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Compositional Languages Fall 2012
Compositional Languages Fall 2012
End-of-Semester Schedule
End-of-Semester Schedule
Assignment III
Assignment III
Topics
Topics
I. Musical Timbre (
I. Musical Timbre (
A. Dictionary Definition
A. Dictionary Definition
What does this mean
What does this mean
(Imprecise) Timbre descriptors
(Imprecise) Timbre descriptors
B. Classical Definition: Helmholtz, On the Sensations of Tone (1863)
B. Classical Definition: Helmholtz, On the Sensations of Tone (1863)
Helmholtz/Fourier Definition
Helmholtz/Fourier Definition
Problem with Helmholtz Theory
Problem with Helmholtz Theory
C. Time-Varying Timbral Parameters
C. Time-Varying Timbral Parameters
1. Amplitude Envelope Components
1. Amplitude Envelope Components
2. Spectral Envelope
2. Spectral Envelope
3. Other Sources of Time Variation
3. Other Sources of Time Variation
D. J.K. Randall, Three lectures to scientists (1967)
D. J.K. Randall, Three lectures to scientists (1967)
E. Composer Definitions
E. Composer Definitions
II
II
A. Klangfarbenmelodie
A. Klangfarbenmelodie
Summary
Summary
B. A.Sch
B. A.Sch
Score/Analysis/Recording
Score/Analysis/Recording
III
III
A. Musique concr
A. Musique concr
Musique concr
Musique concr
B. Pierre Schaeffer, Trait
B. Pierre Schaeffer, Trait
1. Reduced Hearing
1. Reduced Hearing
2. Schaeffers sound classification scheme
2. Schaeffers sound classification scheme
Mass
Mass
Treatment (facture):
Treatment (facture):
[Chart]
[Chart]
Schaeffer and the Objet musical
Schaeffer and the Objet musical
Schaeffer Introduction: Solf
Schaeffer Introduction: Solf
Objections
Objections
IV
IV
Example: Jean-Claude Risset, Mutations (1969)
Example: Jean-Claude Risset, Mutations (1969)
Score and Recording Excerpt
Score and Recording Excerpt
V. Timbre Analysed II: Cross-Synthesis
V. Timbre Analysed II: Cross-Synthesis
A. Cross-Synthesis Defined
A. Cross-Synthesis Defined
B. Jonathan Harvey (b
B. Jonathan Harvey (b
VI
VI
A. Definitions
A. Definitions
B. Acoustic Reality
B. Acoustic Reality
C. Types of Noise
C. Types of Noise
D. Noise-Tone Continuum
D. Noise-Tone Continuum
E. Peter Ablinger: Der Regen, das Glas, das Lachen (1992)
E. Peter Ablinger: Der Regen, das Glas, das Lachen (1992)
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: 3 . : Alexander Sigman. : 3 .ppt. zip-: 415 .

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3 .ppt
1 Compositional Languages Fall 2012

Compositional Languages Fall 2012

Instructor: Prof. SIGMAN Tuesday 13:00-15:00 Lecture XII (LAST LECTURE!)

2 End-of-Semester Schedule

End-of-Semester Schedule

12/04: Musical Timbre 12/11: Final Project Presentations; Study Guide distributed 12/18: FINAL EXAM (??)

3 Assignment III

Assignment III

DUE TODAY! (??)

4 Topics

Topics

I. Musical Timbre Defined (?) II. Musical Timbre Structured: Klangfarbenmelodie III. Musical Timbre Classified: Musique concr?te IV. Musical Timbre Analysed I: Melody-Harmony-Timbre-Orchestration V. Musical Timbre Analysed II: Cross-Synthesis VI. Noise

5 I. Musical Timbre (

I. Musical Timbre (

?) Defined

6 A. Dictionary Definition

A. Dictionary Definition

the character or quality of a musical sound or voice as distinct from pitch and intensity Origin: French (timbre); Greek (tumpanon) = drum

7 What does this mean

What does this mean

Timbre is: NOT pitch/harmony (but related) NOT rhythm NOT intensity NOT register So what is it?

8 (Imprecise) Timbre descriptors

(Imprecise) Timbre descriptors

Rough/smooth Rich/poor Thick/thin Complex/simple Nasal Flute-ish, Violin-ish, etc. Stable/unstable Attack-oriented/resonant ???

9 B. Classical Definition: Helmholtz, On the Sensations of Tone (1863)

B. Classical Definition: Helmholtz, On the Sensations of Tone (1863)

10 Helmholtz/Fourier Definition

Helmholtz/Fourier Definition

Complex tone = sum of sinusoids

11 Problem with Helmholtz Theory

Problem with Helmholtz Theory

Timbre defined as time-constant (or steady-state) spectrum Most sounds are time-varying (change in time)

12 C. Time-Varying Timbral Parameters

C. Time-Varying Timbral Parameters

13 1. Amplitude Envelope Components

1. Amplitude Envelope Components

14 2. Spectral Envelope

2. Spectral Envelope

Unfolding of a sounds spectrum over time e.g., brass instruments: high harmonics rise later than lower ones

15 3. Other Sources of Time Variation

3. Other Sources of Time Variation

Vibrato (frequency variation) and tremolo (amplitude variation) Crescendo: gradual shift in spectral energy, tuning, resonance, pitch-to-noise ratio

16 D. J.K. Randall, Three lectures to scientists (1967)

D. J.K. Randall, Three lectures to scientists (1967)

It seems to me that any psycho?acoustician who forges ahead blithely out of touch with current concerns in musical analysis and musical composition is putting himself in an excellent position to produce silly science, silly music, or silly both.

17 E. Composer Definitions

E. Composer Definitions

1) timbre as distinct and mobile parameter? 2) as reducible to quantifiable, atomic parameters? 3) timbre-harmony-pitch (+ rhythm) continuum/ambiguity/fusion? In Ravel, Wagner, Scelsi, spectral music 4) as determined by human modes of production and/or anatomy of the instrument (e.g., scordatura) 5) as multi-dimensional and constantly in flux

18 II

II

Timbre Structured: Klangfarbenmelodie

19 A. Klangfarbenmelodie

A. Klangfarbenmelodie

The evaluation of tone color, the second dimension of tone, is in a much less cultivated, much less organized state than is the aesthetic evaluation of pitchNow, if it is possible to create patterns out of pitches, patterns we call melodies, progressions, whose coherence evokes an effect analogous to thought processes, then it must be also possible to make progressions out oftone color, progressions whose relations to one another work with a kind of logic entirely equivalent to that logic which satisfies us in the melody of pitches. Sch?nberg, Harmonielehre, 1911

20 Summary

Summary

tone colour progressions = structured like chord progressions and melodies Tone colour = the second dimension of tone

21 B. A.Sch

B. A.Sch

nberg, Farben

5 Orchestra Pieces, op. 16, no. 3 (1909) Use of Klangfarbenmelodie Process: harmony changes slowly Canon between 2 groups of instruments Tone colour progression as second layer to harmonic progression

22 Score/Analysis/Recording

Score/Analysis/Recording

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tFT6NIYMF1I

23 III

III

Timbre Classified: Pierre Schaeffer

24 A. Musique concr

A. Musique concr

te

1940s: Pierre Schaeffer and Pierre Henry experiment with transforming recorded sounds using analog equipment in Radio France studios Sources: sounds from the outside world Processes: Classical forms and phrase structure applied

25 Musique concr

Musique concr

te example: Etude aux chemins de fer (1948)

Sources: train (railroad) sounds Unnatural ordering and repetition Source sounds -> SOUND OBJECTS (objets sonores), separated from their original CONTEXT http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IuFTo4UVYG8

26 B. Pierre Schaeffer, Trait

B. Pierre Schaeffer, Trait

des objets musicaux (1968)

Treatise on musical objects Treatise on the classification (????) of all timbres into a solf?ge

27 1. Reduced Hearing

1. Reduced Hearing

Separation of objet sonore (sound object) from its source Elimination of source-bonding (pairing of source with sound object) Reduction of universe of sounds to sound-object categories Psychological, rather than acoustic classification system

28 2. Schaeffers sound classification scheme

2. Schaeffers sound classification scheme

2 main criteria: mass and treatment

29 Mass

Mass

M1 = pure tones M2 = complex pitched sounds M3 = complex, non-variable sounds M4 = slightly varying sounds M5 = highly varying sounds

30 Treatment (facture):

Treatment (facture):

F1-F3: Continuous F4: Impulsive F5-F7: Discontinuous

31 [Chart]

[Chart]

32 Schaeffer and the Objet musical

Schaeffer and the Objet musical

Musical contexts for sound objects Class: musical morphology Genus: musical character Species: musical character, intensity, etc. This classification system encourages analytic and intimate listening experience of sounds

33 Schaeffer Introduction: Solf

Schaeffer Introduction: Solf

ge de lobjet sonore (1967)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gWMA_iRQSFg

34 Objections

Objections

Can the sound really be separated from its source? Does the sound not contain its source? As sounds change in time, are they best described as objects?

35 IV

IV

Timbre Analysed I: Melody-Harmony-Timbre-Orchestration

36 Example: Jean-Claude Risset, Mutations (1969)

Example: Jean-Claude Risset, Mutations (1969)

For electronics Melody-> harmony-> bell timbre Steady-state (time-constant) timbre Inharmonic partials Similar to harmonies and orchestration based upon trombone spectrum in Griseys Partiels

37 Score and Recording Excerpt

Score and Recording Excerpt

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JQRxTGLp8AY

38 V. Timbre Analysed II: Cross-Synthesis

V. Timbre Analysed II: Cross-Synthesis

39 A. Cross-Synthesis Defined

A. Cross-Synthesis Defined

Creation of hybrid sound by combining spectral or temporal properties of time-constant OR time-varying sounds E.g.: a violin with a trumpet amplitude envelope E.g.: A bell with a voice spectral envelope https://ccrma.stanford.edu/~jos/SpecEnv/Application_Example_Cross_Synthesis.html

40 B. Jonathan Harvey (b

B. Jonathan Harvey (b

1939): Mortuous plango, vivos voco (1980)

Whats going on here? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nYdRzDx1_J4

41 VI

VI

Noise

42 A. Definitions

A. Definitions

1) loud, unpleasant disturbance 2) confusion 3) irregular fluctations (??) in a signal

43 B. Acoustic Reality

B. Acoustic Reality

Random amplitude fluctuations No regular integer harmonics: all frequencies present

44 C. Types of Noise

C. Types of Noise

White Pink Brown

45 D. Noise-Tone Continuum

D. Noise-Tone Continuum

There is no place where tone ends and noise begins Therefore: tone and noise fall along a continuum

46 E. Peter Ablinger: Der Regen, das Glas, das Lachen (1992)

E. Peter Ablinger: Der Regen, das Glas, das Lachen (1992)

Explores continuum between pure tone and white noise http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Cuf0IcZ0dVc

47 ?? ???

?? ???

?!

Next week: PRESENTATIONS! ?

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http://900igr.net/prezentacija/anglijskij-jazyk/3-klass-v-sovremennykh-ritmakh-mjuzikl-180485.html
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