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Display Wars: Flat Panels 2005
Display Wars: Flat Panels 2005
Look Out, Here They Come
Look Out, Here They Come
Fighting For Position - 2005
Fighting For Position - 2005
Fighting For Position: 2004-05
Fighting For Position: 2004-05
Fighting For Position: 2004-05
Fighting For Position: 2004-05
Fighting For Position: 2004-05
Fighting For Position: 2004-05
Cant Tell The Players Without A Scorecard
Cant Tell The Players Without A Scorecard
Major Plasma Display Manufacturers
Major Plasma Display Manufacturers
Plasma TV Market Snapshot 4th Quarter 2004
Plasma TV Market Snapshot 4th Quarter 2004
Major TFT LCD Panel Manufacturers
Major TFT LCD Panel Manufacturers
LCD Panel Market Snapshot Large-Area Panels 4th Quarter 2004
LCD Panel Market Snapshot Large-Area Panels 4th Quarter 2004
LCD Display Technology
LCD Display Technology
Everyone Wants A Piece of the Action
Everyone Wants A Piece of the Action
LCD Display Technology - A Recap
LCD Display Technology - A Recap
The Birefringence Principle
The Birefringence Principle
LCD Imaging Process
LCD Imaging Process
LCD Imaging Process
LCD Imaging Process
A Close Cousin
A Close Cousin
Real World LCD Benchmarks
Real World LCD Benchmarks
Continuous Pinwheel Alignment
Continuous Pinwheel Alignment
CPA / Advanced Super View in Action
CPA / Advanced Super View in Action
Super In-Plane Switching
Super In-Plane Switching
Patterned Vertical Alignment
Patterned Vertical Alignment
How Do They Handle Video
How Do They Handle Video
LCD Color Accuracy Issues
LCD Color Accuracy Issues
LED Matrix and Color Gamut
LED Matrix and Color Gamut
Hybrid Color Backlight System
Hybrid Color Backlight System
LCD Versus Plasma: The Skinny
LCD Versus Plasma: The Skinny
Whats Ahead for TFT LCDs
Whats Ahead for TFT LCDs
Plasma Display Technology
Plasma Display Technology
Playing A Strong Hand
Playing A Strong Hand
PDP Technology - A Recap
PDP Technology - A Recap
Plasma Imaging Process
Plasma Imaging Process
Gas Plasma Discharge Principle
Gas Plasma Discharge Principle
A Close Cousin
A Close Cousin
PDP Rib Structure (Simple)
PDP Rib Structure (Simple)
Real World Plasma Benchmarks
Real World Plasma Benchmarks
Deep Cell Pixel Structure
Deep Cell Pixel Structure
Alternate Lighting of Surfaces
Alternate Lighting of Surfaces
Plasma Tube Technology
Plasma Tube Technology
How Does Video Look
How Does Video Look
Plasma Versus LCD: The Skinny
Plasma Versus LCD: The Skinny
Whats Ahead for Plasma
Whats Ahead for Plasma
Not So Fast, There
Not So Fast, There
Other Contenders and Pretenders
Other Contenders and Pretenders
OLEDs: Displays You Can Print
OLEDs: Displays You Can Print
OLED Device Structure
OLED Device Structure
OLEDs: Displays You Can Print
OLEDs: Displays You Can Print
OLEDs: Displays You Can Print
OLEDs: Displays You Can Print
OLEDs: Displays You Can Print
OLEDs: Displays You Can Print
OLED Benchmarks
OLED Benchmarks
OLED Ink Jet Printing Technique
OLED Ink Jet Printing Technique
SED: The Plasma - LCD Killer
SED: The Plasma - LCD Killer
SED: The Plasma - LCD Killer
SED: The Plasma - LCD Killer
SED: The Plasma - LCD Killer
SED: The Plasma - LCD Killer
SED Benchmarks
SED Benchmarks
FEDs: Always A Bridesmaid
FEDs: Always A Bridesmaid
FEDs: Always A Bridesmaid
FEDs: Always A Bridesmaid
EL Displays: One Color Fits All
EL Displays: One Color Fits All
EL Displays: One Color Fits All
EL Displays: One Color Fits All
Super Flat CRTs: Hanging In There
Super Flat CRTs: Hanging In There
Super Flat CRTs: Hanging In There
Super Flat CRTs: Hanging In There
ELVs: Displays You Can Eat
ELVs: Displays You Can Eat
ELVs: Displays You Can Eat
ELVs: Displays You Can Eat
iMod: Inspired By A Butterfly
iMod: Inspired By A Butterfly
iMod: Inspired By A Butterfly
iMod: Inspired By A Butterfly
OK, Time For A Recap
OK, Time For A Recap
Audience Participation Time (Otherwise Known As Q&A)
Audience Participation Time (Otherwise Known As Q&A)

: Display Wars: Flat Panels 2005. : Peter H. Putman. : Display Wars: Flat Panels 2005.ppt. zip-: 2157 .

Display Wars: Flat Panels 2005

Display Wars: Flat Panels 2005.ppt
1 Display Wars: Flat Panels 2005

Display Wars: Flat Panels 2005

Peter H. Putman, CTS President, ROAM Consulting Inc. Founder / Editor, HDTVexpert.com Senior Editor, Studio Monthly

2 Look Out, Here They Come

Look Out, Here They Come

Flat-panel display technologies are sweeping through markets all over the world Digital Signage, Home Theater Command and Control, Retail Displays Handheld Electronics (Cameras, PDAs, Phones) The Contenders Plasma Display Panels (PDPs) Thin-film Transistor Liquid Crystal Displays (TFT LCDs) Organic Light-emitting Diodes (OLEDs) Electroluminescent and Emissive Displays

3 Fighting For Position - 2005

Fighting For Position - 2005

TFT-LCD Announcements Samsung - 57 TV to retail, 82 panel shown LG Philips - 52 and 55 TVs to retail Sharp - 65 TV to retail Major Plasma Announcements Panasonic - 65 TV and monitor to retail LG - 71 TV to retail Samsung - 80 to retail, 102 TV shown

4 Fighting For Position: 2004-05

Fighting For Position: 2004-05

Price Trends: 42 EDTV no name plasma TVs - <$2,000 42 HDTV no name plasma TVs - <$3,000 42 LCD TVs (Westinghouse/CMO) - $2,495 37 LCD TVs (rebranded LG) - <$3,000 40 LCD TVs (rebranded Samsung) - <$3,500 46 LCD TVs (CMO) - <$10,000 50 plasma TVs (Samsung) - $4,200 61 plasma monitors - $8,200

5 Fighting For Position: 2004-05

Fighting For Position: 2004-05

Manufacturer Trends: Fujitsu sells all but 19% of plasma investment, patents, and IP to Hitachi Fujitsu sells LCD business to Sharp Sony - Samsung launch Gen 7 LCD factory Panasonic at 100,000 plasma panels / month Samsung at 250,000 plasma panels / month Panasonic & Hitachi PDP partnership

6 Fighting For Position: 2004-05

Fighting For Position: 2004-05

Manufacturer Trends: Sony to exit plasma business in favor of LCD Toshiba scales back plasma in favor of LCD Hitachi, Toshiba, and Panasonic joint venture in Gen 6 TFT LCD factory (32 - 42) Sharp Gen 6 LCD factory on-line (to 65) Toshiba & Canon demonstrate SED (CES 2005)

7 Cant Tell The Players Without A Scorecard

Cant Tell The Players Without A Scorecard

8 Major Plasma Display Manufacturers

Major Plasma Display Manufacturers

In Japan: Matsushita (Panasonic) Hitachi Electronics (Kyushu FHP factory) Pioneer Electronics (owns former NEC works) In Korea: Samsung Electronics LG Electronics In China / Taiwan: Chungwha Picture Tube (using ex-Mitsubishi 46 designs)

9 Plasma TV Market Snapshot 4th Quarter 2004

Plasma TV Market Snapshot 4th Quarter 2004

Panasonic ends 2004 with 19% WW market share LG holds onto #2 with 14.5% WW share Samsung takes over #3 spot with 12% WW share Philips, Sony, Hitachi, Pioneer ranked #4 - #7 42 - 43 screen size dominates market (74%) 32 - 37 category climbs to 15% 46 - larger sizes drop to 11% Dell grabs 10% of 42 - 43 market

Source: DisplaySearch Q404 Plasma TV Shipments

10 Major TFT LCD Panel Manufacturers

Major TFT LCD Panel Manufacturers

In Japan: Sharp Electronics (also bought Fujitsus business 1/05) Hitachi, Sanyo, NEC- Mitsubishi, Kyocera In Korea: Samsung Electronics LG - Philips (LGL) In China / Taiwan: AU Optronics (AUO), Chi Mei Optronics (CMO) Chungwha Picture Tube (CPT)

11 LCD Panel Market Snapshot Large-Area Panels 4th Quarter 2004

LCD Panel Market Snapshot Large-Area Panels 4th Quarter 2004

LG Philips holds 23% market share (size, capacity) Samsung right behind at 22.5% AUO in #3 spot (14.9%), CMO #4 (11.6%) 20 VGA, 15 XGA, 32 WXGA sizes #1-#2-#3 30 and larger up to 21% share WW Samsung #1 in LCD TV modules shipped LG Philips, CMO at #2, Sharp at #4

Source: DisplaySearch Q404 Plasma TV Shipments

12 LCD Display Technology

LCD Display Technology

13 Everyone Wants A Piece of the Action

Everyone Wants A Piece of the Action

LCD manufacturing is expanding and maturing Sweet spot is from 26 inches to 42 inches for the home LCD can provide HD resolution in all sizes; 1280x768 pixels through 42-inch sizes, 1920x1080 pixels > 42 inches Gen 6 fabs now on line in Japan, Korea, China Typical Gen 6 motherglass is 1500 x 1800mm (Sharp), approximately 70 inches by 59 inches Gen 6 glass can yield (6) 37-inch or (12) 26-inch panels Samsung, Sony (S-LCD) launch Gen 7 in 2006 (1870 x 2200mm)

14 LCD Display Technology - A Recap

LCD Display Technology - A Recap

Mature technology (first developed in 1960s) Liquid-crystal monitors and TVs are transmissive in operation. Their pixels act as shutters to control the amount of light from a fluorescent backlight Current LCD benchmarks include sizes to 82 (prototypes) and brightness exceeding 400 nits FW Power consumption less than plasma for given size Weight less than plasma for given size

15 The Birefringence Principle

The Birefringence Principle

Randomly-arranged LCs pass light normally (off state) Liquid crystals arranged to block light (on state) Light beams are polarized (split into two planes) when passing through LC field The polarizing effect is known as birefringence Important to remember: Source of illumination is independent of individual LC pixels

16 LCD Imaging Process

LCD Imaging Process

17 LCD Imaging Process

LCD Imaging Process

TFT LCD monitors have individual R, G, B pixels with micro color filters Each pixel addressed by small thin-film transistor (TFT) made from amorphous silicon Addressing is usually active matrix (AM TFT) Variations include TN, STN, TSTN, homeotropic, and daisywheel/vertical LC alignments (better contrast)

18 A Close Cousin

A Close Cousin

(Venetian Blinds)

19 Real World LCD Benchmarks

Real World LCD Benchmarks

A review 45-inch LCD TV delivered from 156 to 284 nits (45.6 to 83 foot-Lamberts) with ANSI (average) contrast measured at 147:1 and peak contrast at 170:1 Typical black level = 1.7 nits (8 x CRT) Adjustable backlights help with lower black levels and better contrast numbers Predicted life of backlight: 60,000 hours @ 200 nits (not in full power mode)

Source: Roam Consulting Tests 2004

20 Continuous Pinwheel Alignment

Continuous Pinwheel Alignment

CPA - Developed by Sharp Electronics LC alignment optimized for wide viewing angles (typically 150o H/V) Improved contrast High brightness

21 CPA / Advanced Super View in Action

CPA / Advanced Super View in Action

Illustrations courtesy Sharp Electronics

22 Super In-Plane Switching

Super In-Plane Switching

Super IPS - Developed by LG Philips LCD LC alignment optimized for wide viewing angles (typically 150o H/V) Improved contrast High brightness

23 Patterned Vertical Alignment

Patterned Vertical Alignment

PVA - Developed by Samsung Electronics LC alignment optimized for wide viewing angles (typically 150o H/V) Improved contrast High brightness

24 How Do They Handle Video

How Do They Handle Video

LCD panels are analog RGB displays (0-255 levels of gray), so they work best with RGB inputs LC response time is still slow for video (claimed 16 mS), some manufacturers now claim 8 ms switch time LCD displays have trouble with low-level shadow detail (video) resulting in crushed grayscales They look best with RGB and DVI input connections

25 LCD Color Accuracy Issues

LCD Color Accuracy Issues

Ditch the CCFL, use LEDs instead! Samsung (LNR460D) 46-inch LCD TV Sony (Qualia 005) 46-inch LCD TV Both use LumiLEDs RGB LED stripes for color Line array is 26 red, 26 green, 13 blue 65 diodes by 7 rows = 455 total LED elements Brightness spec tentatively set at 450 nits LED life estimated between 50,000 - 100,000 hours But they draw a lot of current!

26 LED Matrix and Color Gamut

LED Matrix and Color Gamut

Close-up of LED Array

Claimed LED Color Gamut

27 Hybrid Color Backlight System

Hybrid Color Backlight System

Combines CCFL / HCFL with LED stripes Hybrid system has many advantages: Gamut exceeds SMPTE C CCFL / HCFL creates white light (pulsed) Current consumption lower Power draw is reduced!

28 LCD Versus Plasma: The Skinny

LCD Versus Plasma: The Skinny

Drawbacks of TFT LCD: Contrast (about 1/4 - 1/2 plasma) Motion Smear (LC twist times) Color Saturation (transmissive, not emissive) Advantages of TFT LCD: Higher pixel density (HDTV in smaller screen size) Brightness (3x - 5x comparable plasma) No burn-in, only TFT or backlight burn-out

29 Whats Ahead for TFT LCDs

Whats Ahead for TFT LCDs

Size - 82 TFT LCD panels achieved Resolution - 1920x1080 has been achieved LCD has taken over the flat panel market to 32 32 - 42 is the current LCD - plasma battleground Market prices falling as new, larger fabs start up Some plasma manufacturers hedging bets with LCD (Samsung, LG, Panasonic, Hitachi, CPT)

30 Plasma Display Technology

Plasma Display Technology

31 Playing A Strong Hand

Playing A Strong Hand

Plasma is gunning for CRTs Sweet spot is from 26 inches to 42 inches Plasma in true HD resolutions only above 42 inches New plasma fabs from Samsung, CPT, Panasonic New gas mixtures (neon + xenon) = longer panel life Materials cost for plasma fabs lower than LCD (about 1/3 of price, LCD is 1/2 of price) - larger is cheaper! > 25 companies now manufacturing or marketing plasma in all sizes (this number changes every week)

32 PDP Technology - A Recap

PDP Technology - A Recap

Plasma monitors and TVs are emissive in operation Image brightness directly related to intensity at which individual pixels are driven Current PDP benchmarks include sizes to 102 (prototypes) and brightness exceeding 100 nits (FW) Power draw 15-20% more than LCD for given size Weight 20-25% more than LCD for given size Mature technology since early 1960s

33 Plasma Imaging Process

Plasma Imaging Process

CHARGE / DISCHARGE CYCLE Uses mix of rare gases (neon, argon, etc) 160 - 250V AC discharge in cell stimulates ultraviolet (UV) radiation UV stimulation causes color phosphors to glow and form picture elements Yes, PDPs get warm!

34 Gas Plasma Discharge Principle

Gas Plasma Discharge Principle

35 A Close Cousin

A Close Cousin

(Fluorescent Lamps)

36 PDP Rib Structure (Simple)

PDP Rib Structure (Simple)

Illustration courtesy of Fujitsu

37 Real World Plasma Benchmarks

Real World Plasma Benchmarks

A review 42-inch plasma TV delivered from 72 to 299 nits (21 to 87.4 foot-Lamberts) with ANSI (average) contrast measured at 596:1 and peak contrast at 772:1 Typical black level = .21 nits (same as CRT) Deep cell structure, improved filters both enhance contrast Predicted life of phosphors: 60,000 hours @ 80 nits (not in full power mode) Burn-in still a concern, picture orbiting and low power modes are standard menu selections now

Source: Roam Consulting Plasma Tests 2004

38 Deep Cell Pixel Structure

Deep Cell Pixel Structure

Waffle-like pixel structure for higher light output Improves luminous efficiency Black levels higher Viewing angles the same as conventional ribs More complex to manufacture than ribs

Illustration courtesy of Pioneer

39 Alternate Lighting of Surfaces

Alternate Lighting of Surfaces

Segmented pixel scanning system Higher light output with reduced power Not an interlaced system High pixel density in smaller panel sizes FHP developed it

Illustration courtesy of Fujitsu

40 Plasma Tube Technology

Plasma Tube Technology

Tubes less expensive to make than unified PDP Allows much larger panel sizes Tubes can be cut to specific lengths Developed and patented by Fujitsu (will Hitachi continue?)

Fujitsu P55XHA30WS PDP

41 How Does Video Look

How Does Video Look

Plasma panels are RGB devices (0-255 levels of gray) Plasma displays have trouble with high- and low-level shadow detail (video) resulting in false contours They work best with RGB input signals and video scalars to achieve 1:1 pixel map Best to use RGB or DVI input connections No problems with fast motion, progressive sources are the best to display (480p, 576p, 720p, PC rates)

42 Plasma Versus LCD: The Skinny

Plasma Versus LCD: The Skinny

Drawbacks of Plasma: Phosphor burn-in (overdrive) Power consumption and heat dissipation Pixel pitch is coarse (.8mm - 1 mm) Advantages of Plasma: Wider viewing angles (160 degrees H&V) Saturated colors, lower gray levels Faster video switch times (full motion 60 Hz) Lower cost!!!

43 Whats Ahead for Plasma

Whats Ahead for Plasma

Has conceded 32 and smaller market due to prices and mass availability of LCD Longevity - est. 30,000 - 60,000 hours* Size - 80 current production max, >100 possible Resolution - HDTV (1920x1080) at 65 and above 42 EDTV plasma was the hot product for 2004 holiday selling season Gradual shift to 42-inch HD plasma from ED models

* - Range of PDP manufacturers claims

44 Not So Fast, There

Not So Fast, There

Other Contenders (or Pretenders?) To The Flat-Panel Throne

45 Other Contenders and Pretenders

Other Contenders and Pretenders

Organic Light-emitting Diodes (OLEDs) Low voltage, super thin analog display devices Saturated, bright colors and wide viewing angles Surface-conduction Electron-emitter Displays (SEDs) Super-flat version of a CRT Bright colors, wide viewing angles Field Emissive Displays (FEDs) Electroluminescent Displays (ELs) Super Flat CRTs Salad Dressing Light Valves (SDLVs)

46 OLEDs: Displays You Can Print

OLEDs: Displays You Can Print

Construction uses anode and cathode, organic film layer divides noble and base electrodes Holes and electrons meet in organic layer, energy from collisions is released as photons High contrast under normal to high ambient light Fast response for video, wide viewing angles standard No need for backlight or front-light!

47 OLED Device Structure

OLED Device Structure

48 OLEDs: Displays You Can Print

OLEDs: Displays You Can Print

Manufactured in small molecule (SM-OLED) and dispersed polymer (P-OLED) designs Both are low-voltage semiconductors that emit light when current flows through an organic film layer Poised to take over the handheld display market

Photo courtesy Cambridge Display Technologies

49 OLEDs: Displays You Can Print

OLEDs: Displays You Can Print

Organic LED displays are emissive in operation Individual LEDs activated to form picture elements OLEDs operate in 4 - 20 VDC range Full color RGB, white, and monochrome available Largest size manufactured to date - 40 (Epson, Samsung)

Samsung 40 AM OLED TV

50 OLEDs: Displays You Can Print

OLEDs: Displays You Can Print

Yes, OLEDs are very, VERY thin! (< 5mm for film layer) Samsung 40-inch active matrix OLED shown at SID Polymer-based colors are developed with Dupont Issues remain with white balance and motion image sharpness

51 OLED Benchmarks

OLED Benchmarks

Brightness of 100-200 cd/m2, contrast 200:1 - 400:1 Resolutions to WXGA 1280x768 They can be ink jet printed using polymer (P-OLED) deposition process Blue polymers now have 10,000 hour lifespan

Photo courtesy Cambridge Display Technologies

52 OLED Ink Jet Printing Technique

OLED Ink Jet Printing Technique

Yes, you can literally print a display using ink jets Precise alignment required for R, G, B channels Precise metering of polymers is required (no overfills or splash into adjoining cells) P-OLEDs only made this way

Photo courtesy Spectra / Information Display

53 SED: The Plasma - LCD Killer

SED: The Plasma - LCD Killer

SED = Surface-conduction Electron-emitter Display Uses high anode voltage, phosphors like CRT Emitter scans from electrodes using low voltages Display is very thin, uses about 30% * less power than PDP Color gamut exceeds SMPTE C phosphors * Peak brightness specification - 300 nits (87.7 ft-L) * Contrast ratio specification (dark room) - 10,000:1 * Wide viewing angle, fast response time (no smear) Developed by Canon, marketed with Toshiba

* - Manufacturers claimed specs, not mine!

54 SED: The Plasma - LCD Killer

SED: The Plasma - LCD Killer

If you squashed a CRT, would it look and perform like this?

55 SED: The Plasma - LCD Killer

SED: The Plasma - LCD Killer

SED Pixel Structure

36-inch SED TV (1280x768)

56 SED Benchmarks

SED Benchmarks

Low power consumption (5 lumens/watt or better) Film layers can be printed using ink jet method A 40-inch SED panel would weigh less than 45 lbs and consume around 60W Super-flat screen possible (< 1/4 inch) Black level and grayscale performance of a CRT

57 FEDs: Always A Bridesmaid

FEDs: Always A Bridesmaid

..

Field Emissive Displays were once heir to CRT throne Super-small emitters of electrons attracted to front glass Super-fine pixel pitch (comparable to OLEDs) High brightness, wide viewing angles, saturated color The newest wrinkle, carbon nanotube emitters, may be able to resuscitate FEDs from their doldrums

58 FEDs: Always A Bridesmaid

FEDs: Always A Bridesmaid

..

MIMIV 5.7 Color FED panel

Cross section of FED Pixel

59 EL Displays: One Color Fits All

EL Displays: One Color Fits All

Electroluminescent display uses a common-color phosphor emitter (blue) Color filters (stripes) provide R, G, B imaging Matrix of electrodes for pixel activation Bright display, wide viewing angles Similar to LCD with single-color backlight Similar to plasma with emissive operation

60 EL Displays: One Color Fits All

EL Displays: One Color Fits All

iFire TDEL 34-inch display 1280x720 resolution Full color display Developed with DNP in Japan as lower-cost flat panel Est. 30 - 50% cost savings over plasma manufacturing

iFire Panel Structure

61 Super Flat CRTs: Hanging In There

Super Flat CRTs: Hanging In There

CRT designs use extreme deflection yokes Neck is super thin, length reduced by 30% Bright displays with wide viewing angles Saturated and accurate colors Resolution limited to beam spot size (pitch) Developed by Samsung and LG

62 Super Flat CRTs: Hanging In There

Super Flat CRTs: Hanging In There

Samsung 26-inch SF CRT Demo

LG 30-inch SF CRT Demo

63 ELVs: Displays You Can Eat

ELVs: Displays You Can Eat

Electrowetting light valve display uses oil and water mixture to shutter light Change in voltage potential causes oil to shift position Light source is individual RGB LEDs Bright transmissive display, wide viewing angles Initial tests with monochrome displays only

64 ELVs: Displays You Can Eat

ELVs: Displays You Can Eat

Difference in viscosity is what makes the ELV work Any two liquids with opposites in viscosity may also work in ELV One must be opaque One must be transparent Possibilities: Combinations of salad dressings or liquors?

Photo courtesy Extreme Photonics / Univ. of Cincinnati

65 iMod: Inspired By A Butterfly

iMod: Inspired By A Butterfly

Interferometric Modulator uses natural refractive principles (interferometer) Two-position pixel reflects or absorbs light RGB stripes are used for color imaging Initial target is handheld electronics, near-to-eye Developed by Qualcomm and Iridigm

66 iMod: Inspired By A Butterfly

iMod: Inspired By A Butterfly

Illustrations 2005 Qualcomm

67 OK, Time For A Recap

OK, Time For A Recap

LCD pushing up in size, owns market <32, battling plasma for 32 - 42 sweet spot; still has motion issues Plasma holding 42 and up market for now, thanks to low cost - burn-in; power consumption still an issue OLEDs still not in mass production yet, best targeted at handheld displays with short life cycles (10,000 hrs) SED has potential to be disruptive, pricing, screen sizes, and distribution are still issues to be resolved FEDs still on sidelines, EL looks promising, ELVs best served with bacon bits and cheese Super Flat CRTs may stave off extinction

68 Audience Participation Time (Otherwise Known As Q&A)

Audience Participation Time (Otherwise Known As Q&A)

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