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History of Cinema and the Ratings System
History of Cinema and the Ratings System
The Birth of Film
The Birth of Film
Emergence of the Nickelodeon
Emergence of the Nickelodeon
Nickelodeon Controversy
Nickelodeon Controversy
D.W. Griffith Keeps Film Alive
D.W. Griffith Keeps Film Alive
“Hollywood”
“Hollywood”
Studio System Today
Studio System Today
Introduction of the Rating System
Introduction of the Rating System
MPAA
MPAA
This Film Is Not Yet Rated
This Film Is Not Yet Rated
Sources
Sources

Презентация на тему: «History of Cinema and the Ratings System». Автор: Alisha Fine. Файл: «History of Cinema and the Ratings System.ppt». Размер zip-архива: 656 КБ.

History of Cinema and the Ratings System

содержание презентации «History of Cinema and the Ratings System.ppt»
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1 History of Cinema and the Ratings System

History of Cinema and the Ratings System

Alisha Fine

2 The Birth of Film

The Birth of Film

Thomas Edison’s Kinetoscope first went public at Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences on May 9, 1893. The film was only a few minutes long and only one person could view it at at time.

3 Emergence of the Nickelodeon

Emergence of the Nickelodeon

The Invention of the Vitascope, the first film projector, allowed for a large audience to view a film at the same time. Along with the Vitascope came Nickelodeons. The first Nickelodeon opened in a store front in Pittsburgh, PA in June of 1905 Admission to a Nickelodeon was only a nickel, hence the name Nickelodeon and the film lasted 15-20 min.

4 Nickelodeon Controversy

Nickelodeon Controversy

Working class, immigrants were attracted to the cheap form of entertainment. December of 1908 the Mayor of New York City had ordered that all nickel theaters be closed, arguing that they posed a “threat to the city’s physical and moral well being.”

5 D.W. Griffith Keeps Film Alive

D.W. Griffith Keeps Film Alive

The middle class finally gave films the recognition they deserved as an art form after director D.W. Griffiths historical epics The Birth of a Nation (1915) and Intolerance (1916). This secured film in its place in the emerging culture of the 20th century. Birth of a Nation was the first film to inspire widespread racial controversy.

6 “Hollywood”

“Hollywood”

By the 1920’s the US reaches its era of greatest-ever output with an average of 800 feature films annually. This explosion was directly correlated with the growth of the studio system. The Big Eight - Universal Pictures Fox Film Corp (later 20th Century Fox) Columbia Pictures Warner Brothers Paramount MGM RKO United Artists

7 Studio System Today

Studio System Today

8 Introduction of the Rating System

Introduction of the Rating System

With the advent of talking pictures it was felt that a formal code on censorship should be written. The Production Code, a set of Industry guidelines governing the production of American motion pictures, was adopted March 31, 1930 by the Motion Pictures Producers and Distributors Association (MPPDA) which later became the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA). For 4 years the Code went without any form of enforcement until the Production Code Administration was formed.

This required filmmakers to submit their films for approval before their release. In order to receive approval, the movie had to be free of “excessive or lustful kissing,” and references to “sex perversion” and any depiction of childbirth, among other things. Enforcement of the Production Code became difficult so in the MPAA abandoned it entirely in the mid-1960s.

9 MPAA

MPAA

The MPAA began working on a ratings system so that there were virtually no restrictions on what could be in a film. The MPAA film rating system went into effect November 1, 1968 with 4 ratings: G, M, R, and X. M was later changed to PG and a PG-13 rating was added to create a tier between PG and R. The X rating was changed to NC-17 to distinguish it from porn.

10 This Film Is Not Yet Rated

This Film Is Not Yet Rated

Are Hollywood movies and independent films rated equally for comparable content? Does it make sense that extreme violence is given an R rating while sexuality is banished to the cutting room floor? Why do Hollywood studios receive detailed directions as to how to change an NC-17 film into an R, while independent films producers are left guessing? Does leaving the raters and the rating process secret leave the MPAA unaccountable for its decisions?

11 Sources

Sources

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kinetoscope http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_film http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761567568/History_of_Motion_Pictures.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Production_Code http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MPAA_film_rating_system http://www.ifc.com/films?aId=18019

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