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Just in time Professional Development
Just in time Professional Development
Just in time Professional Development
Just in time Professional Development
Science Objects: ~10 hrs of online instructional interactive content
Science Objects: ~10 hrs of online instructional interactive content
Science Objects: ~10 hrs of online instructional interactive content
Science Objects: ~10 hrs of online instructional interactive content
Key Idea: Color Addition
Key Idea: Color Addition
Introduction Throughout this Light & Color series you will explore
Introduction Throughout this Light & Color series you will explore
Introduction Throughout this Light & Color series you will explore
Introduction Throughout this Light & Color series you will explore
Introduction The human eye-brain system is wonderful and quite unique
Introduction The human eye-brain system is wonderful and quite unique
Introduction The human eye-brain system is wonderful and quite unique
Introduction The human eye-brain system is wonderful and quite unique
Scenario Tristan and Sophie have been approached by their school
Scenario Tristan and Sophie have been approached by their school
Simulation So that you may aid Tristan and Sophie in their work, we
Simulation So that you may aid Tristan and Sophie in their work, we
Q What color will result if those two colors are made to overlap
Q What color will result if those two colors are made to overlap
Q What color will result if those two colors are made to overlap
Q What color will result if those two colors are made to overlap
Compare this to the color you originally thought would appear
Compare this to the color you originally thought would appear
Compare this to the color you originally thought would appear
Compare this to the color you originally thought would appear
Going Further Now let's take it a step further
Going Further Now let's take it a step further
Scott M. Graves
Scott M. Graves
Scott M. Graves
Scott M. Graves
Scott M. Graves
Scott M. Graves
Scott M. Graves
Scott M. Graves
Scott M. Graves
Scott M. Graves
The Color Spectrum The full spectrum of visible colors ranges from
The Color Spectrum The full spectrum of visible colors ranges from
The Color Spectrum The full spectrum of visible colors ranges from
The Color Spectrum The full spectrum of visible colors ranges from
Color Perception: Primary Colors The primary colors are red, green,
Color Perception: Primary Colors The primary colors are red, green,
Color Perception: Primary Colors The primary colors are red, green,
Color Perception: Primary Colors The primary colors are red, green,
Secondary Colors The colors that result from the mixing of the primary
Secondary Colors The colors that result from the mixing of the primary
Secondary Colors The colors that result from the mixing of the primary
Secondary Colors The colors that result from the mixing of the primary
Two-Color Combinations (cont
Two-Color Combinations (cont
Review Let's see what you've learned so far
Review Let's see what you've learned so far
Introduction The following narrative, along with the accompanying
Introduction The following narrative, along with the accompanying
Light as Radiant Energy (cont
Light as Radiant Energy (cont
Seeing Visible Light For most people, sight is the most heavily relied
Seeing Visible Light For most people, sight is the most heavily relied
Seeing Visible Light For most people, sight is the most heavily relied
Seeing Visible Light For most people, sight is the most heavily relied
Light and Color Science Object
Light and Color Science Object
Computer Screens Next turn your attention to a computer screen or
Computer Screens Next turn your attention to a computer screen or
Computer Screens Next turn your attention to a computer screen or
Computer Screens Next turn your attention to a computer screen or
Combining Phosphors Computer screens, like televisions, control red,
Combining Phosphors Computer screens, like televisions, control red,
Light and Color Science Object
Light and Color Science Object
Light and Color Science Object
Light and Color Science Object
Stage Lighting Revisited Let's think back to the first part of this
Stage Lighting Revisited Let's think back to the first part of this
Scene1 The curtain rises, and the actor enters the stage from the
Scene1 The curtain rises, and the actor enters the stage from the
Scene1 The curtain rises, and the actor enters the stage from the
Scene1 The curtain rises, and the actor enters the stage from the
Scene1 The curtain rises, and the actor enters the stage from the
Scene1 The curtain rises, and the actor enters the stage from the
Scene1 The curtain rises, and the actor enters the stage from the
Scene1 The curtain rises, and the actor enters the stage from the
Scene1 The curtain rises, and the actor enters the stage from the
Scene1 The curtain rises, and the actor enters the stage from the
Light and Color Science Object
Light and Color Science Object
The Electromagnetic Spectrum Place the following light energies in the
The Electromagnetic Spectrum Place the following light energies in the
Light Reception The image below shows an expanded view of a small
Light Reception The image below shows an expanded view of a small
Light Reception The image below shows an expanded view of a small
Light Reception The image below shows an expanded view of a small
Light Reception The image below shows an expanded view of a small
Light Reception The image below shows an expanded view of a small
Light Reception The image below shows an expanded view of a small
Light Reception The image below shows an expanded view of a small
Light Reception The image below shows an expanded view of a small
Light Reception The image below shows an expanded view of a small
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1Just in time Professional Development. 21the two color combinations that produce
2Science Objects: ~10 hrs of online white. Notice that in each case, a
instructional interactive content. secondary color is combined with a single
Introduction Throughout this Light & primary color. Two-color combinations that
Color series you will explore light as produce white light. Light and Color
electromagnetic radiation and the process Science Object. Engage ? Explore ? Explain
of human light perception, with brief ? Elaborate ? Evaluate ? Introduction.
excursions into historical studies of Color Spectrum. Secondary Colors. White
light and color and the sometimes Light. Practice. Review.
confounding nature of such an obvious and 22Practice Let's see what you've learned
universally perceived phenomenon among so far. Take another look at the color
sighted people. In each of the scenarios, mixing questions you saw earlier in this
activities and "thought learning object: Q What color will result
experiments" presented you will be if you overlap the red and green lights
asked to make predictions and track your seen above? O Magenta O Yellow O Blue O
thinking against the experts. You will Brown Tries Remaining: 4 Q What color will
encounter various simulations that will result if you overlap the red and blue
help you explore color mixing in both lights seen above? O Orange O Green O Cyan
transmitted and reflected light. O Magenta Tries Remaining: 4 Q Finally,
Navigation Please select the “Navigation” what color will result if you overlap the
tab at the top of this window to learn how green and blue lights seen above? O Red O
to navigate through this science module. Cyan O Orange O Violet Tries Remaining: 4.
Light and Color Science Object. Light and Color Science Object. Engage ?
Introduction ? Introduction. Navigation. Explore ? Explain ? Elaborate ? Evaluate ?
3Instructional Content & Learning Introduction. Color Spectrum. Secondary
Goals: AAAS & NSTA Standards-based Colors. White Light. Practice. Review.
content, focused topical treatments, 23Review Let's see what you've learned
multiple styles of interactivity (Java so far. Take another look at the color
& Flash simulations, animations), mixing questions you saw earlier in this
interactive feedback in learning object: The Primary Colors and
Assessments/Evaluations. Goal: Light & their Secondary Mixing Results. Light and
Color Science Module The Learner will Color Science Object. Engage ? Explore ?
develop a scientific understanding of Explain ? Elaborate ? Evaluate ?
light, recognizing that color is an aspect Introduction. Color Spectrum. Secondary
of light (a small range of energy within Colors. White Light. Practice. Review.
the spectrum of radiant solar energy). 24Introduction The following narrative,
Through interrogating the “light and color along with the accompanying images,
simulator” learners will explore prior sketches, and diagrams may help you
conceptions about light perception and solidify your understanding of light and
learn that the “color” of an observed color and how humans perceive color
object depends on the “color” of the mixing. As you progress through the rest
source energy (white light spectrum or a of this science object?s activities, you
portion thereof) as well as whether the may well be satisfied that you know how
object is “transmitting” the light/color colors combine together to produce other
or “reflecting” it. Primary “colors” of colors, and how the brain works to allow
transmitted light, those detectable by the you to see colors that are not actually
human eye, are Red, Green and Blue, and there. Light as Radiant Energy. Light and
all other colors can be achieved through Color Science Object. Engage ? Explore ?
combinations of these. Mixing “transmitted Explain ? Elaborate ? Evaluate ? Light
light colors” is color addition. Light and Energies. Seeing Visible Light. Computer
Color Science Object. Standards ? Science Screens. What we refer to as light (and by
Module Goal. Benchmarks. Key Idea. extension, color) is energy in the form of
Evidence of Understanding. electromagnetic radiation, whose origin is
4Benchmarks. Benchmarks: Light and our sun. The sun radiates energy across a
Color Science Module This section lists very broad "spectrum" or
all standards that are related to the continuum of energies. A classic
topic of light. The Key Ideas that will be explanation of light energy was drafted as
used as the learning goals for the Science early as the late 1600's by Christiaan
Module and Learning Object are derived Huygens, who described a simple model of
from these standards. While not all of the light rays and waves propagating through
ideas in a particular standard may become the ether. Discrete aspects of this
part of this Science Module or Learning overall solar spectrum of energies are
Object, the list provided here offers a known by their "frequencies" or
wider view of the topic at hand. Grades "wavelengths". These wavelengths
9-12: Below are the identified benchmarks are measured in meters and nanometers (one
for grades 9-12 that are addressed in part millionth of a meter).
by the learning object "transmitted 25Light as Radiant Energy (cont.) The
light: color addition". * illustration below shows the entire
"Accelerating electric charges electromagnetic spectrum: This
produce electromagnetic waves around them. illustration also identifies the visible
A great variety of radiations are spectrum as a narrow range of frequencies
electromagnetic waves: radio waves, and energies within the overall spectrum.
microwaves, radiant heat, visible light, The eye cannot sense radiation with
ultraviolet radiation, x-rays, and gamma wavelengths shorter than 400 nanometers or
rays. These wavelengths vary from radio longer than 700 nanometers. The portion of
waves, the longest, to gamma rays, the the sun's radiant energy that is
shortest. In empty space, all perceptible by the human eye is what we
electromagnetic waves move at the same call visible light. This narrow range of
speed-the speed of light". * (visible light) energy frequencies is
"Waves can superpose on one another, centrally located in the electromagnetic
bend around corners, reflect off surfaces, spectrum (refer to figures above and
be absorbed by materials they enter, and below). As we move through the visible
change direction when entering a new spectrum of violet, blue, green, yellow,
material. All of these effects vary with orange, and red, the wavelengths become
wavelength". Grades 6-8: Below are longer. Light and Color Science Object.
the identified benchmarks for grades 6-8 Engage ? Explore ? Explain ? Elaborate ?
that are addressed in part by the learning Evaluate ? Light Energies. Seeing Visible
object "transmitted light: color Light. Computer Screens.
addition". * "Light from the sun 26Light and Color Science Object. Engage
is made up of a mixture of many different ? Close-Up of Visible Spectrum As you can
colors of light, even though to the eye see from the illustrations, the full
the light looks almost white. Other things spectrum of solar radiation includes
that give off or reflect light have a energies beyond the range of visible
different mix of colors". * colors. Infrared and radio waves are at
"Something can be "seen" the long wavelength (low energy) side of
when light waves emitted or reflected by the electromagnetic spectrum, while
it enter the eye - just as something can ultraviolet (UV), x-rays, and gamma rays
be "heard" when sound waves from lie at the short wavelength (high energy)
it enter the ear. Light acts like a wave side. Wavelengths of light shorter than
in many ways. Waves can help explain how 400nm and longer than 700nm (the bounds of
light behaves. Human eyes respond to only the visible spectrum) are beyond the
a narrow range of wavelengths of capacity of humans to detect without
electromagnetic waves - visible light. special tools. Your eye does not respond
Differences of wavelength within that to these energies, but they can tell us a
range are perceived as differences of lot about a light source. The spectra
color". Light and Color Science outside (beyond) the red side of the
Object. Standards ? Science Module Goal. spectrum of visible light contains
Benchmarks. Key Idea. Evidence of "infrared colors" or
Understanding. "infrared radiation". Included
5Key Idea: Color Addition. Key Idea: in this region is the radiation your body
Color Addition Learning Object The key gives off as well as the warmth that the
ideas are derived from studying the earth gives off. This radiation is often
different standards on a topic. While the called heat, but it is properly referred
Key Ideas may atomize or clarify a to as infrared radiation. Also included in
standard, or even leave certain ideas out, this region, beyond the red and infrared,
they should reflect the content in the are microwaves and radio waves. On the
standards as closely as possible. The Key other side of the spectrum, beyond the
Ideas should provide a clear and specific deepest blue violet, are ultraviolet,
description of the ideas that the learner x-ray, and gamma rays. Dangerous Energies
should understand after they have gone These frequencies of light outside the
through a Learning Object. Benchmarks and visible spectrum have high energy and can
National Standards contain many ideas be dangerous. For example, our skin can
about light as a part of science literacy, detect ultraviolet light; there is,
including an understanding of the however, a time lag between sensing (often
electromagnetic spectrum, wavelength, and called exposure) and our recognition of UV
the behavior of waves. One part of this light. This high-energy light often
complex understanding is visible light and destroys cells and in general is harmful
the idea that white light is made up from to people. It is the source of the
a mixture of other colors. This Learning "sunburn" phenomenon. Light from
Object focuses on that idea. The Key Idea the sun is absorbed by the earth's
that follows incorporates understandings atmosphere in the ultraviolet (UV) and
derived from state standards documents, infrared (IR) regions, but some of it
and thus includes some things that do not reaches the earth. The UV portion that
appear in Benchmarks or National causes sunburn can be blocked by glass,
Standards. For More Information KEY IDEA and much of the light is blocked by water
"White is not a color but rather the except for the blue (B) and violet
presence of all colors of visible light. portions. It is the presence of water in
The mixing of three distinct colors our atmosphere that scatters much of the
(primary colors) with varying degrees of blue light, and thus the skies often
intensity can produce a wide range of appear Blue. Even though we cannot see
colors, including white light. The most them, scientists have created detectors
common set of primary colors is red, that work well in the infrared, visible,
green, and blue". Light and Color and ultraviolet regions; indeed, the
Science Object. Standards ? Science Module entire spectra is what scientists have to
Goal. Benchmarks. Key Idea. Evidence of work with when they sense radiation from
Understanding. far distant objects in the sky, such as
6Evidence of Understanding. Evidence of stars, galaxies, and quasars. Back here on
Understanding: Color Addition Learning earth, other creatures' eyes often have
Object Evidences of understanding describe light receptors that respond to
what learners should be able to know and frequencies we humans cannot see. So some
do to demonstrate their understanding of animals and insects can "see" in
the Key Idea listed above. How will you the ultraviolet and infrared. Explore ?
assess them for understanding? How will Explain ? Elaborate ? Evaluate ? Light
you measure the learners? level of Energies. Seeing Visible Light. Computer
understanding through performance tasks? Screens.
These performance tasks become the 27Seeing Visible Light For most people,
evidence of understandings?how you gauge sight is the most heavily relied upon of
the learners? understanding of the all the senses. Information gathered by
content. For More Information EVIDENCE OF our eyes accounts for up to 90 percent of
UNDERSTANDING Since the principles of what we rely upon day-to-day,
color addition have important applications minute-to-minute. And yet, most of the
to color television, color computer biological and neurological processes of
monitors and on-stage lighting at sight perception, let alone the physics of
theaters, assessment items should have the light, we take for granted. Early in our
learner use the principles learned to use schooling, most of us learn primary colors
the simulator to produce a desired as pigments and spend many hours
appearance. Light and Color Science experimenting with mixtures of paint,
Object. Standards ? Science Module Goal. chalk, and crayon. However, the
Benchmarks. Key Idea. Evidence of understanding of color we come away with
Understanding. is often incomplete and may lead to
7Introduction Throughout this Light misconceptions. Primitive Sight Very
& Color series you will explore light simple creatures with primitive eyes,
as electromagnetic radiation and the flatworms are multicellular organisms.
process of human light perception, with They possess simple eyes and a simple
brief excursions into historical studies nervous system. (Image from the Institute
of light and color and the for the Promotion of the Less than One
sometimes-confounding nature of such an Millimeter: Micropolitan Museum:
obvious and universally perceived Freshwater Collection.). Light and Color
phenomenon among sighted people. In each Science Object. Engage ? Explore ? Explain
of the scenarios, activities and ? Elaborate ? Evaluate ? Light Energies.
"thought experiments" presented Seeing Visible Light. Computer Screens.
you will be asked to make predictions and The process of seeing began very early in
track your thinking against the experts. biological evolution. In the ancient seas,
You will encounter various simulations life forms developed light-sensitive
that will help you explore color mixing in tissues. Our human connection to those
both transmitted and reflected light. earliest of photoreceptors, and a reminder
Light and Color Science Object. Engage ? of our oceanic origins is recognized in
Explore ? Explain ? Elaborate ? Evaluate ? the necessary and constant bathing of our
Scenario Tristan and Sophie are best eyes in a thin layer of salty tears.
friends. One day while walking home after 28Light and Color Science Object. Engage
school, the two stop to rest at the ? Light Reception We can describe light as
lakeshore. Sophie says, "Wow, those electromagnetic waves, with color
birch leaves are the yellowiest yellow identified by its wavelength. We can also
I've ever seen. They seem as pure yellow consider light as a stream of minute
as the sky is blue." Tristan packets of energy-photons which create a
responds, "You know, if you put that pulsating electromagnetic disturbance. A
yellow and the sky blue together you get single photon of one color differs from a
green; as green as the grass we're sitting photon of another color only by its
on!" Sophie, then says, energy. Our perception of color arises in
"Actually, yellow and blue together physical-chemical-neurological
make white, like the clouds." If you interactions in the eye and brain. These
were a part of this conversation with interactions, initiated by the presence of
Tristan and Sophie, what would you say? light and the specific neurological
Who is correct, Tristan or Sophie? Why do responses, are driven by the composition
you answer the way you do? In other words of the incoming light - the energy
how do you know who is correct? Can both spectrum of photons - that enter the eye.
Tristan and Sophie be correct? Why do you The diagram below shows a cross-section of
answer the way you do? the human eye. To the right is an expanded
8Introduction The human eye-brain view of a small section of the retina,
system is wonderful and quite unique. Your with its photoreceptor cells identified.
brain and the light sensors in your eyes Note the difference in the number of
create your perception of color. With all neural connections (ganglion) for rods and
that your eyes do for you, how well do you cones. Cross-sectional representation of
understand what you see? Suppose we had a the eye showing light entering through the
special color-detection meter. If we point pupil. The photosensitive cells, cones
it at any colored screen it tells us the & rods, are located in the retina:
color. Now suppose the two patches are cones respond to color, rods to light
made to overlap. The meter records that intensity. The retina on the inner surface
the overlap area is composed of two of the back of the eye contains
colors-red and green. But the fascinating photosensitive cells. These cells contain
thing is that our brain/eye system is pigments that absorb visible light. Of the
telling us something else! Do you know two types of photosensitive cells, rods
what color you will see? Light and Color and cones, it is the cones that allow us
Science Object. Engage ? Explore ? Explain to distinguish colors - light/photon
? Elaborate ? Evaluate ? Introduction. energies or frequencies. The rods are
Scenario. Simulation. Mixing Colors. Going effective in dim light and react to
Further. In this section you will develop changes in light intensity - the flux of
an understanding of how three primary incident photons - not photon energy. The
colors can be combined to create any color cones do not operate below a certain light
you can imagine. With this understanding, threshold, so in dim light, with primarily
you will be able to predict the results of the rods at work, we perceive colored
combining (adding) two or more colors objects as shades of grey, not shades of
together. color. Why Both? Explore ? Explain ?
9Scenario Tristan and Sophie have been Elaborate ? Evaluate ? Light Energies.
approached by their school theater Seeing Visible Light. Computer Screens.
department and asked to assist with a 29Light and Color Science Object. Engage
stage play. The stage director wants them ? We need two types of photoreceptors
to help with lighting a scene in which a because we live in a world of darkness and
solo actor is on stage delivering a light (night and day). The rods and cones
monologue about the four seasons: spring, function to gather light of quantitatively
summer, autumn, and winter. The storyboard and qualitatively different aspects. Color
calls for the actor to be dressed in a is perceived in the retina by three sets
full-length white robe. As she is of cones (photoreceptors) with sensitivity
delivering her lines, she will need to be to energies broadly overlapping the blue,
illuminated with stage lighting that green, and red portions of the spectrum.
reflects the changing colors of the For every color signal or flux of photons
seasons. Light and Color Science Object. reaching the eye, some ratio of response
Engage ? Explore ? Explain ? Elaborate ? within the three types of cones is
Evaluate ? Introduction. Scenario. triggered. It is this ratio that the
Simulation. Mixing Colors. Going Further. eye-brain system interprets as the
There are three lights available for perception of a particular color. A
illuminating the stage and actor. Tristan hundred and twenty five million thin,
and Sophie's task is to come up with the straight rods cells in the retina gather
correct lighting scenario for the brief light in the shadows, at dusk and dawn,
monologue by turning on one, two, or all and in the faintest moon or starlight. The
three lights, and then by changing the rods do not sense individual
color of each light at the appropriate "colors", but can detect a
time to simulate the changing seasons. In single photon. The rods "see" in
order to accomplish their task, the two black and white, and that is why our
technicians-to-be have some work to do in vision at night seems mute of hue and
getting completely comfortable with their color. Seven million cones (thicker than
understanding of color addition. Before the rods) in the retina are selectively
they undertake this task, Tristan and sensitive to one of 3 basic color
Sophie will first need to learn how to "frequencies": red, green, or
operate the stage lights so that they can blue. With just these three colors, our
illuminate the stage with the desired eye-brain makes full spectacular and
colors. In anticipation of this unique Technicolor visions of the world. The
problem-solving venture, Tristan and Fovea The "fovea" region of our
Sophie work together to collect their best eye is a small patch of densely packed
ideas and understandings of light, color, cones in the primary focal point of the
and color addition. retina (in the diagram above it appears as
10Simulation So that you may aid Tristan a small divot at the back of the retina
and Sophie in their work, we have provided facing directly across to the lens and
you with an application that simulates a pupil). There, most every cone has a
theater stage. The simulation will allow direct connection to the visual cortex, so
you to combine different colored lights on subtleties up close, in bright light, and
the stage and observe the results. When in the primary focus region of our gaze
you enter the theater, you will see the are very well resolved. However, the fovea
stage with the actor in the center. This is a very small region of the retina;
actor is very accommodating because she elsewhere the rods and cones are less
will stand there for as long as you need dense, so our eyes are constantly moving
her to. The three lights available to you to keep the light from objects of interest
are hanging from the rafters. Each light cast upon the foveal receptors. In dimly
is directed at the actor on the stage. You lit situations, say when you are starring
may turn each light on or off, and change deep into a dark part of the night sky,
its color to red, blue, or green. To the foveal cones are almost useless, so we
combine colors, you can project more than often have to "look" off to the
one light at the actor. Try different side of our intended visual target to
combinations and observe the results. Do allow nearby rods to gather and resolve
the results match what you would expect to their light. So, with receptors for red,
happen? Why or why not? Time to Practice! green, and blue, the human eye/brain
It's now time for you to explore the stage perception system can effectively ?see?
lighting simulation for yourself. Click the full spectrum of colors. Explore ?
the button to enter the theater. Theater Explain ? Elaborate ? Evaluate ? Light
Stage. Light and Color Science Object. Energies. Seeing Visible Light. Computer
Engage ? Explore ? Explain ? Elaborate ? Screens.
Evaluate ? Introduction. Scenario. 30Computer Screens Next turn your
Simulation. Mixing Colors. Going Further. attention to a computer screen or
Think back to the earlier question about television monitor. Recalling that adding
combining red and green. When you enter individual colors to a dark screen creates
the theater, you might want to start by color mixtures, the question asked now is,
directing a red and a green light at the "how does this color addition really
actor on the stage to see what happens. work?" Consider the two images below.
When you do this, the colored lights are The second is the same as the first,
both directed at a common object: the stretched to double the original size.
actor's robe. Therefore, their combined Look carefully at the yellow, cyan, and
frequencies are now illuminating the magenta regions. In the upper (smaller)
object's surface, which is colored white diagram your eye may have difficulty
(and therefore will reflect all light that resolving the individual colors within the
falls on it). Predicting the observed yellow, cyan, and magenta regions. They
outcome requires knowledge of how red and are just small enough that your brain and
green light will interact on the object's eye instead work to interpret the cluster
surface. What color do you think will of different hues and adds them together
result from this combination? to arrive at a single color (e.g., cyan =
11Q What color will result if those two blue + green). With a magnifying glass,
colors are made to overlap? O Magenta O you can similarly look at any computer
Yellow O Blue O Brown Tries Remaining: 4 monitor and see that colors other than
Compare this to the color you originally red, green, and blue are actually made up
thought would appear. You should have a of combinations of red, green, and blue
better idea now that you have explored the "pixels" at various intensities.
stage lighting simulation. If you observed Light and Color Science Object. Engage ?
something other than what you predicted Explore ? Explain ? Elaborate ? Evaluate ?
you may wish to revisit your earlier Light Energies. Seeing Visible Light.
ideas. Accommodating new information and Computer Screens.
experiences sometimes means having to 31Combining Phosphors Computer screens,
rethink and modify prior theories. Mixing like televisions, control red, blue, and
Colors In thinking about the scenario of green "phosphors" (elements
Tristan and Sophie as stage lighting shown at right), and our eye then adds
technicians (and your role in anticipating these colors where they are adjacent to
their decisions), we will now explore, in produce a blended mix. Where larger areas
more depth, the concepts of visible light of the screen are all illuminated by a
perception, and the work of the human eye single color (phosphor), that area will
in detecting and transmitting color appear to be a single color. Light and
information to the thinking-interpreting Color Science Object. Engage ? Explore ?
brain. Simple Color Addition: What the Eye Explain ? Elaborate ? Evaluate ? Light
"Sees" In the following Energies. Seeing Visible Light. Computer
discussion we will explore color mixing, Screens. However, the individual phosphors
make predictions, and test them using a are very small and where adjacent
color-mixing simulator. What happens when phosphors glow with different intensities,
we combine colors? Once again, think back your human brain tries to resolve them by
to the earlier question about combining "blending" the signal the eye
red and green. Light and Color Science receives. TV monitors are sometimes called
Object. Engage ? Explore ? Explain ? R-G-B monitors. Digital cameras are also
Elaborate ? Evaluate ? Introduction. designed to model the 3 color receptors in
Scenario. Simulation. Mixing Colors. Going our eyes. There are 3 detectors designed
Further. to see (detect) red, green, and blue
12Compare this to the color you colors.
originally thought would appear. You 32Light and Color Science Object. Engage
should have a better idea now that you ? Explore ? Explain ? Elaborate ? Evaluate
have explored the stage lighting ? Light Energies. Seeing Visible Light.
simulation. If you observed something Computer Screens. Another example of this
other than what you predicted you may wish phenomenon appears in the following
to revisit your earlier ideas. penguin images. The image on the left
Accommodating new information and shows the normal screen image, while the
experiences sometimes means having to image below shows the same image of a
rethink and modify prior theories. Now computer screen magnified. The enlarged
let's explore other color combinations. Q image shows the three distinct phosphors
What color will result if you overlap the (red, green, and blue) used to achieve the
red and blue lights? O Orange O Green O full-color image of the toy penguin.
Cyan O Magenta Tries Remaining: 4 And now Notice how the image is created by the
for one more... Q What color will result changing brightness of adjacent colored
if you overlap the green and blue lights? phosphors. The yellow-looking areas (the
O Red O Cyan O Orange O Violet Tries penguin's beak and feet) are achieved with
Remaining: 4 You should remember these mixtures of only two phosphors: green and
combinations from interacting with the red. Notice also that areas appearing dark
stage simulation. However, if you need to (black) occur where the phosphors are all
return to the simulation to make sure, at lowest luminosity (turned off).
click on the following button: Mixing More Similarly, white areas are created by an
Colors. Light and Color Science Object. equally bright mix of all three phosphors.
Engage ? Explore ? Explain ? Elaborate ? 33Stage Lighting Revisited Let's think
Evaluate ? Introduction. Scenario. back to the first part of this science
Simulation. Mixing Colors. Going Further. object and the scenario involving Tristan
13Going Further Now let's take it a step and Sophie, and see I f we can help them
further. Suppose you observed two other achieve their goals. Review of Scenario
patches of colored light: blue and yellow. Tristan and Sophie have been approached by
If the two patches are made to overlap, their school theater department and asked
what color would you see, and why do you to assist with a stage play. The stage
think so? You may need to return to the director wants them to help with lighting
stage simulation to figure this one out: a scene in which a solo actor is on stage
Light and Color Science Object. Engage ? delivering a monologue about the four
Explore ? Explain ? Elaborate ? Evaluate ? seasons: spring, summer, autumn, and
Theater Stage. Introduction. Scenario. winter. The storyboard calls for the actor
Simulation. Mixing Colors. Going Further. to be dressed in a full-length white robe.
What color is actually observed in the As he is delivering his lines, he will
region of overlap when blue and yellow need to be illuminated with stage lighting
mix? Is this different from what you that reflects the changing colors of the
predicted? If this result did not agree seasons. There are three lights available
with your prediction, then the good news for illuminating the stage and actor.
is that there is something to learn. Tristan and Sophie?s task is to come up
14Introduction As you gather your with the correct l ighting scenario for
thoughts and predictions, and findings, the brief monologue by turning on one,
remember the importance of writing them two, or all three lights, and then by
down. This will help you organize your changing the color of each light at the
evolving ideas and allow you to go back appropriate time to simulate the changing
and check predictions, discover patterns, seasons. Light and Color Science Object.
confirm or question earlier thoughts and Engage ? Explore ? Explain ? Elaborate ?
in general track your progress. The Evaluate ? Introduction. Stage Lighting.
following discussion, along with its More Questions.
images, sketches, and diagrams, may help 34Your Task Imagine a stage actor
you build a more complete understanding of dressed in a white robe, strolling across
light and color and color mixing. First, the stage. Consider the changing colors of
we will start with a brief description of the actor's garment as he moves about on
the color spectrum and primary colors. stage among the lights. There are only
Color Mixing Simulator We have created a three lights available for illuminating
Color Mixing Simulator to allow you to the stage and actor. Each light can be
explore color the various combinations of turned on or off, and when turned on can
primary and secondary colors in the be switched to either red, green, or blue.
absence of the lighting scenario. This Your task is to come up with the correct
simulator allows you to select three "lighting scenario" to simulate
different colors and then overlap them in the changing seasons, directing either
various ways. Click the button below to one, two, or all three lights to be on or
load the simulator. Color Mixing off, and determining which color
Simulator. Light and Color Science Object. combinations to use at the appropriate
Engage ? Explore ? Explain ? Elaborate ? time for each season. Remember that it is
Evaluate ? Introduction. Color Spectrum. the overlapping (addition) of lights that
Secondary Colors. White Light. Practice. creates colors other than those in the
Review. standard set. When two or more colored
15Scott M. Graves. lights are directed at a common object,
16The Color Spectrum The full spectrum their combined frequencies illuminate the
of visible colors ranges from object's surface. Predicting the observed
violet-indigo-blue-green-yellow-orange-red outcome requires knowledge of how each
Full solar spectrum (visible light) We color combination will interact on the
can simplify the continuous spectrum of object. Also remember that you can leave a
rainbow colors by identifying a small set light "off" if necessary. How
of basic colors in the visible spectrum. confident are you that you can correctly
This includes blue, cyan, green, yellow, light the stage play? Light and Color
orange, and red. Although you probably Science Object. Engage ? Explore ? Explain
recognize more colors than this in your ? Elaborate ? Evaluate ? Introduction.
own observations of nature (consider all Stage Lighting. More Questions.
the colors in a rainbows or a prism 35Scene1 The curtain rises, and the
dispersed colors set), the list here actor enters the stage from the right and
includes just a select few (6). And yet, strolls to a position on the left side of
these six colors are still more than the the stage. She then addresses the
minimum-necessary to consider when audience: Four Seasons fill the measure of
exploring what our eyes respond to in the the year; There are four seasons in the
visible spectrum. This list of six colors mind of man: At his point, she should be
is typical of what you might find in a illuminated with white light. Which lights
simple set of crayons or paints (plus do you need to turn on in order to
white and black). Interestingly, this same illuminate the actor with white light?
list of six colors includes an even Drag the appropriate lights over to the
smaller set of "primary colors" "Stage Lights" area. Tries
- the only colors in visible white light Remaining: 2 Scene 2 The actor continues
that your eyes have specific detectors for her monologue. The season is spring: O
(for more on the human eye and its visual Thou with dewy locks, who lookest down
receptors, see the Elaboration section). Thro' the clear windows of the morning,
So which are the "primary turn Thine angel eyes upon our western
colors"? And how is it that we can isle, Which in full choir hails thy
"see" other colors - for approach, O Spring! For this season, the
example, brown, purple, pink, and magenta. actor should be illuminated with green
Light and Color Science Object. Engage ? light. Which lights do you need to turn on
Explore ? Explain ? Elaborate ? Evaluate ? in order to illuminate the actor with
Introduction. Color Spectrum. Secondary green light? Drag the appropriate lights
Colors. White Light. Practice. Review. over to the "Stage Lights" area.
17Color Perception: Primary Colors The Tries Remaining: 2. Light and Color
primary colors are red, green, and blue: Science Object. Engage ? Explore ? Explain
From these colors we can obtain any other ? Elaborate ? Evaluate ? Introduction.
color in the spectrum. Recall your Stage Lighting. More Questions. check.
experiences with the stage lighting reset. check. reset.
simulation. When you overlapped the green 36Scene 3 The actor moves slowly a few
and red lights you produced a new color: paces to nearly the middle of the stage.
yellow. Similarly, when blue and green The season changes to summer: O thou who
were overlapped, they produced the color passest thro' our valleys in Thy strength,
cyan (a bluish green color). Finally, when curb thy fierce steeds, allay the heat
blue and red were overlapped they produced That flames from their large nostrils!
the color magenta (a pinkish-purple thou, O Summer, Oft pitched'st here thy
color). These results can be seen when the golden tent, and oft Beneath our oaks hast
three primary colors are overlapped, as in slept, while we beheld With joy thy ruddy
the image below: Primary Colors limbs and flourishing hair. For this
Overlapping Notice that where the circles season, the actor should be illuminated
overlap, there is a new color. Some of with yellow light. Which lights do you
this may seem obvious, and some of it may need to turn on in order to illuminate the
not. Blue and green creating cyan seems actor with yellow light? Drag the
obvious, but many of us are surprised to appropriate lights over to the "Stage
find that green and red produce yellow. We Lights" area. Tries Remaining: 2.
might have predicted that mix to produce Light and Color Science Object. Engage ?
brown. That prediction likely stems from Explore ? Explain ? Elaborate ? Evaluate ?
our previous experiences mixing pigments. Introduction. Stage Lighting. More
Pigments are materials that reflect some Questions. check. reset.
but not all light, and mixing them results 37Scene 4 The actor continues her
in the further reduction of light monologue as she moves further right
reflected, so the colors get progressively across the stage. The season changes to
darker the more pigments we mix. In autumn: O Autumn, laden with fruit, and
actuality, the mixing of pure red and pure stain?d With the blood of the grape, pass
green pigments should result in the total not, but sit Beneath my shady roof; there
absorption of all light so that the thou may'st rest, And tune thy jolly voice
mixture appears black. So what is to my fresh pipe, And all the daughters of
happening when colored lights are mixed? the year shall dance! Sing now the lusty
Light and Color Science Object. Engage ? song of fruits and flowers. For this
Explore ? Explain ? Elaborate ? Evaluate ? season, the actor should be illuminated
Introduction. Color Spectrum. Secondary with orange light. Which lights do you
Colors. White Light. Practice. Review. need to turn on in order to illuminate the
18Secondary Colors The colors that actor with orange light? Drag the
result from the mixing of the primary appropriate lights over to the "Stage
colors are called the Secondary Colors. Lights" area. Tries Remaining: 2.
This includes yellow, cyan, and magenta. Light and Color Science Object. Engage ?
Consider the following graphics: In the Explore ? Explain ? Elaborate ? Evaluate ?
first one, the primary colors red, green, Introduction. Stage Lighting. More
and blue appear. Their overlapping regions Questions. check. reset.
produce additional colors. These are the 38Scene 5 The actor strolls to her final
secondary colors of cyan, yellow, and position furthest to the right on stage.
magenta. To help visualize the mixing The season changes to winter: O Winter!
"rules" for primary light, it bar thine adamantine doors: The north is
might help to consider a process of mixing thine; there hast thou built thy dark
only two primary colors at a time. Refer Deep-founded habitation. Shake not thy
to the graphic at right to see the mixing roofs, Nor bend thy pillars with thine
products between any two of the primary iron car. For this season, the actor
colors. Give it a Try! You can achieve the should be illuminated with cyan light.
same effect using the Color Mixing Which lights do you need to turn on in
Simulator. Simple make each square one of order to illuminate the actor with cyan
the primary colors, and then move them so light? Drag the appropriate lights over to
that they overlap. Try it! Color Mixing the "Stage Lights" area. Tries
Simulator. Light and Color Science Object. Remaining: 2 Conclusion The actor
Engage ? Explore ? Explain ? Elaborate ? concludes her monologue: Autumn to winter,
Evaluate ? Introduction. Color Spectrum. winter into spring, Spring into summer,
Secondary Colors. White Light. Practice. summer into fall,-- So rolls the changing
Review. year, and so we change; Motion so swift,
19Secondary Colors (cont.) To really we know not that we move. She then leaves
appreciate the mixing "rules" the stage to the right. Light and Color
for colored light it helps to refer back Science Object. Engage ? Explore ? Explain
to the full visual spectrum of solar ? Elaborate ? Evaluate ? Introduction.
colors. Notice that there are intermediate Stage Lighting. More Questions. check.
colors between the primary and secondary reset.
colors. These are produced by varying 39Light and Color Science Object. Engage
mixtures, with subtle gradations in hue ? Explore ? Explain ? Elaborate ? Evaluate
(color) created by precise add-mixtures ? Introduction. Stage Lighting. More
along the spectrum. In general, adding Questions. Below is an image displayed on
adjacent colors produces intermediates. a computer screen. Which of the following
Some other common colors we see every day answers best describes the process that is
are produced by more complex mixtures of happening when the monitor displays the
specific colored light sources. For image? O The monitor contains phosphors
example, "sky blue" is a lighter that can display various shades of black,
hue than pure blue light, but not as white, and grey based on the information
"greenish" as cyan. Similarly, sent to it from the computer. The rods in
"sea green" is an intermediate your eyes interpret these various
between cyan and green. "Grass intensities of light, and construct a
green" is a mixture of green and black and white image that matches the one
yellow. Orange is a mixture of red and displayed by the monitor. Then the cones
yellow light. From this understanding of in your eyes do their part by adding the
the Spectrum and color mixing among color information to create a full color
adjacent pairs of primary of secondary image. O Information about the image is
colors, you might predict some additional sent to the monitor by the computer. The
possibilities. For example, what is the monitor then projects all the necessary
result of mixing cyan and orange? Blue and colors onto its screen. The phosphors
yellow? Finally, from looking at the inside the monitor can project all of the
spectrum above, what would you expect the colors of the spectrum to create any image
result to be from mixing red and blue? necessary. Your eyes then interpret these
Think about it for a minute, and then move colors and intensities using the rods and
your mouse over the button: Light and cones inside the retina. O Like
Color Science Object. Engage ? Explore ? photographic film, the monitor's screen is
Explain ? Elaborate ? Evaluate ? sensitive to various colors and
Introduction. Color Spectrum. Secondary intensities of light. When the screen is
Colors. White Light. Practice. Review. exposed to the light projected by the
20White Light Notice that in the graphic computer, the image is developed on the
you saw earlier, the central part where screen, much like a photograph is
all three primary colors meet is colored developed in a darkroom. The rods and
white: The color white is obtained by cones in your eyes then interpret this
adding all of the colors in the visible computerized "photograph", and
spectrum together. Since all of the an image is sent to your brain. O The
spectral colors can be obtained through monitor contains red, green, and blue
various combinations of red, green, and phosphors. These phosphors are being
blue (the primary colors), mixing all turned on and off to make the appropriate
three of them together will give us white. colors appear on the screen. Various
Earlier, you probably noticed in the stage intensities of red, green, and blue can be
lighting simulation that if you turned on combined to give the appearance of other
a red light, a green light, and a blue colors. Tries Remaining: 2.
light, the actor was illuminated in white 40The Electromagnetic Spectrum Place the
light. Two-Color Combinations In addition, following light energies in the order they
there are at least three combinations of fall on the electromagnetic spectrum, from
two colors (referred to as high energy (short wavelength) to low
"complementary colors") that energy (long wavelength). The following
produce white when added together. See if image will help you get started: __
you can figure out which combinations of Microwave Rays __ Radio Waves __
primary and secondary colors will produce UHF-VHF-TV Waves __ Visible Light __ Gamma
white by using the Color Mixing Simulator. Rays __ Ultraviolet Rays __ Infrared Rays
Click the button below to load the __ X Rays Tries Remaining: 3. Light and
simulator. Start by mixing the colors blue Color Science Object. Engage ? Explore ?
and yellow, and then try other Explain ? Elaborate ? Evaluate ?
combinations. Color Mixing Simulator Once Introduction. Stage Lighting. More
you've finished with the simulator, answer Questions.
the following question: Using only the 41Light Reception The image below shows
primary (red, green, and blue) and an expanded view of a small section of the
secondary colors (yellow, cyan, and retina. Drag the labels from the right and
magenta), how many combinations of two place them on top of the correct part of
colors produce white light? O 2 O 3 O 5 O the eye. Tries Remaining: 2. Light and
6 Tries Remaining: 10. Light and Color Color Science Object. Engage ? Explore ?
Science Object. Engage ? Explore ? Explain Explain ? Elaborate ? Evaluate ?
? Elaborate ? Evaluate ? Introduction. Introduction. Stage Lighting. More
Color Spectrum. Secondary Colors. White Questions. Which photoreceptors in the
Light. Practice. Review. human eye respond to the following
21Two-Color Combinations (cont.) If you stimuli? For each stimulus listed at the
remember from earlier, combining all three bottom, check the box that corresponds to
of the primary colors will produce white the appropriate photoreceptor. 1. Mostly
light. Since red and green combine to Cones 2. Rods 3. Mostly Rods 4. Cones
produce yellow, adding blue to yellow is Light Intensities 1 2 3 4 Light
the same as adding all of the three Frequencies 1 2 3 4 Moonlit Shadows 1 2 3
primary colors to begin with. Here's a 4 Daylight Colors 1 2 3 4 Tries Remaining:
rundown: Red + Green + Blue = White Red + 2.
Green = Yellow Therefore, Yellow + Blue = 42End simulation …. Light and Color
White The following diagram shows all of Science Object.
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