: pseudo-
strength, broad ? breadth; b) (pseudo-classical); super-
consonant-interchange: advice – to advise. (superstructure); ultra- (ultraviolet);
c) combined forms: life – to live; uni- (unilateral); bi- (bifocal). These
Particular cases of sound-interchange: [k] prefixes are of a literary-bookish
— [t?]: to speak — speech, [s] — [d]: character.
defence — to defend; offence — to offend; 304. PRODUCTIVE AND NON-PRODUCTIVE
[s] — [t]: evidence — evident, importance AFFIXES. The word-forming activity of
— important, etc. affixes may change in the course of time.
7Sound imitation (or onomatopoeia) is This raises the question of productivity
the naming of an action or a thing by a of derivational affixes, i.e. the ability
more or less exact reproduction of the of being used to form new, occasional or
sound associated with it, cf.: potential words, which can be readily
Cock-a-doodle-do (english) – ку-ка-ре-ку understood by the language-speakers. Thus,
(russian). Groups: a) words denoting productive affixes are those used to form
sounds produced by human being in the new words in this particular period of
process of communication or expressing language development.
their feelings: mumble, babble; b) words 31Some productive affixes. Noun-forming
denoting sounds produced by animals, suffixes. -er (manager), -ing (playing),
birds, insects: mew, croak, buzz; c) words -ness (darkness), -ism (materialism), -ist
imitation the sound of water, the noise of (parachutist), -ism (realism), -ation
metallic things, a forceful motion, (automation), (impressionist), -ancy
movement: splash, clink, bang. (redundancy), -ry (gimmickry), -or
8back-formation is the formation of a (reactor), -ics (cybernetics).
new word by subtracting a real or supposed Adjective-forming suffixes. -y (tweedy),
suffix from the existing words. The -ish (smartish), -ed (learned), -able
process is based on analogy: the word to (tolerable), -less (jobless), -ic
butle ‘to act or serve as a butler’ is (electronic). Adverb-forming suffixes. -ly
derived by subtraction of –er from a (equally). Verb-forming suffixes.
supposedly verbal stem in the noun butler; -ize/-ise (realise), -ate (oxidate), -ify
distinctive stress is the formation of a (qualify). Prefixes. un- (unhappy), re-
new word by means of the shift of the (reconstruct), dis- (disappoint).
stress in the source word, cf.: export (n) 32Some non-productive suffixes:
— to ex?port; ?import (n) — to im?port; ‘. Noun-forming suffixes. -th (truth), -hood
92. Word-formation as the Subject of (sisterhood), -ship (scholarship).
Study. is that branch of Lexicology which Adjective-forming suffixes. -ly (sickly),
studies the derivative structure of -some (tiresome), -en (golden), -ous
existing words and the patterns on which (courageous), -ful (careful). Verb-forming
the English language, builds new words. suffix. -en (strengthen).
word-formation can deal only with words 33The productivity of an affix should
which are analysable both structurally and not be confused with its frequency of
semantically, i.e. with all types of occurrence that is understood as the
Complexes. existence in the vocabulary of a great
10Word-formation may be studied: number of words containing the affix in
Synchronically – investigation of the question. An affix may occur in hundreds
existing system of the types of of words, but if it is not used to form
word-formation. The derived word is new words, it is not productive, for
regarded as having a more complex instance, the adjective suffix –ful.
structure than its correlated word 34Etymology of Derivational Affixes:
regardless of the fact whether it was Native affixes are those in the Old
derived from a simpler base or a more English period or were formed from Old
complex base; Diachronically – English words. The change a morpheme
chronological order of formation of one undergoes in the course of time may be of
word from some other word that is different kinds. A bound morpheme, e.g.
relevant. may be developed from a free one. Such are
113. AFFIXATION. Affixation is the the suffixes – dom (‘fate, power’); hood
formation of words by adding derivational ‘state’; -lock ‘actions or proceedings,
affixes to different types of bases. An practice’; -ship ‘state, conduct’, and the
affix is not-root or a bound morpheme that prefixes; over- ‘in excess, extra, upper’;
modifies the meaning and / or syntactic out- ‘foreign, external’, ect.
category of the stem in some way. Affixes 35Origin of Derivational Affixes.
are classified into prefixes and suffixes. Noun-forming affixes. Examples. -er -ness
12Degrees of Derivation. Zero - degree -ing -dom -hood -ship -th -let. Driver,
of derivation is ascribed to simple words, painter. Ugliness, coldness. Singing,
i.e. words whose stem is homonymous with a playing. Freedom, kingdom. Brotherhood,
word-form and often with a root-morpheme, manhood. Leadership, friendship. Breath,
e.g. atom, haste, devote, anxious, horror, length. Booklet, islet.
etc. First - derived words whose bases are 36Adjective-forming affixes: -ful -less
built on simple stems and thus are formed -y -ish -ly -en -some -like. Joyful
by the application of one derivational Harmless Cozy Childish Lovely Golden
affix, e.g. atomic, hasty, devotion, etc. Handsome Ladylike.
Second - derived words formed by two 37Verb-forming affixes. -en. Widen.
consecutive stages of coining, e.g. Adverb-forming affixes. -ly -wise. Rarely
atomical, hastily, devotional, etc. Clockwise. Prefixes. be- mis- un- over-.
13Affixation=suffixation+prefixation. Befriend Misuse Unselfish Overdo.
Distinction is naturally made between 38Latin. Examples. -able/ -ible
prefixal and suffixal derivatives -ant/-ent extra- pre- ultra-. Capable,
according to the last stage of derivation, divisible. Servant, student.
which determines the nature of the ICs of Extralinguistic. Pre-election. Ultra-high.
the pattern that signals the relationship Borrowed Affixes have come to the English
of the derived word with its motivating language from different foreign languages.
source unit, cf. unjust (un-+just), The affixes of foreign origin are
justify, (just++ -ify), arrangement classified according to their source into:
(arrange + -ment), non-smoker (non- + 39Greek. Examples. -ist -ism -ite anti-
smoker). sym-/ sin-. Artist Marxism Vulcanite
14Affixation is subdivided into Anti-democratic Synthesis.
suffixation and prefixation. Distinction 40French. Examples. -age -ance/ -ence
is naturally made between prefixal and -ard -ate -ee -ess en-/ em-. Percentage
suffixal derivatives according to the last Extravagance, coherence Wizard Electorate
stage of derivation, which determines the Employee Princess Enclose, embed.
nature of the ICs of the pattern that 41Hybrids. are words that are made up of
signals the relationship of the derived elements from two or more different
word with its motivating source unit, cf. languages. There are 2 basic types of
unjust (un-+just), justify, (just++ -ify), forming hybrid words: 1) a foreign base is
arrangement (arrange + -ment), non-smoker combined with a native affix, e.g.
(non- + smoker). colourless, uncertain; 2) a native base is
15Prefixal-suffixal derivatives: combined with a foreign affix, e.g.
reappearance, unreasonable, denationalise drinkable, ex-wife. There are also many
This qualification is relevant only in hybrid compounds, such as blackguard
terms of the constituent morphemes such (English + French); schoolboy (greek +
words are made up of, i.e. from the angle English).
of morphemic analysis. From the point of 42VALENCY OF AFFIXES AND BASES. Valency
view of derivational analysis such words of affixes is understood as their
are mostly either suffixal or prefixal capability to be combined with certain
derivatives, e.g. sub-atomic = sub- + bases, e.g. adjective forming suffixes are
(atom + + -ic), unreasonable = un- + mostly attached to nominal bases. They
(reason + -able), denationalise = de- + + are: -en (golden), -ful (meaningful),
(national + -ize), discouragement = (dis- -less (careless), -ly (soldierly), -like
+ courage) + -ment. (childlike). The highly productive suffix
16Suffixation is mostly characteristic –able, however, can be combined with
of noun and adjective formation. nominal and verbal bases alike (honorable,
Prefixation is mostly typical of verb advisable).
formation. The distinction also rests on 43Valency of bases. is the possibility
the role different types of meaning play of a particular base to take a particular
in the semantic structure of the suffix affix. The valency of bases is not
and the prefix. The part-of-speech meaning unlimited, e.g., noun bases can be
has a much greater significance in followed by: the noun-forming suffixes,
suffixes as compared to prefixes which e.g. –eer (profiteer), -ful (spoonful),
possess it in a lesser degree. A prefix -ics (linguistics), -let (cloudlet); the
may be confined to one part of speech, adjective-forming suffixes, e.g. –al
e.g. enslave, encage, unbutton or may (doctoral), -ary (revolutionary), -ous
function in more than one part of speech (spacious), -ic (historic); the
as, e.g., over- in overkind a, to overfeed verb-forming suffixes, e.g. –en (hearten),
v, overestimation n. -ize (sympathize).
17Suffixes as a rule function in any one 44Valency. is very important
part of speech often forming a derived semantically because the meaning of the
stem of a different part of speech as derivative depends not only on the
compared with that of the base, e.g. morphemes of which it is composed but also
careless a — cf. care n; suitable a — cf. on combinations of bases and affixes that
suit v, etc. A suffix closely knit can be contrasted with it. Contrast is
together with a base forms a fusion observed in the use of the same morphemes
retaining less of its independence than a in different environment or in the use of
prefix which is as a general rule more different morphemes in the same
independent semantically, cf. reading — environment, e.g., the difference in the
‘the act of one who reads’; ‘ability to suffixes –ity and –ism becomes clear when
read’; and to re-read — ‘to read again.'. comparing them as combined with identical
183.1. SUFFIXATION. CLASSIFICATION OF bases: formality – formalism; reality –
SUFFIXES. Suffixation is the formation of realism. -ity – ‘the quality of being what
words with the help of suffixes, which corresponding adjective describes, an
usually modify the lexical meaning of the instant or quality’; -ism –’ a disposition
base and transfer words to a different to what the adjective describes, or a
part of speech. Some suffixes do not shift corresponding type of ideology’.
words from one part of speech into 45Summary and Conclusions.
another, but usually transfer a word into Word-formation is the process of creating
a different semantic group, e.g. a words from the material available in the
concrete noun becomes an abstract one, language after certain structural and
e.g. child — childhood, friend — semantic formulas and patterns.
friendship, etc. A suffix is a 46As a subject of study English
derivational morpheme following the root word-formation is that branch of English
and forming a new derivative in a Lexicology which studies the derivative
different word class (-en, -y, -less in structure of words and the patterns on
heart-en, heart-y, heart-less). which the English language builds new
19Suffixes can be classified into words. Like any other linguistic
different types in accordance with phenomenon, word-formation may be studied
different principles: According to the synchronically and diachronically.
lexical-grammatical character of the base 47There are two types of word-formation
suffixes are usually added to, they may in Modern English: word-derivation which
be: deverbal suffixex (those added to the is divided into affixation and conversion
verbal base): -er (builder); -ing and word-composition. Within the types
(writing); denominal suffixes (those added further distinction is made between the
to the nominal base): -less (timeless); various ways and means of word-formation.
-ful (hopeful); -ist (scientist); -some 48There are minor types of
(troublesome); deajectival suffixes (those word-formation: shortening, blending,
added to the adjectival base): -en acronymy (graphical abbreviation),
(widen); -ly (friendly); -ish (whitish); sound-interchange, sound-imitation,
-ness (brightness). back-fomation and distinctive stress.
20According to the part of speech formed 49Affixation (prefixation and
suffixes fall into several groups: suffixation) is the formation of words by
noun-forming suffixes: -age (breakage, adding derivational affixes (prefixes and
bondage); -ance/-ence (assistance, suffixes) to bases. One distinguishes
reference); -dom (freedom, kingdom); -er between derived words of different degrees
(teacher, baker); -ess (actress, hostess); of derivation.
-ing (building, wasing); adjective-forming 50There are quite a number of
suffixes: -able/-ible/-uble (favourable, polysemantic, homonymous and synonymous
incredible, soluble); -al (formal, derivational affixes in Modern English.
official); -ic (dynamic); -ant/-ent 51Classifications of derivational
(repentant, dependent); numeral-forming affixes are based on different principles
suffixes: -fold (twofold); -teen such as: 1) the lexico-grammatical
(fourteen); -th (sixth); -ty (thirty); character of the stem the affix is added
verb-forming suffixes: -ate (activate); to, 2) the part of speech formed, 3) the
-er (glimmer); -fy/-ify (terrify, meaning, 4) the generalising denotational
specify); -ize (minimize); -ish meaning, 5) the stylistic reference, etc.
(establish); adverb-forming suffixes: -ly 52The productivity of derivational
(quickly, coldly); -ward/-wards (backward, affixes is relative and conditioned by
northwards); -wise (likewise). various factors.
21Semantically suffixes fall into: 53Many of the Modern English
Monosemantic:the suffix -ess has only one derivational affixes were at one time
meaning ‘female’ – tigress, tailoress; independent words. Others have always been
Polysemantic: the suffix -hood has two known as suffixes or prefixes within the
meanings: ‘condition or quality’ – history of the English vocabulary. Some of
falsehood, womanhood; ‘collection or them are of international currency.
group’ – brotherhood. 54The degree of productivity and factors
22According to their generalizing favouring it make an important aspect of
denotational meaning suffixes may fall synchronic description of every
into several groups. E.g., noun-suffixes derivational pattern within the two types
fall into those denoting: the agent of the of word-formation.
action: -er (baker); -ant (accountant); 55Three degrees of productivity are
appurtenance: -an/-ian (Victorian, distinguished for derivational patterns
Russian); -ese (Chinese); collectivity: and individual derivational affixes: l)
-dom (officialdom); -ry (pleasantry); highly-productive, 2) productive or
Diminutiveness:-ie (birdie); -let semi-productive, 3) nоn-produсtive.
(cloudlet); -ling (wolfling). 56References. Зыкова И.В. Практический
23According to their stylistic reference курс английской лексикологии. М.:
suffixes may be classified into: those Академия, 2006. – С.57-77. Гинзбург Р.З.
characterized by neutral stylistic Лексикология английского языка. М.: Высшая
reference: -able (agreeable); -er школа, 1979. – С. 108-216. Антрушина Г.Б.,
(writer); -ing (meeting); those having a Афанасьева О.В., Морозова Н.Н.
certain stylistic value: -oid (asteroid); Лексикология английского языка. М.: Дрофа,
-tron (cyclotron). These suffixes occur 2006. – С. – 78-128.
usually in terms and are bookish.
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