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French-English Relations in Canada
French-English Relations in Canada
Language cleavages are politically explosive
Language cleavages are politically explosive
Demographics (2001 census)
Demographics (2001 census)
Realities of language in Canada
Realities of language in Canada
Canada is a federal state
Canada is a federal state
Two paradigms for accommodating linguistic diversity
Two paradigms for accommodating linguistic diversity
Two paradigms for accommodating linguistic diversity
Two paradigms for accommodating linguistic diversity
Two theses
Two theses
The Quiet Revolution
The Quiet Revolution
What did Quebec want
What did Quebec want
The federal response
The federal response
The rise of the sovereigntists
The rise of the sovereigntists
Etapisme: taking it slow
Etapisme: taking it slow
The 1980 referendum
The 1980 referendum
Constitutional negotiations
Constitutional negotiations
Constitution Act, 1982
Constitution Act, 1982
Change at the top
Change at the top
Quebecs five conditions
Quebecs five conditions
Meech Lake Accord (1987)
Meech Lake Accord (1987)
Charlottetown Accord (1992)
Charlottetown Accord (1992)
Reinvigorated sovereigntist movement
Reinvigorated sovereigntist movement
Federal Response: Plan A
Federal Response: Plan A
Federal Response: Plan B
Federal Response: Plan B
The current situation
The current situation
The future
The future
For further reading
For further reading

: French-English Relations in Canada. : U of L. : French-English Relations in Canada.ppt. zip-: 84 .

French-English Relations in Canada

French-English Relations in Canada.ppt
1 French-English Relations in Canada

French-English Relations in Canada

A clash of paradigms

2 Language cleavages are politically explosive

Language cleavages are politically explosive

Closely tied to culture and religion Fundamental to identity Governments cannot disengage from language as they can from other cleavages Communication is fundamental to democratic politics; language is central to communication

3 Demographics (2001 census)

Demographics (2001 census)

Quebec

ROC

Canada

Mother Tongue

Mother Tongue

Mother Tongue

Home Language

Home Language

Home Language

Biling

Biling

Eng

Fr

Oth

Eng

Fr

Oth

8.3

81.4

10.3

10.5

83.1

6.5

40.8

75.2

4.4

20.4

85.6

2.7

11.7

10.3

59.1

22.9

18.0

67.5

22.0

10.5

17.7

4 Realities of language in Canada

Realities of language in Canada

Most of Canadas Francophones live in Quebec Linguistic minorities tend to be small in most provinces (except for New Brunswick) The bilingual belt Process of linguistic assimilation of linguistic minorities English is a socially powerful language

5 Canada is a federal state

Canada is a federal state

Only a small proportion of the worlds countries (less than ten per cent) are federal nations Canada is one of the oldest and most successful federal states in the world Federalism can be used to accommodate diversity Canadian federalism reflects the ways Quebec was different in 1867 The emphasis was on Quebecs Catholicism, not its language

6 Two paradigms for accommodating linguistic diversity

Two paradigms for accommodating linguistic diversity

Territorial approach Language of public life contingent on where you live Idea is to provide a sense of linguistic security for minorities Bilingualism typically limited to national organizations

7 Two paradigms for accommodating linguistic diversity

Two paradigms for accommodating linguistic diversity

Personality approach Language policy defined in terms of rights Language rights are attached to individuals, not to territories Emphasis on personal mobility and personal bilingualism Bilingualism pervasive

8 Two theses

Two theses

French-English relations can best be understood as a clash between these two paradigms Because federalism was the institutional solution designed to resolve the problem of accommodating Quebec, much of the debate centres on Quebecs place in the federal system

9 The Quiet Revolution

The Quiet Revolution

Associated with government of Jean Lesage (1960-1966) A period of modernization in Quebec The provincial state replaced the church at the heart of Quebecs political life Linguistic division of labour Quebecs provincial government became more assertive about Quebecs place in Canada and federalism Quebecois, not French Canadian

10 What did Quebec want

What did Quebec want

Full control over provincial jurisdiction The federal government to extricate itself from provincial jurisdiction Greater provincial power Increased say over federal institutions Recognition of special status

11 The federal response

The federal response

Rights-based approach to national bilingualism Pierre Elliot Trudeau, Prime Minister from 1968-1979, 1980-1984 Official Languages Act (1969) Re-making the federal public service Promoting linguistic minorities and personal bilingualism A rejection of any special recognition of Quebec Quebecs response was Bill 22

12 The rise of the sovereigntists

The rise of the sovereigntists

Parti Quebecois (PQ) founded by dissidents who left the provincial Liberal party Led by Rene Levesque PQ grew steadily in support Won the 1976 provincial election with 41% of the vote and a majority government

13 Etapisme: taking it slow

Etapisme: taking it slow

PQ settled on a step by step approach to sovereignty Govern well (Bill 101) Call a referendum to get a mandate to negotiate with Ottawa Negotiate with Ottawa Have the outcome of the negotiations ratified in another referendum

14 The 1980 referendum

The 1980 referendum

A soft question: asked for a mandate to negotiate sovereignty association Bitter, divisive campaign 60% Non 40% Oui Economic fears loomed large in the vote PQ may have miscalculated in its referendum strategy PQ re-elected in 1981

15 Constitutional negotiations

Constitutional negotiations

Canada did not control the amendment of its own constitution Trudeau wanted to patriate the constitution with a Charter of Rights 8 provincial governments, including Quebecs opposed Trudeau Compromise reached, but Quebec did not agree

16 Constitution Act, 1982

Constitution Act, 1982

Applies to all of Canada, including Quebec, even though Quebec did not agree Charter of Rights enshrined personality approach to national bilingualism in the constitution Enhanced the idea of provincial equality: Quebec did not achieve recognition of special status or increased power

17 Change at the top

Change at the top

Brian Mulroney takes over as Prime Minister in 1984: wants to bring Quebec into the constitution Now a Liberal provincial government, led by Robert Bourassa Bourassa outlines five conditions for Quebec to sign the constitution

18 Quebecs five conditions

Quebecs five conditions

Recognition as a distinct society Limitation on federal government intrusion in provincial jurisdiction Role in appointing justices to the Supreme Court of Canada Increased power over immigration A veto over any constitutional change

19 Meech Lake Accord (1987)

Meech Lake Accord (1987)

Mulroney wins agreement of all ten premiers to change the constitution Enshrines Quebecs five conditions in the constitution Ten provincial governments and the federal government have to ratify the agreement within three years Newfoundland and Manitoba fail to do so by 1990: the Accord dies

20 Charlottetown Accord (1992)

Charlottetown Accord (1992)

Much anger in Quebec Sovereigntist sentiment on the rise Again, federal government and provinces agree on constitution package, called the Charlottetown Accord Defeated in a national referendum: 55% No, 45% Yes Defeated in Quebec as well

21 Reinvigorated sovereigntist movement

Reinvigorated sovereigntist movement

Bloc Quebecois forms as a national political party in 1990, wins 54 of Quebecs 75 seats in Parliament in 1993 Parti Quebecois wins the 1994 provincial election Announces a referendum in 1995 Narrow victory for the federalists: 50.6% Non, 49.4% Oui Federal government weak in referendum

22 Federal Response: Plan A

Federal Response: Plan A

A shaken federal government tries to respond to Quebecs historical demands But limited because there is no appetite for constitutional reform in Canada Passes Parliamentary resolutions to recognize Quebec as a distinct society and to give Quebec a veto

23 Federal Response: Plan B

Federal Response: Plan B

Legal challenge to constitutionality of Quebec sovereignty Supreme Court of Canada in 1998 rules that it is unconstitutional for Quebec to secede without the consent of the other provinces, but if Quebeckers vote in a referendum to leave, the rest of Canada has to respond Clarity Act sets out the rules for Quebec secession

24 The current situation

The current situation

The essential problem remains unsolved Quebeckers and much of Canada conceive of their country in different ways Quebec: Quebec is distinct and may require different powers ROC: all provinces are equal Weve papered over the differences

25 The future

The future

Sovereigntist sentiment is currently in decline Parti Quebecois lost the 2003 provincial election quite badly Bloc Quebecois support is in decline Demographic change in Quebec Evidence that Quebeckers have grown tired of the debate over sovereignty 55% (63% of those under 45) do not identify themselves as sovereigntist or federalist (CRIC)

26 For further reading

For further reading

Kenneth McRoberts, Misconceiving Canada: The Struggle for National Unity (Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1997).

French-English Relations in Canada
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