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Chapter 3: Changing Philosophies for Sport, Fitness, and Physical
Chapter 3: Changing Philosophies for Sport, Fitness, and Physical
Ontology
Ontology
Ontology
Ontology
Axiology
Axiology
Ethics
Ethics
Politics
Politics
Ontology
Ontology
Seeing how your philosophy is connected with those within your field
Seeing how your philosophy is connected with those within your field
Philosophical influences in early American Sport, Fitness, and
Philosophical influences in early American Sport, Fitness, and
Main Philosophical influences on Sport, Fitness, and Physical
Main Philosophical influences on Sport, Fitness, and Physical
The Gymnastics Philosophies (1800-1850)
The Gymnastics Philosophies (1800-1850)
Muscular Christianity (1850-1900)
Muscular Christianity (1850-1900)
Masculinity & Femininity Ideals
Masculinity & Femininity Ideals
Discussion Questions
Discussion Questions
Amateurism, Fair Play, and British Ideals
Amateurism, Fair Play, and British Ideals
Character Education Through Physical Challenges
Character Education Through Physical Challenges
School Sport and the New Physical Education
School Sport and the New Physical Education
Thomas Woods work (1893) signaled the shift from the Gymnastics
Thomas Woods work (1893) signaled the shift from the Gymnastics
John Dewey strongly influenced Clark Hetherington while at Columbia
John Dewey strongly influenced Clark Hetherington while at Columbia
Rousseau: Children are born goodtheir environment ruins them
Rousseau: Children are born goodtheir environment ruins them
School Sport and the New Physical Education
School Sport and the New Physical Education
Play was the key link among the various educational philosophers
Play was the key link among the various educational philosophers
Friedrich von Schiller made Play a legitimate philosophical concept:
Friedrich von Schiller made Play a legitimate philosophical concept:
Discussion Question
Discussion Question
Sport, fitness and school-based Physical Education had become well
Sport, fitness and school-based Physical Education had become well
1950s mark a period of increasing specialization, diversification in
1950s mark a period of increasing specialization, diversification in
Human Movement philosophy
Human Movement philosophy
Humanistic Psychology emerged as dominant force in Education during
Humanistic Psychology emerged as dominant force in Education during
Play Education & Sport Education
Play Education & Sport Education
Play Education & Sport Education
Play Education & Sport Education
Based on the character-education models from the 1800s
Based on the character-education models from the 1800s
Fitness is in and BIG business
Fitness is in and BIG business
How would you rate your level of wellness
How would you rate your level of wellness
Physical activity and wellness is important for ALL (not just children
Physical activity and wellness is important for ALL (not just children
Ethics
Ethics

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6 .ppt
1 Chapter 3: Changing Philosophies for Sport, Fitness, and Physical

Chapter 3: Changing Philosophies for Sport, Fitness, and Physical

Education

HPHE 1500 Dr. Ayers

2 Ontology

Ontology

Ethics

Axiology

Politics

Some informal Definitions . . .

2

3 Ontology

Ontology

The study of the nature of being, existence, or reality.

Some informal Definitions . . .

. . . Deciding on a position regarding the link between Mind and body, or whether there is more than one reality

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4 Axiology

Axiology

Some informal Definitions . . .

The study of values and the nature of values

. . . What values do you try to instill in others?

4

5 Ethics

Ethics

Some informal Definitions . . .

Study of the nature of morals and moral choices made by persons; rules or standards governing the conduct of an individual or members of a profession (e.g., judicial or medical ethics).

. . . Making judgments about the right thing to do.

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6 Politics

Politics

Some informal Definitions . . .

Judging what is best for the common good

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7 Ontology

Ontology

Ethics

Axiology

Politics

These are all areas of study within the broader field of Philosophy

Your actions and choices (i.e., your behavior) reflect your philosophy . . . Your position on issues, your values.

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8 Seeing how your philosophy is connected with those within your field

Seeing how your philosophy is connected with those within your field

will help you articulate your views and positions.

Can you articulate your own position and values about the profession/field you plan to enter? . . . Try it!

Over time it will evolve, and change . . . But be sure you have one!

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9 Philosophical influences in early American Sport, Fitness, and

Philosophical influences in early American Sport, Fitness, and

Physical Education

Key developments in the 19th & 20th Centuries in the field . . .(a backdrop):

Physical Education becomes a school subject

Competitive sport becomes more accepted

Fitness becomes valued in its own right

Importance of play during childhood is recognized

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10 Main Philosophical influences on Sport, Fitness, and Physical

Main Philosophical influences on Sport, Fitness, and Physical

Education

The Gymnastics Philosophies

Muscular Christianity

Masculinity & Femininity Ideals

Amateurism, Fair Play, & British ideals

Character Education

(See also Box 3.1, p. 59)

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11 The Gymnastics Philosophies (1800-1850)

The Gymnastics Philosophies (1800-1850)

German and Swedish systems emerge within a period of strong Nationalism

Main goal: Individual development, self-reliance

Yet also strongly linked with National Defense (i.e., military preparedness)

Both were similar in philosophy

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12 Muscular Christianity (1850-1900)

Muscular Christianity (1850-1900)

Emerged as Puritanism lost its grip on the young nation

Reflects mutual understanding between sport & religion

Ralph Waldo Emerson: the first wealth is health

Achieving fitness and physical prowess also serves mental, moral and religious purposes

Reached popularity via British likeness: ARNOLDISM

ARNOLDISM: Uses Sport & fitness toward reaching manliness, courage, patriotism, moral character, team spirit, & intellectual independence

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13 Masculinity & Femininity Ideals

Masculinity & Femininity Ideals

19th Century: Increased acceptance of sport & fitness But only for males!

Vigorous activity and competitive sport viewed as harmful and unladylike for girls and women

Similar views were held in sport, fitness & Physical Education environments

Title IX and feminism greatly accelerated the change process for women

This was in stark contrast to prevailing view of men: virile, tough, aggressive, etc.

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14 Discussion Questions

Discussion Questions

How do you perceive Muscular Christianity?

What is your perception of womens physical life in our society today?

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15 Amateurism, Fair Play, and British Ideals

Amateurism, Fair Play, and British Ideals

Development of Sport in the late 1900s mirrored the growth of British Sport: Amateurism & Fair Play

It was the wealthy in Britain who exuded these characteristics

Amateur Athletic Union (AAU) formed in 1888

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16 Character Education Through Physical Challenges

Character Education Through Physical Challenges

Kurt Hahns educational goal: Train character over intellect German Jew founder of Gordonstoun School in Scotland

Fitness was an important component

40 min. activity breaks interspersed daily throughout classroom activities

Youth challenged through vigorous outdoor activities to test courage and skill

Ergo: The Outward Bound Movement

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17 School Sport and the New Physical Education

School Sport and the New Physical Education

. . The Philosophical Roots

Clark Hetherington

1924

Thomas Wood

John Dewey

Jean-Jacque Rousseau

1740

Johann Basedow

Friedrich Froebel

Johann Pestalozzi

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18 Thomas Woods work (1893) signaled the shift from the Gymnastics

Thomas Woods work (1893) signaled the shift from the Gymnastics

movement to the Education-through- the-physical approach

Based in part on the progressive education principles developed by John Dewey (most impt in history of American edu)

John Deweys education agenda: Social reform through child-centered, natural education

Students are active participants . . . Doing is as important as knowing . . . Mental and physical cannot/should not be separated

Thus, natural play, sport and games were valued highly in progressive education

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19 John Dewey strongly influenced Clark Hetherington while at Columbia

John Dewey strongly influenced Clark Hetherington while at Columbia

University

Hence, the link between progressive education and education-through-the-physical

Many early leaders trained in 1st doc program at Teachers College (Columbia Univ): main center for progressive education & education-through-the- physical philosophy

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20 Rousseau: Children are born goodtheir environment ruins them

Rousseau: Children are born goodtheir environment ruins them

Strong advocate of physical activity, play, games & gymnastics as sensory experiences for a more holistic education

Play could contribute to developing character: cooperation and competition

Rousseau-influenced educators: Basedow, Pestalozzi, Froebel

Each viewed physical activity, play as central to childrens development

School Sport and the New Physical Education . . . The Philosophical Roots

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21 School Sport and the New Physical Education

School Sport and the New Physical Education

. . The Philosophical Roots

Clark Hetherington

1924

Thomas Wood

John Dewey

Jean-Jacque Rousseau

1740

Johann Basedow

Friedrich Froebel

Johann Pestalozzi

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22 Play was the key link among the various educational philosophers

Play was the key link among the various educational philosophers

Froebel made it the cornerstone of his views of how children learn

Became widely accepted as central to education and life

Previously, Christianity (i.e., Reformation) suppressed play behavior as anti-Christian

Re-emergence of Play as a Philosophical Concept

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23 Friedrich von Schiller made Play a legitimate philosophical concept:

Friedrich von Schiller made Play a legitimate philosophical concept:

For to speak out once for all, man only plays when in the full meaning of the word he is a man, and he is only completely a man when at play.

Schiller argued that PLAY was a basic, integrating mode of human behavior throughout life & across all cultures

(Schiller, 1910)

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24 Discussion Question

Discussion Question

If/How do you think societys impression of PLAY impacts the publics perception of our profession?

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25 Sport, fitness and school-based Physical Education had become well

Sport, fitness and school-based Physical Education had become well

accepted and seen as critical to total development (though still favoring males)

Physical Education proponents also influenced the YMCA and playground movements

Sport, fitness and Physical Education each began to form unique identities

Participation in sport, fitness & physical education was useful b/c of the contributions it made to intellectual, physical, social & moral development

The Early 20th Century: Philosophies Come Together

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26 1950s mark a period of increasing specialization, diversification in

1950s mark a period of increasing specialization, diversification in

each area

Until the 1950s the Education-Through-the-Physical had not been challenged

Rise of new philosophical orientations:

Philosophical Forces in Sport, Fitness and Physical Education since 1950s

Human Movement Humanistic Sport & Physical Education Play Education & Sport Education Experiential & Adventure Education

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27 Human Movement philosophy

Human Movement philosophy

Philosophical Forces in Sport, Fitness and Physical Education since 1950s

Rudolph Laban*, Rosiland Cassidy & Elanor Metheny

Became basis for: a) undergraduate teacher preparation at UCLA in 1958 b) justifying the academic nature of Physical Education

Framework fostered subsequent specialization ? various sub-disciplines

Offered school programs a more flexible/open approach to teaching in elem schools: Movement Education

Associated teaching styles: Exploration & guided discovery

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28 Humanistic Psychology emerged as dominant force in Education during

Humanistic Psychology emerged as dominant force in Education during

the 60s/70s, emphasizing personal and social development

Don Hellison publishes Humanistic Physical Education (1973) targeting personal development, interpersonal relationships and self-expression as primary goals for Physical Education

A similar movement develops that condemns abuses in sport (e.g., Scott, 1969: Athletics for Athletes)

Hellisons framework for developing personal & social responsibility has become ingrained in school Physical Education, notably those serving urban at-risk youth

Humanistic Sport & Physical Education

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29 Play Education & Sport Education

Play Education & Sport Education

Traditional philosophies viewed Physical Education as a means towards other outcomes (i.e., physical, social, mental, moral)

Play for play sake (i.e., the activities are valuable in and of themselves) emerges as a new means of explaining the importance of the subject in schools (first promoted by Elanor Metheny)

First proposed by Siedentop, it aims to help students acquire the skills and appreciation for the activities themselves

Play Education places motor play (as seen in Physical Education) alongside music, art and drama as an institutionalized form of play fundamental to our culture

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30 Play Education & Sport Education

Play Education & Sport Education

Where Play Education was a philosophy, Sport Education (SE) emerged as a coherent curriculum model for school Physical Education programs

SE seeks to help students become competent, literate and enthusiastic sportpersons . . . To foster continued participation and contribution to creating a healthier sport culture

In SE, students are members of a team during a season in which festivity and team affiliation is created, a schedule of competition is completed, records are kept, and a season champion is determined during a culminating event

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31 Based on the character-education models from the 1800s

Based on the character-education models from the 1800s

Follows the core values and principles of Outward Bound (www.outwardbound.com):

Many school Physical Education programs infuse team building and adventure type activities both in-class and off-campus (e.g., 2-3 day hiking or canoeing trips)

Experiential & Adventure Education

Adventure & challenge. Compassion & service. Learning through experience. Personal development. Social & environmental responsibility.

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32 Fitness is in and BIG business

Fitness is in and BIG business

Targets entire population (i.e., youth through older adults)

The need for better health is one explanation for its current popularity

Wellness is defined as:

The Fitness Renaissance and Wellness Movement

HOWEVER, reaching a state of Wellness is another reason

Absence of disease, as well as the ability to:

cope with daily stressors develop and maintain positive interpersonal relationships recognize accomplishment and personal growth think critically and be open to new ideas maintain a sense of humor

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33 How would you rate your level of wellness

How would you rate your level of wellness

Maintaining a physically active lifestyle is accepted as a central component of moving toward wellness

Traditionally, wellness has been viewed as a matter of personal responsibility

HOWEVER, current trends in sedentary lifestyles and obesity in the population at large, make it a public health and public policy concern . . . . A collective responsibility

Ones health is strongly influenced by Socio-economic Status

Since race and ethnicity is strongly correlated with SES, health is also a social and political issue

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34 Physical activity and wellness is important for ALL (not just children

Physical activity and wellness is important for ALL (not just children

and youth)

New generations are increasingly attracted to extreme sports. . . . . WHY??

Even these activities are becoming more institutionalized (e.g., Winter Games; X-Games)

Fitness is now a major focus among older adults and retirees

Lifespan Involvement in Physical Activity: The new Visions

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35 Ethics

Ethics

Politics

Ontology

Axiology

Find a Friend

Talk about your position and values about the profession/field you plan to enter

Due Wed: Write your Physical Education philosophy, including your: ontology, axiology, ethics and the political ramifications of your position

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