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Ancient Rome and the Rise of Christianity
Ancient Rome and the Rise of Christianity
educated Romans viewed Greek culture as superior to all others
educated Romans viewed Greek culture as superior to all others
The Roman World Takes Shapes
The Roman World Takes Shapes
Building a Republic in 509 B.C. the Roman state was founded where
Building a Republic in 509 B.C. the Roman state was founded where
in the event of war, the senate might choose a dictator who has
in the event of war, the senate might choose a dictator who has
Expansion: by about 270 B.C. Rome occupied all of Italy, their success
Expansion: by about 270 B.C. Rome occupied all of Italy, their success
Rivalry with Carthage Carthage was a city-state on the northern coast
Rivalry with Carthage Carthage was a city-state on the northern coast
for 15 years Hannibal moved across Italy winning battles in the,
for 15 years Hannibal moved across Italy winning battles in the,
Expansion victories put them in control of busy trade routes, and
Expansion victories put them in control of busy trade routes, and
Reform: patrician brothers named Tiberius and Gaius Grachus led a
Reform: patrician brothers named Tiberius and Gaius Grachus led a
Julius Caesar an ambitious commander who dominated politics in Pompey
Julius Caesar an ambitious commander who dominated politics in Pompey
Granted Roman citizenship to more people, and introduced a new
Granted Roman citizenship to more people, and introduced a new
Imperial Rome Augustus created an efficient, well-trained civil
Imperial Rome Augustus created an efficient, well-trained civil
The Roman Peace the 200-year span that began with Augustus and ended
The Roman Peace the 200-year span that began with Augustus and ended
Family and Religion: the family was the basic unit, under Roman law
Family and Religion: the family was the basic unit, under Roman law
Section III: Roman Accomplishments
Section III: Roman Accomplishments
the availability of fresh water was important, so wealthy homes had
the availability of fresh water was important, so wealthy homes had
Roman Law the greatest legacy of Rome was its commitment to the rule
Roman Law the greatest legacy of Rome was its commitment to the rule
The rule of law fostered unity and stability
The rule of law fostered unity and stability
Section IV: Christianity
Section IV: Christianity
Jews and the Roman Empire generally, Rome tolerated varied religions
Jews and the Roman Empire generally, Rome tolerated varied religions
Life of Jesus As turmoil engulfed the Jews of Palestine, a new
Life of Jesus As turmoil engulfed the Jews of Palestine, a new
Some Jews saw Jesus as dangerous; Jewish priests felt that he was
Some Jews saw Jesus as dangerous; Jewish priests felt that he was
Roman rulers used Christians as scapegoats, blaming them for social or
Roman rulers used Christians as scapegoats, blaming them for social or
as the church grew and evolved it imposed order and discipline on the
as the church grew and evolved it imposed order and discipline on the
Section V: The Decline
Section V: The Decline
in 284 the emperor Diocletian, in order to make the empire easier to
in 284 the emperor Diocletian, in order to make the empire easier to
Invasion: Rome had faced attacks from the Germanic peoples who lived
Invasion: Rome had faced attacks from the Germanic peoples who lived
he was known as the “scourge of God” because they believed his attacks
he was known as the “scourge of God” because they believed his attacks
Political and Economic Causes: the empire suffered as heavier taxes
Political and Economic Causes: the empire suffered as heavier taxes

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Ancient Rome and the Rise of Christianity

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1 Ancient Rome and the Rise of Christianity

Ancient Rome and the Rise of Christianity

Global 9 Chapter 5

2 educated Romans viewed Greek culture as superior to all others

educated Romans viewed Greek culture as superior to all others

from a small village, Rome grew into a super state (“Rome, the City and the World") expanding across the Mediterranean world to build a huge, ethnically diverse empire ruled by law.

3 The Roman World Takes Shapes

The Roman World Takes Shapes

the virtues that the Romans admired; courage, loyalty, devotion to duty were the pillars on which Romans would build an empire. Geography: Rome began as a small city-state in Italy but ended up ruling the entire Mediterranean world. Italy is a peninsula that looks like a boot jutting centrally into the Mediterranean Sea. Italy is not broken up into small, isolated valleys and had the advantage of broad, fertile plains which supported a growing population. the Romans were an Indo-European people, their ancestors [the Latins] had migrated into Italy by about 800 B.C. settled along the Tiber River in small villages where they herded and farmed.

4 Building a Republic in 509 B.C. the Roman state was founded where

Building a Republic in 509 B.C. the Roman state was founded where

officials were chosen by the people, called a republic, and was meant to keep any individual from gaining too much power. between 509 B.C. and 133 B.C. they developed the military power to conquer the entire Mediterranean world. the most powerful governing body was the senate whose 300 members were all patricians (members of the landholding upper class) senators served for life and made the laws

5 in the event of war, the senate might choose a dictator who has

in the event of war, the senate might choose a dictator who has

complete control over a government, granted emergency powers to rule. Rome elected other officials to oversee finances, justice, city government, and religious matters. at first, the Plebeians[farmers, merchants, artisans, and traders]made up the bulk of the population but had little influence. in 450 B.C. the government had the laws of Rome inscribed on 12 tablets(Law of the Twelve Tables) which made it possible for plebeians to appeal a judgement handed down by a patrician judge. the plebeians gained the right to elect their own officials(tribunes) to protect their interests; they could veto, or block, those laws that they felt were harmful the common people gained access to power and won safeguards for their rights, and 2,000 years later the US Constitution would adapt ideas like the senate, the veto, and checks on governmental power.

6 Expansion: by about 270 B.C. Rome occupied all of Italy, their success

Expansion: by about 270 B.C. Rome occupied all of Italy, their success

was due to skillful diplomacy and its efficient, well-disciplined army. armies consisted of citizen soldiers who fought without pay and supplied their own weapons, the basic unit was the legion of about 5,000 men. Rome generally treated its defeated enemies with justice, conquered peoples had to acknowledge Roman leadership, pay taxes, and supply soldiers for the Roman army. Rome let them keep their own customs, money, and local governments, and to a few privileged groups Rome gave the highly prized right of full citizenship. generous treatment created support for Rome, to protect its conquests Rome posted soldiers through the land, built a network of all-weather military roads to link distant provinces.

7 Rivalry with Carthage Carthage was a city-state on the northern coast

Rivalry with Carthage Carthage was a city-state on the northern coast

of Rome spread into the Mediterranean, conflict became inevitable. between 264 B.C. and 146 B.C. Rome fought three wars against Carthage, the Punic Wars in the First Punic War Rome defeated Carthage, but 23 years later, led by a general named Hannibal sought revenge. Hannibal dedicated his life to the destruction of Rome after he was selected as leader of the Carthaginian army. in 218 B.C. Hannibal, setting out from Spain, led his troops with dozens of war elephants in a march across the Pyrenees through France and over the Alps into Italy. the trek across the Alps cost Hannibal nearly half his army, but the Romans expected an invasion from the south and the bold attack caught them off guard.

8 for 15 years Hannibal moved across Italy winning battles in the,

for 15 years Hannibal moved across Italy winning battles in the,

Second Punic War, but was never able to capture Rome. the Romans outflanked Hannibal by sending an army to attack Carthage, led Hannibal to return to Carthage to defend where he was defeated. Carthage gave up all its land, had to pay a huge tribute, or tax, to Rome. the Romans allowed Hannibal to remain free and Carthage made a rapid recovery, but Romans still feared him and accused of plotting. Hannibal fled and took poison, and Rome destroyed Carthage, killed or sold survivors into slavery, poured salt on the land so nothing would grow. Rome expanded into the eastern Mediterranean and took Macedonia, Greece, and parts of Asia Minor, later allied with Egypt.

9 Expansion victories put them in control of busy trade routes, and

Expansion victories put them in control of busy trade routes, and

riches flooded in from loot, taxes, and commerce. a class of wealthy Romans emerged and they bought huge estates worked by slaves captured in war. Slave labor hurt small farmers who were unable to produce food as cheaply, grain from the conquered lands drove down grain prices. farmers fell into debt and had to sell their land, flocked to Rome for jobs but found unemployment instead, led to wider gap between rich and poor. wealth increased corruption, greed and self interest replaced hard work and devotion to duty.

10 Reform: patrician brothers named Tiberius and Gaius Grachus led a

Reform: patrician brothers named Tiberius and Gaius Grachus led a

reform movement which called for: the state to distribute land to poor farmers. the use of public funds to buy grain to feed the poor. extension of full citizenship to Rome's allies. The reforms angered the Senate which saw them as a threat to its power, the brothers were eventually killed. this showed that the republic couldn't resolve its problems led to civil wars for the next 100 year

11 Julius Caesar an ambitious commander who dominated politics in Pompey

Julius Caesar an ambitious commander who dominated politics in Pompey

and a brilliant general, set out in 59 B.C. to make new conquests. eventually led his army into Rome, as civil war erupted he swept around the Mediterranean proclaiming "Veni, Vidi, Vici" - "I came, I saw, I conquered." forced the senate to make him dictator, absolute ruler of Rome. Reforms from 48 B.C.-44 B.C. he pushed through reforms including a program of public works to employ the jobless and gave public land to the poor.

12 Granted Roman citizenship to more people, and introduced a new

Granted Roman citizenship to more people, and introduced a new

calendar based on Egyptian science, the Julian calendar, which is still used today. Caesar's enemies worried that he planned to make himself king so they plotted against him. in 44 B.C. a fortune-teller warned Caesar to "beware the ides of March” [March 15], and his enemies stabbed him to death this plunged Rome into civil war where- Mark Antony [Caesar's chief general] and Octavian [Caesar's grandnephew] joined forces to hunt down the murderers. the men soon came to odds until, in 31 B.C., Octavian finally defeated Antony and his powerful ally Queen Cleopatra of Egypt the triumphant Octavian Augustus, or exalted one, declared himself priceps, or first citizen and exercised absolute power and named a successor. under Augustus, who ruled from 31 B.C.-A.D. 14 the 500 year old republic came to an end, but he helped Rome recover from civil war and laid the foundation for a stable government.

13 Imperial Rome Augustus created an efficient, well-trained civil

Imperial Rome Augustus created an efficient, well-trained civil

service charged with enforcing the laws. He cemented the allegiance of cities and provinces to Rome by allowing them a large measure of self-government. To make the tax system more fair, he ordered a census, or population count, to be taken in the empire, set up a postal system and issued new coins to make trade easier. he put the jobless to work building roads and temples and to farm the land. Two early emperors, Caligula and Nero, were evil and insane; Caligula appointed his favorite horse as consul, Nero viciously persecuted Christians. between A.D. 96 and A.D. 180 there was a series of good emperors; Hadrian codified Roman law, making it the same in all provinces. he had soldiers build a wall across Britain to hold back attackers, known as Hadrian's Wall

14 The Roman Peace the 200-year span that began with Augustus and ended

The Roman Peace the 200-year span that began with Augustus and ended

with Marcus Aurelius is known as the Pax Romana or "Roman Peace" characterized by peace, order, unity, and prosperity. trade flowed freely to and from distant lands in Africa, India, and China, from India came spices, cotton, and precious stones, as silk came down the Silk Road.

15 Family and Religion: the family was the basic unit, under Roman law

Family and Religion: the family was the basic unit, under Roman law

the male head of the household, the father, had absolute power. he enforced strict discipline and demanded total respect, his wife to his authority. The ideal woman was loving, dutiful, dignified, and strong; most worked at home raising a family, spinning, and weaving. Girls and boys learned to read and write, even lower-class Romans, many wealthy Romans were hiring private tutor. Roman gods and goddesses resembled those of the Greeks, like the Greek god Zeus and the Roman god Jupiter. Neptune god of the sea, was the same as the Greek god the calendar was full of feasts and other celebration which inspired a sense of community. Entertainment The Circus Maximus, Rome's largest racecourse, saw fans betting on chariot races, also hosted gladiator contests the amusement was a way to control the city's restless mobs, government provided free grain to feed the poor, thus the policy of bread and circuses.

16 Section III: Roman Accomplishments

Section III: Roman Accomplishments

Through war and conquest Caesar spread the Latin language and carried Roman civilization to distant lands. Greco-Roman Civilization Rome absorbed ideas from Greek colonists, Greek art, literature, philosophy, and scientific genius represented the height of cultural achievement. the blending of Greek, Hellenistic, and Roman traditions produced the Greco-Roman civilization. from England to Spain to North Africa to the Middle East you can see Roman buildings that combine both Greek and Roman elements and ideas, using columns that emphasized grandeur. they improved on the arch and the dome, the most famous was the Pantheon, a temple to all Roman gods. engineering skills were also perfected roads, bridges, and harbors, built aqueducts- bridgelike stone structures that brought water from the hills into Roman cities.

17 the availability of fresh water was important, so wealthy homes had

the availability of fresh water was important, so wealthy homes had

water piped in, and most cities had public baths where people gathered to exchange gossip. left scientific research to the Greeks, but Alexandria, Egypt remained a center of learning. the astronomer-mathematician Ptolemy proposed the theory that the Earth was the center of the universe. advanced the frontiers of medical science by insisting on experiments to prove a conclusion.

18 Roman Law the greatest legacy of Rome was its commitment to the rule

Roman Law the greatest legacy of Rome was its commitment to the rule

of law and to justice. developed a system of law, known as the civil law, that applied to its citizens, as Rome expanded it ruled many foreigners. led to a second system of law, known as the law of nations which applied to all people, citizens or non-citizens.

19 The rule of law fostered unity and stability

The rule of law fostered unity and stability

Certain basic principles evolved: people of the same status are equal before the law. An accused person is presumed innocent until proven guilty. The accused should be allowed to face his or her accuser and defend against the charge. Guilt must be established clearer than daylight through evidence Decisions should be based on fairness, allowing judges to interpret the law.

20 Section IV: Christianity

Section IV: Christianity

early in the Pax Romana, a new religion, Christianity, sprang up in a distant corner of the Roman empire. the new faith grew and by A.D. 395 it had been declared the official religion of the Roman Empire. Christianity reshaped Roman beliefs, when the Roman empire fell the Christian Church took over.

21 Jews and the Roman Empire generally, Rome tolerated varied religions

Jews and the Roman Empire generally, Rome tolerated varied religions

traditions as long as citizens showed their loyalty. among the peoples in the empire were the Jews, by 69 B.C. the Romans had conquered Palestine where many Jews lived. among the Jews religious ferment was creating deep divisions, reformers called for strict obedience to Jewish laws and traditions. Jews, called zealots called on Jews to revolt against Rome and reestablish an independent Israel believed that a messiah. or savior sent by God, would soon appear to lead the Jewish people to freedom. in A.D. 66 rebellion flared and Roman forces crushed the rebels, captured Jerusalem and destroyed the Jewish temple. in A.D. 135 they drove the Jews out of their homeland and forbade them to return. (Ex. Masada @ right)

22 Life of Jesus As turmoil engulfed the Jews of Palestine, a new

Life of Jesus As turmoil engulfed the Jews of Palestine, a new

religion rose which was founded by a Jew named Jesus. what little we know about him comes from the Gospel, he was born around 4 B.C. in Bethlehem to a family descended from King David, an angel had told Jesus mother Mary, that she would give birth to the messiah. Jesus followed Jewish law and at the age of 30 he began preaching and word spread that he had performed miracles of healing. He and his disciples traveled to Jerusalem to spread his belief in one God, the Ten Commandments, and strict obedience to the law of Moses. he called himself the Son of God and declared that he was the messiah, his mission was to bring spiritual salvation and eternal life. he rejected the principle of "an eye for an eye," he preached forgiveness instead.

23 Some Jews saw Jesus as dangerous; Jewish priests felt that he was

Some Jews saw Jesus as dangerous; Jewish priests felt that he was

challenging their leadership, to Roman authorities Jesus was a revolutionary. Jesus was betrayed by one of his disciples, arrested by the tried, condemned, and executed Roman-style- nailed to a cross and left to die. Jesus had risen from the dead, commanded his Apostles to spread his teachings Christianity remained a sect, or small group, within Judaism, until Paul began the wider spread. Paul spread Jesus' teachings beyond Jewish communities to gentiles, or non-Jews; explaining and expanding Christian teachings. he emphasized the idea that Jesus had sacrificed his life out of love for humankind, those who believed Jesus would achieve salvation, or eternal life. Roman officials suspected Christians of disloyalty to Rome because they refused to honor Roman beliefs.

24 Roman rulers used Christians as scapegoats, blaming them for social or

Roman rulers used Christians as scapegoats, blaming them for social or

economic ills, many became martyrs- people who suffer or die for their beliefs. Christianity continued to spread because Jesus welcomed all people, especially the humble, poor, and oppressed. they found comfort in his message of love and of a better life beyond the grave. even persecution brought new converts because people were impressed by the strength of their beliefs early Christian communities began to organize a formal Church, with its own priest under the authority of a bishop. the church developed into a hierarchy, or organization in which officials are arranged according to rank, only men allowed. rivalry among the bishops led to division in the Church; the Latin speaking west accepted the bishop of Rome as pope, or head of the Roman Catholic Church.

25 as the church grew and evolved it imposed order and discipline on the

as the church grew and evolved it imposed order and discipline on the

scattered Christian communities. put together the New Testament the 27 books of the Bible that contain the life and teachings of Jesus. they battled heresies or beliefs said to be contrary to official Church teaching, by sending out missionaries to convert people. Persecution of Christians ended in A.D. 313 when the emperor Constantine issued the Edict of Milan granting freedom to worship. 80 years later the emperor Theodosius made Christianity the official religion of the Roman empire.

26 Section V: The Decline

Section V: The Decline

1,500 years ago the western half of the Roman empire stumbled into ruin, the end was catastrophic, but it did not happen overnight. Signs of Decline: After the death of emperor Marcus Aurelius in 180, the Pax Romana ended, led to 100 years of turmoil. Ambitious generals seized power, ruled and then were overthrown by rival military leaders. High taxes to support the army and the bureaucracy placed heavy burdens on business people and farmers, many left their land and worked on huge estates.

27 in 284 the emperor Diocletian, in order to make the empire easier to

in 284 the emperor Diocletian, in order to make the empire easier to

govern, divided it into two parts, he kept the wealthier eastern part tried to increase the prestige of the emperor by surrounding himself with elaborate ceremonies. to slow the rapid rise of prices, he fixed prices for goods and services; forced farmers to remain on the land to ensure a steady production of food and other foods. in 312 Emperor Constantine granted toleration to Christians and encouraged the growth of the religion, he built a new capital, Constantinople, on the Bosporus, the strait connects the Black and Mediterranean seas. this made the eastern portion of the empire the center of power. these reforms revived the economy and helped hold the empire together, but failed to stop the long-term decline.

28 Invasion: Rome had faced attacks from the Germanic peoples who lived

Invasion: Rome had faced attacks from the Germanic peoples who lived

along its northern borders. as the empire declined it was forced to give up its territories to Britain, Spain, and France. wars in East Asia set off a chain of events that would overwhelm Rome, as the Huns [a nomadic people] migrated across Central Asia. by 350 these skilled riders fought fierce battles to dislodge the Germanic peoples, Visigoths sought safety by crossing into Roman territory. in 378 a Roman army tried to turn back the Visigoths but suffered a stunning defeat, and in 410 the Visigoths overran Italy and plundered Rome. in 434 the Hun leader Attila embarked on a savage campaign of conquest across much of Europe.

29 he was known as the “scourge of God” because they believed his attacks

he was known as the “scourge of God” because they believed his attacks

were punishment for the sins of humanity. in 476 Odoacer, a Germanic leader, ousted the emperor in Rome, the event that signaled the fall of Rome. The End Why did Rome “fall”? Military Causes: the Germanic invasions succeeded because the Roman legions lacked discipline and training to meet its need for soldiers, Rome hired mercenaries, or foreign soldiers serving for pay, to defend its borders, felt little loyalty to Rome. as the government became more oppressive and authoritarian it lost the support of the people, corrupt officials undermined loyalty

30 Political and Economic Causes: the empire suffered as heavier taxes

Political and Economic Causes: the empire suffered as heavier taxes

were required to support the vast government bureaucracy and huge military the wealth of the empire dwindled as farmers abandoned their land, population declined due to war and epidemic diseases. Social Causes the upper class, which once provided leaders, devoted itself to luxury and self interest; providing "bread and circuses” undermined self-reliance. an emperor ruled the eastern Roman empire which later became known as the Byzantine empire. the fall of Rome was a long, slow process of change from one way of life to another, and the Christian Church preserved elements of Roman civilization.

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