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Erich Fromm (1900-1980)

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1Erich Fromm (1900-1980). The most 15marketing orientation. 11/10/2015. (c)
beautiful as well as the most ugly Lucie Johnson 2005-2010.
inclinations are not part of a fixed and 16The Evil Character Type. Lover of
biologically given human nature but result death and decay, destroying for the sake
from the social processes which create of destruction, preferring the mechanical
[us]. --Erich Fromm. 11/10/2015. (c) Lucie over the human, trying to reduce humans to
Johnson 2005-2010. mechanisms, to dehumanize: the
2Fromm’s roots. Fromm was born in necrophilous character type. The opposite
Frankfurt, Germany, March 23,1900, in an of necrophilous is biophilous, or lover of
orthodox Jewish family. His father was a life, the healthy personality. 11/10/2015.
businessman, grandfather was a rabbi, and (c) Lucie Johnson 2005-2010.
his mother's uncle was a well-known 17On the Continuum from Love of Life to
scholar of the Talmud. Fromm himself Love of Death. The productive character is
became (in his own words) an atheistic also biophilous. The receptive, hoarding,
mystic. He is a very interesting thinker, exploiting, marketing characters have
often paradoxical. 11/10/2015. (c) Lucie components of "love of death"
Johnson 2005-2010. (or necrophilia) in them. How much? It
3An atheistic MYSTIC? Fromm said: depends how strong the orientation is. The
" There is no one without a religious necrophilous character is evil and
need, a need to have a frame of death-loving. 11/10/2015. (c) Lucie
orientation and an object of Johnson 2005-2010.
devotion." " Man is the only 18Ways of Life: To Have or To Be? The
animal for whom his own existence is a having mode leads us to live life as a
problem which he has to solve, and from consumer and to see ourselves as a
which he cannot escape. He cannot go back commodity. We define ourselves by what we
to the prehuman state of harmony with have and accomplish. This is what as
nature; he must proceed to develop his Christians, we might call the "false
reason until he becomes the master of self". The being mode leads us to
nature, and of himself." From: Fromm, live life authentically, without hiding
Erich (1950) Psychoanalysis and Religion, behind a mask. It is about living life,
Yale University Press: New Haven and being not building ourselves up. This
London, p. 25 and p. 23. 11/10/2015. (c) would be living out of one's true-self, a
Lucie Johnson 2005-2010. Christ-like way to live. 11/10/2015. (c)
4What about God? "While it is not Lucie Johnson 2005-2010.
possible for man to make valid statements 19We are a mixture… The ideal would be
about the positive, about God, it is to always live out of one's "being
possible to make such statements about the mode". In fact, we are only partially
negative, about idols. Is it not time to able to live this way. We need to grow
cease to argue about God, and instead to into more authenticity. We need to become
unite in unmasking of contemporary forms less afraid and less sensitive to peer and
of idolatry?" From: Fromm, Erich societal pressure. We need to work at
(1950) Psychoanalysis and Religion, Yale building a society that encourages a
University Press: New Haven and London, p. productive and life-loving orientation.
118. 11/10/2015. (c) Lucie Johnson 11/10/2015. (c) Lucie Johnson 2005-2010.
2005-2010. 20Where are you on the
5What idols? Our own idea of God, the "having"/"being"
words we use and reify about God --because continuum? Consider where you are on the
the Bible prohibits making an image of God polarities described in the 6 following
in any form (p.115) The deification of slides. Keep a note of your scores and add
state and of power (p.118) The deification them at the end to see where you rate
of machine and success(p.119) From: Fromm, yourself on the having-being continuum.
Erich (1950) Psychoanalysis and Religion, 11/10/2015. (c) Lucie Johnson 2005-2010.
Yale University Press: New Haven and 21Insecurity/Security. If 1= insecurity,
London. 11/10/2015. (c) Lucie Johnson showing itself in one's fear of loosing
2005-2010. possessions, status, job, reputation And
6WWI: starting to search for answers. 10= security, sense of being OK, no matter
Fromm was 14 when WWI started. He saw most what happens (because you are yourself,
of his professors, who seemed to be not your possessions, grades, jobs,
rational, normal, bright people, somehow reputation…) Where are you? (give yourself
become infected by the spirit of the time, a score between 1 and 10). 11/10/2015. (c)
and becoming irrational, hateful, Lucie Johnson 2005-2010.
antisemitic nationalists. He wanted to 22Antagonism/Solidarity. If
know how this transformation took place, 1=antagonism, that is to say, perceiving
what caused people to "sell out" yourself in competition with others in a
their freedom, to be destructive and win-loose dynamic, afraid that others will
hateful etc. 11/10/2015. (c) Lucie Johnson take your possessions, or job, or status.
2005-2010. And 10=solidarity, that is to say, fo you,
7Do we try to run from freedom? Yes, we sharing with others is enjoyable, you live
often do. We'd like someone else to take in a win-win dynamic Where are you? (give
responsibility for our actions. This way, yourself a score between 1 and 10).
we will not be blamed if things go wrong. 11/10/2015. (c) Lucie Johnson 2005-2010.
If a situation is frightening, we may want 23Pleasure/joy. If 1=pleasure, that is
somebody to take charge for us, and we are to say seeking peaks of excitement,
ready to surrender our freedom in order to maximizing sensory enjoyment, being driven
be safe. When we are frightened, we might by strong passion And 10=joy, that is to
attempt to control a situation, push it say enjoying being alive, growing,
into a mold, make others behave so that it participating, learning, encountering the
gives us the outcome we want. 11/10/2015. newness of life Where are you? (give
(c) Lucie Johnson 2005-2010. yourself a score between 1 and 10).
8How do we run from freedom? Fromm 11/10/2015. (c) Lucie Johnson 2005-2010.
consider 3 psychic escape mechanisms: 24Understanding of sin. If 1=avoiding
Authoritarianism : seeking to control/ to sin to avoid punishment and guilt,
be controlled --wanting an absolute, very repentance and submission being the main
clear and unambiguous authority elements of forgiveness of sin. If
Destructiveness: seeking to eliminate 10=avoiding sin because of not wanting to
objects or persons perceived as dangerous betray one's own integrity, and not
Automaton conformity: surrendering to wanting to be alienated from God, the main
rules and norms (even when disagreeing), elements of forgiveness being
in order to be safe. 11/10/2015. (c) Lucie reconciliation and healing. Where are you?
Johnson 2005-2010. (give yourself a score between 1 and 10).
9A contemporary application. Here is a 11/10/2015. (c) Lucie Johnson 2005-2010.
link to a blog posting that applies 25Life and death. If 1=being afraid of
Fromm's approach to some of the dynamics death, afraid of loosing one's life and
currently going on in Iraq (and to nazism identity, feeling lost, feeling one
etc as well). What do you think of this "is nothing" And 10=feeling
analysis? Would you agree, disagree? connected to life, focusing on one's love
11/10/2015. (c) Lucie Johnson 2005-2010. for others and their love for oneself
10Personality Development in Childhood. Where are you? (give yourself a score
As children grow they move from dependence between 1 and 10). 11/10/2015. (c) Lucie
(less freedom) to autonomy (more freedom) Johnson 2005-2010.
Moving toward more freedom is frightening 26Time. If 1=focusing on the past and
at times, and these tensions influence the the future, what I can have, what I might
parent-child relationship. 11/10/2015. (c) loose, what will happen to me And
Lucie Johnson 2005-2010. 10=focusing on life as it presents itself
11The parent-child relationship. The to me here and now, being in harmony with
ideal parent-child relationship is love, a life as it enfolds. Where are you? (give
balanced relationship, which helps the yourself a score between 1 and 10).
child feel secure while assuming 11/10/2015. (c) Lucie Johnson 2005-2010.
progressively more responsibility. 27Adding your scores. Where are you as
Sometimes the child and the parent stay you add your scores? The maximum would be
too interwoven, in a state of 60, a complete "being"
symbiotic-relatedness Sometimes the child orientation, whereas 6 would be a complete
distances too much too fast, pushes back "having" orientation. You will
in a state of withdrawal-destructiveness. be somewhere in between. 11/10/2015. (c)
11/10/2015. (c) Lucie Johnson 2005-2010. Lucie Johnson 2005-2010.
12What do human beings need? According 28Interpreting your score. If your score
to Fromm, all psychological needs come is below 30, you tend toward the
from our desire to simultaneously: Be "having" mode. This sometimes
free, live authentic lives, but also happens when people are stressed, or in
escape loneliness and be secure. "survival" mode. Is this the
11/10/2015. (c) Lucie Johnson 2005-2010. case for you? Look at again at the various
13Fromm's Psychological Needs. areas. Any specific stressors or demands
Relatedness but also Identity. Need to be that influence you at this time? If your
connected, caring and cared for But also score is above 30, you tend toward the
Need to develop one's uniqueness. "being" mode. Hopefully, as we
Transcendence but also Rootedness. Need to grow, we move in that direction --though
rise above our animal nature (creatively it is certainly a slow and progressive
or destructively), but also Need for a movement. 11/10/2015. (c) Lucie Johnson
sense of belonging to community, family 2005-2010.
etc. Excitation but also 29What do you think of that analysis?
Frame-of-orientation. Stimulating and What do you think of where you ended up?
changing environment But also A consistent Do you see areas of possible growth? Do
view of the world and an object of you think society and its structure and
devotion. 11/10/2015. (c) Lucie Johnson demands plays a role in how you score on
2005-2010. some of these? Might someone who lives in
14About Character Types. The ideal type circumstances where plain survival is a
is what Fromm calls the productive type. challenge tend to be more on one side or
This person lives an authentic life, is at the other? 11/10/2015. (c) Lucie Johnson
one with him/herself, and does not attempt 2005-2010.
to manipulate. The pressures of life and 30A cautionary quote. We have become
society, and the choices one makes can things, and our neighbors have become
result into distortions of character which things. The result is that we are
are non productive or even evil. powerless and despise ourselves for our
11/10/2015. (c) Lucie Johnson 2005-2010. impotence. We have no conscience … since
15The Non Productive Character Types. we do not dare to trust our own judgment.
Too much passivity and dependence: the …We are in the dark and keep up our
receptive orientation. Never letting go, courage because we hear everybody else
stingy, suspicious, compulsive: the whistle as we do. Man for himself, p.248
hoarding orientation. Aggressive, Is Fromm right? What do you think?
egocentric, rash, seducing: the exploitive 11/10/2015. (c) Lucie Johnson 2005-2010.
orientation. Selling oneself, becoming a 31THE END. 11/10/2015. (c) Lucie Johnson
product, opportunist, aimless: the 2005-2010.
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Erich Fromm (1900-1980)

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