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Use of assessment to monitor and attain learning goals in South Africa
Use of assessment to monitor and attain learning goals in South Africa
Key Documents
Key Documents
Key Documents
Key Documents
Key Documents
Key Documents
Key Documents
Key Documents
Overview of Learning Outcomes
Overview of Learning Outcomes
Long term targets
Long term targets
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Use of assessment to monitor and attain learning goals in South Africa Anil Kanjee

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1Use of assessment to monitor and 25and evaluation of system. 25.
attain learning goals in South Africa Anil 26Use of Results. Clear Relevant Doable.
Kanjee. Purpose. Reporting. Province &
2Outline of presentation. Background - District Identify schools in need of
developing learning outcomes Policy support and effect relevant interventions.
Context Systems and structures: National Level – Monitor & evaluate
development and monitoring Learning Goals performance of system (Implicitly stated).
in South Africa Kinds of learning goals Trends in performance – by province &
and assessments Reporting and districts Identify key factor affecting
communication of goals Key lessons for performance. Trends in performance by
policy makers / countries Development, district and school Identify areas of
reporting and communication Are learning intervention. School, Teacher & Parent
goals being attained? Tensions between Provide information on learner strengths
local versus national versus global goals & weaknesses Provide support to
Is assessment helping or hindering learners in need Inform parent on
attainment of goals? Way forward and performance of their children. Performance
Future challenges. 2. by each teachers Report to each learner
3Background to developing learning Identify needs of each learner Report by
outcomes. 3. performance levels. 26.
4Brief Description. Long term 27Use of Results. Purpose. Challenges.
consultation process Began in 2004 – 2009 Trend data must be comparable SA – all
– 3rd term of new government 12 Key test items released and thus new tests not
outcomes Government wide policy framework comparable. Province & District
For monitoring and evaluation of goals and Identify schools in need of support and
targets Spearheaded by office of the effect relevant interventions. Unclear why
President Dept. of Performance Monitoring scores improving or declining? Annual
& Evaluation – (2009) National administration – limited time for
Development Plan 2030 – (2012) Delivery interventions. Annual data – good as data
agreements (2009 – 2014) Between Minister for new students Results based on
and President Systems for data collection arbitrary cut-points which provide limited
and reporting Annual National Assessments. information for intervention. National
4. Level – Monitor & evaluate performance
512 Key National Outcomes. BASIC of system (Implicitly stated). School,
EDUCATION: Quality basic education HEALTH: Teacher & Parent Identify learner
A long and healthy life for all South strengths & weaknesses Provide support
Africans SAFETY: All people in South to learners in need Inform parent
Africa are and feel safe EMPLOYMENT: -performance of their children. 27.
Decent employment through inclusive 28Example – Comparing Trends. How to
economic growth SKILLS: Skilled and explain these results? Improvement /
capable workforce to support an inclusive Decrease in performance? Change in test
growth path ECONOMIC INFRASTRUCTURE: An difficulty? Implications for
efficient, competitive and responsive interventions? Percentage students
economic infrastructure network RURAL obtaining 50%. 28.
DEVELOPMENT: Vibrant, equitable, 29EXAMPLE ANA reporting - Challenge.
sustainable rural communities contributing 0-34%. 36-49%. 51-69%. 71-100%. Scores
towards food security for all INTEGRATED reported by four levels of achievement to
HUMAN SETTLEMENTS: Sustainable human provide more information to teacher on
settlements and improved quality of which learners need support No empirical
household life LOCAL GOVERNMENT: basis of selecting these cut-scores why
Responsive, accountable, effective and 35% and not 30% or 25% Why 50% and not
efficient Local Government system 60%? Not Achieved. Partially Achieved.
ENVIRONMENT: Protect and enhance our Achieved. Outstanding. ANA Report, 2011,
environmental assets and natural resources p. 30.
INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL RELATIONS: Create a 30DBE Reporting vs SS - Maths. 30.
better South Africa, a better Africa and a 31DBE Reporting vs SS - Languages. 31.
better world PUBLIC SERVICE: An efficient, 32Similar inaccuracies by province &
effective and development oriented public district. Grade 6 Language. Grade 6
service and an empowered, fair and Mathematics.
inclusive citizenship. 5. 33District Performance – Grade 3.
6Key Documents. 6. Incorrect identification of learner
7Learning Goals in South Africa. performance levels - Significant
Overview of learning goals Overview of implications for interventions – cost,
assessments How goals and indicator time, planning, etc, A. 38. B. 52. C. 18.
specified? 7. A. 20. B. 41. C. 3. % of learners in each
8Developments in Education Sector. Well achievement category. % of learners in
established and strong examination system each achievement category. % of learners
Over 120 years experience Improvement in in each achievement category. % of
capacity to implement NAS Within Ministry learners in each achievement category. 42.
External agencies DRAMATIC increase in 20. 31. 7. 25. 23. 28. 24. 57. 25. 12. 6.
National Assessment Surveys Increase in 50. 30. 10. 10. 31. 28. 26. 15. 64. 33. 2.
Participation in Regional and 1. Grade 3 Subject. Grade 3 Subject.
International Surveys Key Policy review District No. District No. NA. PA. Ach.
and revisions. 8. Out. Literacy. Literacy. Literacy.
9Large Scale Assessments in SA 1994 - Numeracy. Numeracy. Numeracy. Sum: Ach +
2014. Annual National Assessments 6 Out. Sum: Ach + Out.
million students Grades 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 9 34Summary. ANA scores inaccurately
2015 – Grades 7 & 8. 2010 – 2014. reported DBE levels over-estimate %
10Overview of Learning Outcomes. Link to learners at NA level (lowest level) DBE
specific goals and targets Listed in the reporting under-estimate % learners at PA
Minister's Delivery Agreement 4 Key level No clear trend (or problems) noted
outputs 27 indicators 12 Indicators at the highest levels. IMPLICATIONS –
related to learning outcomes. 10. Negative impact on interventions
11Minster’s Delivery Agreement. Output incorrectly identifying schools and
1:Improve the quality of teaching and learners for intervention Greater costs
learning Output 2: Undertake regular ito funds and HR.
assessment to track progress Sub output 1: 35TENSIONS - local, national &
Establish a world class system of global results. International survey
standardised national assessments Sub results mainly impact on policy makers –
output 2: Extract key lessons from ongoing rarely teachers and public besides the
participation in international assessments period when results are published Creates
Output 3: Improve early childhood confusion in relation to National Ass
development Output 4 Ensure a credible, Different scales, Different time frames
outcomes-focused planning and Different instruments Different results
accountability system Sub output 1: Grade 9 TIMSS results vs ANA results. 35.
Strengthen school management and promote 36EXAMPLE Grade 9 TIMSS vs ANA results.
functional schools Sub output 2: TIMSS 2011 Grade 9 Maths results Overall –
Strengthen the capacity of district 63 point improvement. 36.
offices. 11. 37Grade 9 2012 ANA results. National
12Delivery Agreement LO Indicators. Average – 13% Provincial averages 9 to
Indicator. 1.1 Percentage of Grade 3 17%. 37.
learners performing at the required 38Grade 9 TIMSS vs ANA results. Key
literacy level according to the Annual point – we need to able explain these
National Assessments. 1.2 Percentage of different sets of results to our policy
Grade 3 learners performing at the makers And be clear on how we will use the
required numeracy level according to the results. Question – how is it that we show
Annual National Assessments. 2.1 improvement in international surveys but
Percentage of Grade 6 learners performing find EXTREMELY low performance in our
at the required language level according National Survey ? What do these two sets
to the Annual National Assessments. Annual of results tell us? What does this mean
National Assessments Grade 1 to 6 & 9. for interventions? Which set of results do
2.2 Percentage of Grade 6 learners policy makers use? 38.
performing at the required mathematics 39Obtaining evidence of learning – Key
level according to the Annual National issues. Require long term, integrated
Assessments. 3.1 Percentage of Grade 9 strategy National, regional and
learners performing at the required international data Realistic time frames
language level according to the Annual to collect data Annually or Regular
National Assessments. 3.2 Percentage of Cycles? Census or Sample ? Capacity to use
Grade 9 learners performing at the assessment evidence District officials?
required mathematics level according to Teachers School leadership – Principal
the Annual National Assessments. 12. & Deputy, HoD Assessments to measure
13Indicator. Delivery Agreement LO change No interventions – No use to
Indicators. 4 Number of Grade 12 learners measure again. 39.
who become eligible for a Bachelors 40Are learning goals being attained?
programme in the public national Difficult to tell at the moment No valid
examinations. 5 Number of Grade 12 data to monitor trends (i.e. data not
learners passing mathematics. 6 Number of comparable) Indicator unclear – “required
Grade 12 learners passing physical level” ?? Results NOT reported using valid
science. 7 Average score obtained in Grade sound standard setting measures NB -
6 in language in the SACMEQ assessment. 8 mechanism to monitor & evaluate
Average score obtained in Grade 6 in Assessment System. 40.
mathematics in the SACMEQ assessment. 9 41Summary Key Lessons – revise??
Average Grade 8 mathematics score obtained Government wide framework and support
in TIMSS. Grade 12 – End of Schooling - Integrated national framework Clear goals
Examinations. Regional Survey - SACMEQ. and targets Long and Short term Different
International Survey - TIMSS. 13. levels of the system Specific
14Key Lessons. Development of learning accountability systems Key persons held
goals Obtaining evidence of learning Are accountability Regular, valid &
learning goals being attained? Tensions reliable evidence Effective systems for
between local, national & global goals reporting, dissemination and use of
Are assessment surveys helping or evidence. 41.
hindering attainment of goals? 14. 42Way forward and Future Challenges. 42.
15Development of learning goals. 43Way forward – Improve system.
Requires time and strategic consultation International Advisory Committee
Start with what you have - Catch 22 in established Review assessment system to
beginning stages Require reliable data to establish an integrated & effective
set realistic targets No reliable data assessment system Improving capacity at
available No single agency responsible for province and district levels to enhance
data No repository / database within use of assessment data National Reporting
Ministry QUESTION – If you want data / Framework Standard setting process
results NOW from studies conducted a few Implement effective accountability system.
years ago, Do you know where to get from? 43.
NO? Unsure – You / System in trouble ??? 44Way forward – Teachers. Trainees
Accountability systems critical To take Teachers – Comprehensive 3 year programme
responsibility To ensure focus on goals on testing AND classroom assessment; FOCUS
Unintended consequences – teaching to the use of assessment evidence & provision
test SA Context – good thing – for NOW. of feedback to improve learning and
15. teaching In-service – Similar programmes
16Planning. Planning process accounts but Large scale (District wide). 44.
for the budgeting process, government 45Future challenges. Improving
reporting requirements, annual planning administration, data management and
cycles, etc. -. 16. reporting of ANA Training district and
17Strategic focus of Goals. Goals focus provincial officials Scaling up in-service
on key stages of the schooling system programme Extending pre-service programme
Grade 3 - end of Foundation Phase – Grade to all teacher training institutes
6 – end of Intermediate Phase (Primary) Implementing effective accountability
Grade 9 – End of Senior Phase (Junior mechanisms at lower levels of system. 45.
Secondary) Grade 12 – end of Schooling. 46Conclusion. Significant progress made
17. over the last 15 years in improving the
18Clarity - Goals, targets & assessment system in South African
indicators. Goal 1 Increase the number of education sector. However, we still have a
learners in Grade 3 who, by the end of the long way to go before we have an
year, have mastered the minimum language integrated, and effective assessment
and numeracy competencies Indicator system for use in improving learning and
Percentage of Grade 3 learners performing teaching practices in all schools. 46.
at the required literacy levels according 47Questions Comments kanjeeA@tut.ac.za.
to the Annual National Assessments Target 47.
2014 – 60%. Minimum NOT specified. 18. 48Consultative Process – by Office of
19Consensus & Communication. Goals President. 48.
& targets specified in: Minister’s 49Education Policy & Assessment:
delivery agreement Action Plan 2014 1994-2014. 1995 - South African
National Development Plan Specifies “the Qualifications Authority bill 1997 -
required competency levels be defined as National Curriculum Statement 1998 -
50 percent and above” Ministry document - Assessment Policy. 2000 – Report Min
Percentage of … learners performing at the Review Comm Curri 2005 2002 - Revised
required .. Levels. 19. National Curriculum Statements. 2005 –
20Ownership & Responsibility. National protocol for Ass in schools 2007
National & Regional (SACMEQ) – National policy on Ass for schools 2008
Assessments Ministry initiatives – managed – Foundations of Learning Campaign. 2009 -
and funded Provincially - managed & Education split– Basic & Higher 2009 –
reporting Developed capacity within Min Task Team Report Review of NCS 2010 –
Ministry Used in planning, reported to Action plan to 2014 – draft 2011
Parliament, etc TIMSS & PIRLS – Prior –Curriculum and Policy Statements 2012 –
to 2010 Managed & funded - University National protocol for Ass : Grades R - 12
& Research Council No national or 2012 –Action plan to 2014 – Final. 1994 –
provincial ministry involvement Besides 1999. 1999 - 2004. 2004 – 2009. 2009 -
press outcry, limited (OFFICIAL) uptake 2014. 2014 - 2019. Revised Assessment
and response from Ministry CURRENTLY Policy – Long term National Assessment
Ministry funded, Included as indicators Plan Reporting Framework. Period.
and targets CHALLENGE - Districts, schools Minister. Transformation focus. Key
& some provinces – See National assessment related policies. Policy
assessments as another task to complete. implementation; Development of systems for
20. delivery. Improving of quality
21Long term targets. Specified in Action Understanding impact. ?? Enhance
Plan 2025 Linked to Minister’s delivery Accountability. S. Bengu. Development of
agreement. 21. policy and regulatory framework. K. Asmal.
22Accountability. Minister accountable N. G. Pandor. A. Motshekga (Minister of
to deliver on goals Currently Basic Education). Improvement of quality,
–accountability mechanism for schools and introduction of accountability systems.
teachers under discussion Action Plan 2014 49.
– Unclear Once-off incentives to ALL 50Large Scale Assessment Surveys:
teachers in school demonstrating 1994-2014. Term. Policy Focus. National
improvement National Development Plan Hold Assessment Surveys. 1994 - 1999. 2000 -
schools and school principals accountable 2004. Provincial Assessment Surveys. 2005
for performance ? Argues for testing of – 2009. 2010 - 2014. frameworks &
principals as well. 22. documents. 1995 TIMSS - MLA 1999 - TIMSS.
23Assessment surveys helping or implementation, systems development &
hindering? Assessment Surveys – only delivery. 2001 – Grade 3 NA 2001 SACMEQ
useful if CONSENSUS and OWNERSHIP 2002 TIMSS 2002 – Grade 9 NA – HSRC 2002 –
regarding: Purpose How results will be 2005 - CTA Grade 9 2004 Grade 6 NA.
used Key agency/unit for managing survey Improving quality and understanding
SA Experience National Assessments impact. 2006 – PIRLS 2007 SACMEQ 2008 -
Regional & International Assessments. FLC. Improving quality -accountability
23. systems. 2010 – ANA 2010 TIMSS, PIRLS 2011
24Clear Purpose of Assessments. 1999 – – ANA 2011 - SACMEQ 2012 – ANA 2013 - ANA.
2010 To monitor attainment of key policy 51Conclusion. South Africa needs to
goals regarding Access, Quality, Equity, develop and strengthen collaboration with
Efficiency 2010 – 2014 …. Expose teachers other education systems in the
to better assessment practices. Provide English-speaking world and the BRIC
districts with information to target countries (Brazil, Russia, India and
schools in need of assistance. Encourage China) to ensure that students from the
schools to celebrate outstanding South African education system are
performance. Empower parents by providing equipped to be admitted into those
them information about the education of systems. International collaboration in
their children. 24. education will help South Africa to
25National Assessments: DUAL Purposes. successfully tackle its education
Dual Purpose System Monitoring & challenges. Stronger educational links
Evaluation Purposes Focus on National and with these countries will also help
Province Local Intervention Purposes students to become increasingly
Focus: Districts, Schools, Teachers, broadminded in terms of how they look at
Learners & Parents. PROBLEM Single both South Africa and the wider world. 51.
Assessment No specification for monitoring
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Use of assessment to monitor and attain learning goals in South Africa Anil Kanjee

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