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Cultural Fit Within a School-wide System of PBIS: Universal and
Cultural Fit Within a School-wide System of PBIS: Universal and
Designing School-Wide Systems for Student Success A Response to
Designing School-Wide Systems for Student Success A Response to
Schools as a Vessel
Schools as a Vessel
Culture
Culture
Currently there are 5.5 million English Language Learners (ELLs) in U
Currently there are 5.5 million English Language Learners (ELLs) in U
A culturally competent school is generally defined as one that honors,
A culturally competent school is generally defined as one that honors,
A schools social system is a reflection of the larger society and is
A schools social system is a reflection of the larger society and is
How Teachers Can Help
How Teachers Can Help
 Invite parents and families to actively participate in their childs
Invite parents and families to actively participate in their childs
Teachers Cannot Do It Alone Cultural Competence Within the PBIS System
Teachers Cannot Do It Alone Cultural Competence Within the PBIS System
To generalize skills, social skills need to be taught over a variety
To generalize skills, social skills need to be taught over a variety
Working on Social Skill Instruction with Culturally Diverse Youth
Working on Social Skill Instruction with Culturally Diverse Youth
What Schools Are Doing at the Universal Tier
What Schools Are Doing at the Universal Tier
Telephone tree in multiple languages Minority parent committee that
Telephone tree in multiple languages Minority parent committee that
Parent involvement incentives (ie
Parent involvement incentives (ie
South Delta School District, Rolling Fork, Mississippi - implemented
South Delta School District, Rolling Fork, Mississippi - implemented
Family Literacy Workshop
Family Literacy Workshop
Cultural Fit Within a School-wide System of PBIS: Universal and
Cultural Fit Within a School-wide System of PBIS: Universal and
Cultural Fit Within a School-wide System of PBIS: Universal and
Cultural Fit Within a School-wide System of PBIS: Universal and
Data-based Decision Making at the Universal Tier
Data-based Decision Making at the Universal Tier
2002-03
2002-03
Cooperative Learning
Cooperative Learning
Functional Behavior Assessment
Functional Behavior Assessment
Data-based Decision Making at the Secondary Tier
Data-based Decision Making at the Secondary Tier
 Only half of Black and Latino students graduate from high school in
Only half of Black and Latino students graduate from high school in
The On-Track Indicator as a Predictor of High School Graduation
The On-Track Indicator as a Predictor of High School Graduation
Cultural Fit Within a School-wide System of PBIS: Universal and
Cultural Fit Within a School-wide System of PBIS: Universal and
Statistics
Statistics
The on-track indicator is highly predictive of whether students will
The on-track indicator is highly predictive of whether students will
Cultural Fit Within a School-wide System of PBIS: Universal and
Cultural Fit Within a School-wide System of PBIS: Universal and
Cultural Fit Within a School-wide System of PBIS: Universal and
Cultural Fit Within a School-wide System of PBIS: Universal and
What Works
What Works
What Works
What Works
Results of Check and Connect
Results of Check and Connect
Students self-reports indicate that more transition support would ease
Students self-reports indicate that more transition support would ease
Additional Factors
Additional Factors
Why Do Group Interventions Work for Some Culturally Diverse Students
Why Do Group Interventions Work for Some Culturally Diverse Students
What Schools Are Doing at the Secondary Level Using Groups
What Schools Are Doing at the Secondary Level Using Groups
T.E.A.M
T.E.A.M
Program inception
Program inception
Team Expectations
Team Expectations
Jefferson Middle School TEAM Discipline Update 2004-05 School Year
Jefferson Middle School TEAM Discipline Update 2004-05 School Year
Student of the Quarter Mr
Student of the Quarter Mr
November: Joe Cross Occupation: Academic Advisor at U of I Topic:
November: Joe Cross Occupation: Academic Advisor at U of I Topic:
Cultural Fit Within a School-wide System of PBIS: Universal and
Cultural Fit Within a School-wide System of PBIS: Universal and
Cultural Fit Within a School-wide System of PBIS: Universal and
Cultural Fit Within a School-wide System of PBIS: Universal and
Community Outings/Incentives University of Illinois vs
Community Outings/Incentives University of Illinois vs
School Year
School Year
Tiger 7th Grade-Islands 1st Quarter G.P.A./3
Tiger 7th Grade-Islands 1st Quarter G.P.A./3
Jimmy 8th Grade-Orange 1st Quarter G.P.A./3
Jimmy 8th Grade-Orange 1st Quarter G.P.A./3
TEAM: Shaping todays youth
TEAM: Shaping todays youth
After School Program
After School Program
Cultural Fit Within a School-wide System of PBIS: Universal and
Cultural Fit Within a School-wide System of PBIS: Universal and
Storytelling is a universal experience shared by every social group
Storytelling is a universal experience shared by every social group
Cuentro Therapy Storytelling
Cuentro Therapy Storytelling
Weekly Lesson
Weekly Lesson
Topics
Topics
Cultural Fit Within a School-wide System of PBIS: Universal and
Cultural Fit Within a School-wide System of PBIS: Universal and
Cultural Fit Within a School-wide System of PBIS: Universal and
Cultural Fit Within a School-wide System of PBIS: Universal and
Cultural Fit Within a School-wide System of PBIS: Universal and
Cultural Fit Within a School-wide System of PBIS: Universal and
Cultural Fit Within a School-wide System of PBIS: Universal and
Cultural Fit Within a School-wide System of PBIS: Universal and
Cultural Fit Within a School-wide System of PBIS: Universal and
Cultural Fit Within a School-wide System of PBIS: Universal and
Cultural Fit Within a School-wide System of PBIS: Universal and
Cultural Fit Within a School-wide System of PBIS: Universal and
Cultural Fit Within a School-wide System of PBIS: Universal and
Cultural Fit Within a School-wide System of PBIS: Universal and
Cultural Fit Within a School-wide System of PBIS: Universal and
Cultural Fit Within a School-wide System of PBIS: Universal and
Reference List
Reference List
National Association of School Psychologists
National Association of School Psychologists

: Cultural Fit Within a School-wide System of PBIS: Universal and Secondary Examples. : Jill Johnson. : Cultural Fit Within a School-wide System of PBIS: Universal and Secondary Examples.ppt. zip-: 2988 .

Cultural Fit Within a School-wide System of PBIS: Universal and Secondary Examples

Cultural Fit Within a School-wide System of PBIS: Universal and Secondary Examples.ppt
1 Cultural Fit Within a School-wide System of PBIS: Universal and

Cultural Fit Within a School-wide System of PBIS: Universal and

Secondary Examples

Jill Mathews-Johnson, Technical Assistance Coordinator Illinois PBIS Statewide Network

2 Designing School-Wide Systems for Student Success A Response to

Designing School-Wide Systems for Student Success A Response to

Intervention Model

Academic Systems

Behavioral Systems

1-5%

1-5%

5-10%

5-10%

80-90%

80-90%

3 Schools as a Vessel

Schools as a Vessel

Culture is not inherited; rather we are socialized to behave according to traditions established over generations The cultures of schools may or may not be in harmony with the culture each student brings to school Schools greatly influence how young people see themselves and therefore need to understand and validate their backgrounds

Source: Cartledge, 1996

4 Culture

Culture

Culture: An integrated pattern of human behavior that includes thoughts, communications, languages, practices, beliefs, values, customs, courtesies, rituals, manners of interacting and roles, relationships and expected behaviors of a racial, ethnic, religious or social group; and the ability to transmit the above to succeeding generations

Source: National Center for Cultural Competence of Georgetown University, 2006

5 Currently there are 5.5 million English Language Learners (ELLs) in U

Currently there are 5.5 million English Language Learners (ELLs) in U

S. public schools who speak more than 400 different languages (Source: U.S. Department of Education, 2004) The 2000 census estimated that 65% of school-age children are non-Hispanic White and that 35% are from other racial and ethnic backgrounds It is estimated that by 2040, no ethnic or racial group will make up the majority of the national school-age population Many students of diverse cultures come from families in poverty, 39% of children in the United States live at or near the poverty level ( Source: National Association of State Boards of Education, 2002)

6 A culturally competent school is generally defined as one that honors,

A culturally competent school is generally defined as one that honors,

respects, and values diversity in theory and in practice and where teaching and learning are made relevant and meaningful to students of various cultures

Source: A More Perfect Union: Building an Education System that Embraces All Children, National Association of State Boards of Education , 2002

7 A schools social system is a reflection of the larger society and is

A schools social system is a reflection of the larger society and is

instrumental in transmitting cultural values The classroom teacher is the most important component of that system as far as social development in youth

Source: Schneider, B.H., 1993

8 How Teachers Can Help

How Teachers Can Help

Learn as much as possible about the cultural and linguistic background of students they teach Pronounce students names correctly and learn key phrases in their native language Allow students to share their thoughts, ideas and feelings through use of cooperative groups, role plays, dialogue journals and other forms of active and interactive learning Enhance students self-image, motivation and cultural pride by using culturally-relevant materials and encouraging discussion and actions that honor their cultural and linguistic heritage

Source: National Association of State Boards of Education, 2002

9  Invite parents and families to actively participate in their childs

Invite parents and families to actively participate in their childs

education Facilitate home-school communication and collaboration Beware that families from diverse linguistic or cultural backgrounds may not initiate requests for help or use in-school resources available to address mental health issues. Teachers are urged to provide orientations to inform parents and families about school resources Seek help from school psychologists or other school mental health professional if students exhibit academic, behavioral and/or mental health problems

Source: National Association of State Boards of Education, 2002

10 Teachers Cannot Do It Alone Cultural Competence Within the PBIS System

Teachers Cannot Do It Alone Cultural Competence Within the PBIS System

Behavioral Side of the Triangle

School-wide PBIS Use of reliable data to make decisions * Look at various forms of data * Focus on few key outcomes (Source: Lewis & Sugai, 1999; Sugai, Horner, Sprague & Walker, 2000) Cool tools Home/School connection Positive reinforcement

11 To generalize skills, social skills need to be taught over a variety

To generalize skills, social skills need to be taught over a variety

of settings, especially where a targeted behavior is exhibited (Source: Berler, Gross, & Drabman, 1982) More than one trainer needed for behavior generalization to occur The ability of a classroom teacher to function as a social skill trainers has been found to be a determining factor in behavior generalization (Source: Smith, Young, West, Morgan & Rhode, 1988) ? Peers particularly important in the training process and generally exercise considerable mutual influence (Source: Stokes & Baer, 1977; Stokes & Osnes, 1986, 1988; Cartledge, 1996)

12 Working on Social Skill Instruction with Culturally Diverse Youth

Working on Social Skill Instruction with Culturally Diverse Youth

Literature-based instruction to facilitate social learning Preventative management of behavior Social skill and self-management instruction - Skill training - Cooperative learning procedures Functional Behavior Assessment

Source: Cartledge, 1996; Kerr & Nelson, 1998; Morgan & Jenson, 1988; Sugai & Lewis, 1996; Lewis & Garrison-Harrell, 1999.

13 What Schools Are Doing at the Universal Tier

What Schools Are Doing at the Universal Tier

Cool Tools with diversity issues imbedded throughout Peer mediation to allow students from diverse backgrounds an opportunity to talk about potentially divisive issues Student clubs that help large groups of students retain cultural identity (e.g., Muslim Student Society) Openness to starting new clubs to reflect the interests of the student body Parent liaisons who are paid to work with families who would not otherwise have a traditional involvement with the school Mentor programs with gender/cultural sensitivity (Khan, C. & Reis, J., 2006; Rhodes, J. & Dubois, D., 2006; Cartledge, 1996) Home visits by parent liaisons

Source: NASP, March 2006

14 Telephone tree in multiple languages Minority parent committee that

Telephone tree in multiple languages Minority parent committee that

organizes evenings for minority parents to come to school in smaller groups and learn about the college admissions process, SAT prep classes, scholarship and grant opportunities, and so forth Letters sent home and phone contact with parents from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds to ensure a good turnout at parent meetings Establishment of a Hispanic PTSA with business discussion and programs in Spanish Initiation of a challenge program to invite promising students to enroll in honors and Advanced Placement classes.

Source: NASP, March 2006

15 Parent involvement incentives (ie

Parent involvement incentives (ie

passport) Wiring of schools for computers and telephone hub sites to allow parents to communicate with schools via computer. Parents can use terminals at nearby schools or local town halls to communicate with the schools their children attend, which are often many miles away (www.ed.gov/pubs/FamInvolve/) Cleveland Public Schools - teachers hold parent conferences off-campus in places that are closer to parents' and students' homes. The school also holds Block Parent Meetings for those families who cannot attend school events because they live on the outskirts of the community and lack transportation. Block meetings address parent concerns and offer an opportunity to share school-related information. These meetings take place every two or three months in a parent's home or a nearby library (www.ed.gov/pubs/FamInvolve/) Schools are working with organizations like The Urban League to obtain books that are culturally relevant for libraries, classrooms and curriculum

16 South Delta School District, Rolling Fork, Mississippi - implemented

South Delta School District, Rolling Fork, Mississippi - implemented

weekly take-home folders that include a parent participation sheet, information on upcoming events, and recent curriculum activities and graded tests. Parents sign and return folders each week. Teachers and parents report that the folders provide important academic information for parents, teachers, and students, and help increase parent-school communication (www.ed.gov/pubs/FamInvolve/) Parent training and support to parents to enhance their communication with their children about school, their supervision of their children, and their ability to communicate expectations to their children within the context of an effective parenting style (Marzano, 2003)

17 Family Literacy Workshop

Family Literacy Workshop

Designed to teach literacy skills to targeted parents 4 meeting dates per year (Predicting, Connecting, Imaging, and Summarizing) ______________________________ 5:30-6 Eat (free meal) 6-6:30 Parent instruction/kids play 6:30-7 Parents practice strategies with their child(ren) with support

Made possible using Title I funds

Mark Twain Elementary, Kankakee, IL

18 Cultural Fit Within a School-wide System of PBIS: Universal and
19 Cultural Fit Within a School-wide System of PBIS: Universal and
20 Data-based Decision Making at the Universal Tier

Data-based Decision Making at the Universal Tier

Using school-wide data - Discipline - Attendance - Special education/LRE - Parent Involvement - Academic - Areas of interest: mobility, cultural background, SES, etc.

21 2002-03

2002-03

2003-04

2004-05

Mark Twain Parent Participation @ After School Activities

Open House

230

280

196

Grandparents Breakfast

86

92

80

Career Night

194

162

139

Math / Science Night

105

60

41

Thanksgiving Dinner

95

93

82

Holiday Musical

143

304

313

Black History Program

247

265

378

Family Reading Night

55

41

90

Cinco de Mayo

187

271

321

1,342

1,568

1,640

TOTALS

Totals do not include: Parent/teacher conferences, PTO meetings, Hispanic Heritage Celebration, Family Fun Day, Kindergarten Celebration, BB Orientation, BB Holiday Shop, BB Kindergarten Night, BB Valentine Celebration, BB Ice Cream Social, Starnet, Between the Lions, or any other Parenting Workshop.

22 Cooperative Learning

Cooperative Learning

The empirical literature documents evidence that cooperative activities contribute to positive peer interactions, acceptance of disabling and racial differences, and academic achievement. On the basis of research review, Goldstein observed that the beneficial effects of cooperative learning appear to be greater for minority than for majority students.

Source: Cartledge, 1996

23 Functional Behavior Assessment

Functional Behavior Assessment

24 Data-based Decision Making at the Secondary Tier

Data-based Decision Making at the Secondary Tier

Using school-wide data - Discipline - Attendance - Special education/LRE - Parent Involvement - Academic - Areas of interest: mobility, cultural background, SES, etc. Using school-wide data and national data to determine needs

25  Only half of Black and Latino students graduate from high school in

Only half of Black and Latino students graduate from high school in

four years, compared to 82 percent of Whites Blacks and Latinos are 21 and 18 percent of Illinois student population, but are 35 and 22 percent of the states dropouts White students in Illinois are 64 percent more likely to finish high school than Black and Hispanic students

Source: Illinois Report Card on Racial Equity, 2006

26 The On-Track Indicator as a Predictor of High School Graduation

The On-Track Indicator as a Predictor of High School Graduation

Elaine M. Allensworth Consortium on Chicago School Research John Q. Easton Consortium on Chicago School Research June 2005

27 Cultural Fit Within a School-wide System of PBIS: Universal and
28 Statistics

Statistics

? Ninth grade attrition is far more pronounced in urban, high poverty schools. 40% of dropouts in low-income high schools left after ninth grade (EPE Research Center, 2006) ? More than one semester F in core subjects and fewer than five course credits by the end of freshman year are key indicators a student is not on track to graduate ? Low attendance the first 30 days of the ninth grade is a stronger indicator that a student will drop out than any other eighth grade predictor (Allensworth & Easton, 2005)

29 The on-track indicator is highly predictive of whether students will

The on-track indicator is highly predictive of whether students will

eventually graduate. Among students entering CPS high school in 1999, those who were on track by the end of their freshman year were three and one half times more likely to graduate in four years than off-track students

Allensworth & Easton, 2005

30 Cultural Fit Within a School-wide System of PBIS: Universal and
31 Cultural Fit Within a School-wide System of PBIS: Universal and
32 What Works

What Works

Establish a data and monitoring system that will both diagnose why students are struggling and be used to hold schools and districts accountable Address the instructional needs of students who enter high school unprepared for rigorous, college-prep work Personalize the learning environment to lower the sense of anonymity and address individual needs Build capacity with faculty and administration to address diverse needs Make connections to the community, employers, and institutes of higher education to better engage students and help them see the relevance of the coursework

33 What Works

What Works

Check and Connect Drop out prevention program for high school students with learning, emotional and behavioral issues Partnership with parents, teachers, students and University of Minnesota, Institute of Community Integration Program begins in ninth grade. Mentor is matched with student who monitors their attendance, behavior and academic performance and works with them throughout the year

34 Results of Check and Connect

Results of Check and Connect

Increases in credits earned Increases in attendance Increases in enrollment rates

Sinclair, 2005

35 Students self-reports indicate that more transition support would ease

Students self-reports indicate that more transition support would ease

their transition to high school Perceived less support and monitoring from teachers and principals and generally liked school less than when they were in middle school Perceived need for more organization

Barber & Olson, 2004

36 Additional Factors

Additional Factors

Improved communication between school, parents and students Monitoring attendance Progress monitoring in class Better scheduling Incentives to make up failures Relationship building

37 Why Do Group Interventions Work for Some Culturally Diverse Students

Why Do Group Interventions Work for Some Culturally Diverse Students

Troubled inner-city children and adolescents, whose relationships to adults are often impaired, learn to depend on their peer supports and communicate better within this context. They benefit from group work because they come from cultures where value of groups is above the individual

Source: Canino, I.A., J. Spurlock, 2000

38 What Schools Are Doing at the Secondary Level Using Groups

What Schools Are Doing at the Secondary Level Using Groups

TEAM (Modeled off of Mychal Wynns The Eagles Who Thought They Were Chickens; A Tale of Discovery, 2000) Cuentro Therapy (Constantro, 1988)

39 T.E.A.M

T.E.A.M

Teaching Excellence Academics Motivation Tatum, Ian and Thomas, Orlando, Jefferson Middle School, Champaign, IL 2006

40 Program inception

Program inception

2002-2003, school discipline data: 30 % African American Boys accounted for over 30 of the schools discipline referrals

41 Team Expectations

Team Expectations

Maintain on-task behavior Maintain acceptable academic performance minimum GPA 2.5 Decrease discipline referrals by 50% Be respectful of peers Support other team member academically and socially

Tatum, Ian and Thomas, Orlando, Jefferson Middle School, Champaign, IL 2006

42 Jefferson Middle School TEAM Discipline Update 2004-05 School Year

Jefferson Middle School TEAM Discipline Update 2004-05 School Year

TEAM GOAL? Cut D.R.s in half from last year MAGIC NUMBER 241 2003-04/ 482/1620 (35% of total) 2004-05/254/1351 (19% of total)

43 Student of the Quarter Mr

Student of the Quarter Mr

Tiger ONeil *2nd Team member to make the Honor Roll (G.P.A./4.111) *Three discipline referrals all year *Highest G.P.A. for 3rd Quarter

44 November: Joe Cross Occupation: Academic Advisor at U of I Topic:

November: Joe Cross Occupation: Academic Advisor at U of I Topic:

Student Athletes/Alternative Plans Overview: Mr. Cross discussed his journey to the University of Illinois and his dream of being a professional basketball player. He explained the importance of having an alternative plan to the dream of playing in the N.B.A. He discussed his realization of the small percentage of college athletes that actually play professionally. He stressed the importance of obtaining a college education.

Tatum, Ian and Thomas, Orlando, Jefferson Middle School, Champaign, IL 2006

45 Cultural Fit Within a School-wide System of PBIS: Universal and
46 Cultural Fit Within a School-wide System of PBIS: Universal and
47 Community Outings/Incentives University of Illinois vs

Community Outings/Incentives University of Illinois vs

Michigan football game University of Illinois vs. Wisconsin basketball game Bowling at GTs Western Bowl Chicago Bulls vs. Cleveland Cavaliers basketball game Thanksgiving Dinner Christmas Celebration/Gathering Parkland College tour/class observation

48 School Year

School Year

Total School Referrals

Referral Identified Students

Referrals Identified Students

03-04

1621

482

482

04-05

1351

Before T.E.A.M. 482

After TEAM 254

47 % decrease

05-06

1452

Before T.E.A.M. 329

After T.E.A.M. 211

36 % decrease

Tatum, Ian and Thomas, Orlando, Jefferson Middle School, Champaign, IL 2006

49 Tiger 7th Grade-Islands 1st Quarter G.P.A./3

Tiger 7th Grade-Islands 1st Quarter G.P.A./3

857 2nd Quarter G.P.A./3.667 3rd Quarter G.P.A./4.111

50 Jimmy 8th Grade-Orange 1st Quarter G.P.A./3

Jimmy 8th Grade-Orange 1st Quarter G.P.A./3

375 2nd Quarter G.P.A./3.375 3rd Quarter G.P.A./2.875

51 TEAM: Shaping todays youth

TEAM: Shaping todays youth

To become tomorrows leaders.

52 After School Program

After School Program

ALL 3rd graders: Math (Monday and Wednesdays) Reading (Tuesday and Thursdays) 2nd grade boys Brothers Helping Brothers (Thur.) ______________________________ 3:20-3:45 Games 3:45-5:15 Teaching and Learning 5:15-5:30 Snack

Mark Twain Elementary, Kankakee, IL

53 Cultural Fit Within a School-wide System of PBIS: Universal and
54 Storytelling is a universal experience shared by every social group

Storytelling is a universal experience shared by every social group

Oral literature of a people was both the highest and truest expression of its authentic national culture and the appropriate foundation of its national literature.

Baum, 1993; Carter-Black, 2006

55 Cuentro Therapy Storytelling

Cuentro Therapy Storytelling

Traditional Puerto Rican folktales to support and transmit cultural values Idea that many Puerto Rican youth that are struggling in school and the community have: weakened cultural value systems, sense of distance from society and lack of pride in ethnic roots Graft themes of adaptive functioning with American culture plots

Source: Canstantino, 1988

56 Weekly Lesson

Weekly Lesson

Folk story, biography of a successful/famous Puerto Rican Analysis of folk story with emphasis on character traits (ie. survival and success in adversity like poverty and discrimination) Question/Answer Parallels to own life Art project, role plays, practice of skill sets

Source: Canstantino, 1988

57 Topics

Topics

Sexuality Family Independence Racism and discrimination Jobs and job interviews Alcohol and drugs Self-regulation Trust

Source: Canstantino, 1988

58 Cultural Fit Within a School-wide System of PBIS: Universal and
59 Cultural Fit Within a School-wide System of PBIS: Universal and
60 Cultural Fit Within a School-wide System of PBIS: Universal and
61 Cultural Fit Within a School-wide System of PBIS: Universal and
62 Cultural Fit Within a School-wide System of PBIS: Universal and
63 Cultural Fit Within a School-wide System of PBIS: Universal and
64 Cultural Fit Within a School-wide System of PBIS: Universal and
65 Cultural Fit Within a School-wide System of PBIS: Universal and
66 Reference List

Reference List

Applied Research Center. (2006). Illinois Report Card on Racial Equity. Retrieved July 20, 2007 from http://www.arc.org/downloads/Media%20Kit-IL.doc.pdf Bauman, R. (1992). Story, performance, and event: Contextual studies of oral narrative. New York: Cambridge University Press. Berler, E.S., Gross, A.M., & Drabman, R.S. (1982). Social skills training with children: Proceed with caution. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 15, 41-53. Canino, I. A., J. Spurlock. Excerpt: Group Approaches. Culturally Diverse Children and Adolescents: Assessment, Diagnosis and Treatment. Guilford Press, 2000. 166-168. Carter-Black, J. (2006). Teaching Cultural Competence: An innovative strategy grounded in the universality of storytelling as depicted in African and African-American storytelling traditions. Journal of Social Work, 43, 11-32. Cartledge, G. & Milburn, J. Cultural Diversity and Social Skills Instruction: Understanding Ethnic and Gender Differences. Research Press, 1996. Chen, X., French, D., & Schneider, B. H. (2002). Peer Relationships in Cultural Context. New York: Cambridge University Press. Family Involvement in Childrens Education: Successful Local Approaches. Retrieved July 27, 2007 from www.ed.gov/pubs/FamInvolve/ Jenson, R. (2004) Developing the Whole Child in Middle School. Retrieved July 3, 2007 from http://www.ed.gov/news/newsletters/achiever/2004/120104.html#2 Kerr, M.M., & Nelson, C.M. (1998). Strategies for managing problem behaviors in the classroom (2nd ed.). Columbus, OH: Merrill. Khan, C. & Reis, J. (2006). Talks Mentoring Evaluation Report. Lewis, T.J., Garrison,-Harrell, L. (1999-Spring). Effective Behavioral Support: Designing Setting Specific Iinterventions. Effective School Practices. Vol. 17, No. 4, 38-46. Marzano, R.J. (2003). What Works in Schools. Alexandria, Virginia: Association For Supervision and Curriculum Development. Morgan, D.P., & Jenson, W.R. (1998). Teaching behaviorally disordered students: Preferred practices. Columbus, OH: Merrill.

67 National Association of School Psychologists

National Association of School Psychologists

(2006). Culturally Competent Schools: Guidelines for Secondary School Principals. Retrieved July 20, 2007 from http://www.nasponline.org/resources/principals/Culturally%20Competent%20Schools%20NASSP National Association of State Boards of Education. A More Perfect Union: Building an Education System that Embraces All Children. 2002 National Center for Cultural Competence of Georgetown University. (2006). Definition of Culture. Retrieved July 25, 2007 from http://www11.georgetown.edu/research/gucchd/nccc/ Rhodes, J. & Dubois, D. Mentor Research Agenda. National Research Agenda for Youth Mentoring. Retrieved July 3, 2007 from http://www.mentoring.org/program_staff/research_corner/research_agenda.php Smith, D., Young, K.R., West, R.P., Morgan, D.P., & Rhode, G. (1988). Reducing the disruptive behavior of junior high students: A classroom self-management procedure. Behavior Disorders, 13, 231-239. Stokes, T., & Baer, D.M. (1977). An implicit technology of generalization. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 10, 349-367. Stokes, T., & Osnes, P. (1986). Generalizing childrens social behavior. In P., Strain, M. Guralnick, & H. Walker (Eds.), Childrens social behavior. Orlando, FL: Academic. Stokes, T., & Ones, P. (1988). The developing applied technology of generalization and maintenance. In R. Horner, G. Dunlap, & R. Koegel (Eds.), Generalization and maintenance. Baltimore: Brookes. Sugai, G., & Lewis, T. (1996). Preferred and promising practices for social skills instruction. Focus on Exceptional Children, 29 (4), 1-16. Sugai, G., Sprague, J.R., Horner, R.R., & Walker, H.M. (2000). Preventing school violence: The use of office discipline referrals to assess and monitor school-wide discipline interventions. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 8, 94-101. Swick, K. (1991). A rural teacher-parent partnership for the enhancement of school success: An executive summary. (ERIC Document Reproductive Service No. ED336205). Tatum, I. & Thomas, O. (2006). Wynn, M. The Eagles Who Thought They Were Chickens: A Tale of Discovery. 2000.

Cultural Fit Within a School-wide System of PBIS: Universal and Secondary Examples
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