Английская грамматика
<<  Пример эффективный контракт в лпу на федеральном уровне Object-Oriented Software Engineering Practical Software Development using UML and Java  >>
Stumpf and Teague Object-Oriented Systems Analysis and Design with UML
Stumpf and Teague Object-Oriented Systems Analysis and Design with UML
Stumpf and Teague Object-Oriented Systems Analysis and Design with UML
Stumpf and Teague Object-Oriented Systems Analysis and Design with UML
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives (continued)
Learning Objectives (continued)
Overview
Overview
Overview (continued)
Overview (continued)
Overview (continued)
Overview (continued)
Overview (continued)
Overview (continued)
Overview (continued)
Overview (continued)
Procedure for Object-Oriented Systems Analysis
Procedure for Object-Oriented Systems Analysis
Procedure for Object-Oriented Systems Analysis (continued)
Procedure for Object-Oriented Systems Analysis (continued)
Step 2 of Object-Oriented Systems Analysis
Step 2 of Object-Oriented Systems Analysis
Use Cases
Use Cases
Events and Use Cases
Events and Use Cases
Identifying Actors
Identifying Actors
Types of Actors
Types of Actors
The Use Case Model
The Use Case Model
Use Case Diagram
Use Case Diagram
Components of a Use Case Diagram
Components of a Use Case Diagram
Step 3 of Object-Oriented Systems Analysis
Step 3 of Object-Oriented Systems Analysis
High-Level Use Case Narrative
High-Level Use Case Narrative
Expanded Use Case Narrative
Expanded Use Case Narrative
Parts of an Expanded Use Case Narrative
Parts of an Expanded Use Case Narrative
Terms in an Expanded Use Case Narrative
Terms in an Expanded Use Case Narrative
Terms in an Expanded Use Case Narrative (continued)
Terms in an Expanded Use Case Narrative (continued)
Associations Between Use Cases
Associations Between Use Cases
Associations Between Use Cases (continued)
Associations Between Use Cases (continued)
Use Case Scenarios
Use Case Scenarios
Shortcomings of a Use Case Diagram
Shortcomings of a Use Case Diagram
Step 4 of Object-Oriented Systems Analysis
Step 4 of Object-Oriented Systems Analysis
System Sequence Diagram
System Sequence Diagram
System Sequence Diagram (continued)
System Sequence Diagram (continued)
System Sequence Diagram (continued)
System Sequence Diagram (continued)
Creating a System Sequence Diagram
Creating a System Sequence Diagram
Creating a System Sequence Diagram (continued)
Creating a System Sequence Diagram (continued)
Message Formats in System Sequence Diagrams
Message Formats in System Sequence Diagrams
Outgoing Messages (System Outputs)
Outgoing Messages (System Outputs)
Summary
Summary

Презентация: «Как сделать на флешку для 4 класса». Автор: lfried. Файл: «Как сделать на флешку для 4 класса.ppt». Размер zip-архива: 1727 КБ.

Как сделать на флешку для 4 класса

содержание презентации «Как сделать на флешку для 4 класса.ppt»
СлайдТекст
1 Stumpf and Teague Object-Oriented Systems Analysis and Design with UML

Stumpf and Teague Object-Oriented Systems Analysis and Design with UML

.

© 2005 Prentice Hall

4-1

2 Stumpf and Teague Object-Oriented Systems Analysis and Design with UML

Stumpf and Teague Object-Oriented Systems Analysis and Design with UML

.

© 2005 Prentice Hall

4-2

3 Learning Objectives

Learning Objectives

Identify use cases based on prior event analysis. Derive a use case diagram from an event table. Draw a use case diagram. Discover use case scenarios.

© 2005 Prentice Hall

4-3

4 Learning Objectives (continued)

Learning Objectives (continued)

Write both high-level and expanded essential use case narratives. Define system inputs and outputs. Draw a system sequence diagram for a use case scenario.

© 2005 Prentice Hall

4-4

5 Overview

Overview

Chapter 4 discusses Steps 2, 3, and 4 of the process for object-oriented analysis. It introduces the Unified Modeling Language (UML), a standard notation for describing object-oriented systems. The use case model and system sequence diagrams presented here begin to describe the system’s required response to events in its environment.

© 2005 Prentice Hall

4-5

6 Overview (continued)

Overview (continued)

Use case diagrams show the use cases within the scope of the system and the actors in the environment with which each use case is associated. There is a least one use case narrative for each use case. A use case narrative is a structured narrative showing what the system must do to respond to a specific event.

© 2005 Prentice Hall

4-6

7 Overview (continued)

Overview (continued)

We write an expanded use case narrative for every use case corresponding to an external event; these are the use cases in which there is input to the system. An expanded use case narrative captures the sequence of messages from an actor to the system as well as the system’s response to each message. The narrative also reveals the structure and content of the messages.

© 2005 Prentice Hall

4-7

8 Overview (continued)

Overview (continued)

Use case narratives for analysis should be essential – they should not mention any possible implementing technology. A system sequence diagram shows graphically the sequence, structure, and content of each message from an actor to the system. It also shows messages from the system to external systems.

© 2005 Prentice Hall

4-8

9 Overview (continued)

Overview (continued)

There is one system sequence diagram for each use case corresponding to an external event. If the use case is complex, several system sequence diagrams may be desirable. The specific data elements contained in each message are usually shown in a system sequence diagram.

© 2005 Prentice Hall

4-9

10 Procedure for Object-Oriented Systems Analysis

Procedure for Object-Oriented Systems Analysis

Step 1. Identify the business events and make an event table. Step 2. Identify the use cases and produce a use case diagram for the system. Step 3. Write a use case narrative describing the system’s response to each business event.

© 2005 Prentice Hall

4-10

11 Procedure for Object-Oriented Systems Analysis (continued)

Procedure for Object-Oriented Systems Analysis (continued)

Step 4. Draw a system sequence diagram for each use case scenario. Step 5. Produce a domain model showing the concepts, attributes and associations in the problem domain of the system. Step 6. Write a contract for each system operation.

© 2005 Prentice Hall

4-11

12 Step 2 of Object-Oriented Systems Analysis

Step 2 of Object-Oriented Systems Analysis

Identify the use cases and produce a use case diagram for the system.

© 2005 Prentice Hall

4-12

13 Use Cases

Use Cases

A use case is the sequence of actions which occur when an actor uses a system to complete a process. A use case is a model of a requirement. A use case name is a short phrase beginning with a verb. Each event corresponds to at least one use case.

© 2005 Prentice Hall

4-13

14 Events and Use Cases

Events and Use Cases

Event Department submits class schedule. Time to produce University Class Schedule Student registers for classes. Time to produce Class Roster

Use case Submit Department Class Schedule. Produce University Class Schedule. Register for Classes. Produce Class Roster.

© 2005 Prentice Hall

4-14

15 Identifying Actors

Identifying Actors

An actor is a person, organization, or system which interacts with a system by sending messages to the system or receiving messages from the system. Actors play roles with respect to the system. The actors were identified during event analysis.

© 2005 Prentice Hall

4-15

16 Types of Actors

Types of Actors

An initiating actor initiates a use case by initiating an external event. Thus, initiating actors provide system inputs. A participating actor is involved in a use case but does not initiate it. Thus, participating actors receive system outputs.

© 2005 Prentice Hall

4-16

17 The Use Case Model

The Use Case Model

A use case diagram for the entire system – a graphic model One or more use case narratives for each use case – descriptions in text high-level expanded In the UML, use cases are part of the User View Model

© 2005 Prentice Hall

4-17

18 Use Case Diagram

Use Case Diagram

.

© 2005 Prentice Hall

4-18

19 Components of a Use Case Diagram

Components of a Use Case Diagram

© 2005 Prentice Hall

4-19

20 Step 3 of Object-Oriented Systems Analysis

Step 3 of Object-Oriented Systems Analysis

Write a use case narrative describing the system’s response to each business event.

© 2005 Prentice Hall

4-20

21 High-Level Use Case Narrative

High-Level Use Case Narrative

.

© 2005 Prentice Hall

4-21

22 Expanded Use Case Narrative

Expanded Use Case Narrative

.

© 2005 Prentice Hall

4-22

23 Parts of an Expanded Use Case Narrative

Parts of an Expanded Use Case Narrative

Use Case Name: Actors: Purpose: Overview: Type: (Essential) Preconditions: Postconditions: Special Requirements: Flow of Events: Actor Action System Response Alternative Flow of Events:

© 2005 Prentice Hall

4-23

24 Terms in an Expanded Use Case Narrative

Terms in an Expanded Use Case Narrative

Precondition: A condition which must be true in order for the use case to begin and produce the desired results. Postcondition: A condition which must be true after the use case has been completed.

© 2005 Prentice Hall

4-24

25 Terms in an Expanded Use Case Narrative (continued)

Terms in an Expanded Use Case Narrative (continued)

Special Requirements: A requirement which is critical to users’ acceptance and use of the system. Alternative Flow of Events: What the system should do in the case of exceptional conditions or errors.

© 2005 Prentice Hall

4-25

26 Associations Between Use Cases

Associations Between Use Cases

The «includes» association always occurs when the use case which includes it occurs.

© 2005 Prentice Hall

4-26

27 Associations Between Use Cases (continued)

Associations Between Use Cases (continued)

The occurrence of an «extends» association depends on a true condition in the use case which it extends.

© 2005 Prentice Hall

4-27

28 Use Case Scenarios

Use Case Scenarios

A use case scenario is a narrative of a single occurrence of a use case. It describes specifics of a real-world enactment of the use case. Use case scenarios can help discover alternative paths through a use case or test the completeness or correctness of a use case narrative.

© 2005 Prentice Hall

4-28

29 Shortcomings of a Use Case Diagram

Shortcomings of a Use Case Diagram

No distinction between an initiating actor and a participating actor in the UML standard Does not show the system input or output No clear indication of the difference between a temporal and an external event

© 2005 Prentice Hall

4-29

30 Step 4 of Object-Oriented Systems Analysis

Step 4 of Object-Oriented Systems Analysis

Draw a system sequence diagram for each use case scenario.

© 2005 Prentice Hall

4-30

31 System Sequence Diagram

System Sequence Diagram

A system sequence diagram shows the interaction between an actor and the system for one use case scenario. It shows: The system (as a black box) The initiating actor Each external system which sends messages to the system The messages into and out of the system The sequence in which the messages occur

© 2005 Prentice Hall

4-31

32 System Sequence Diagram (continued)

System Sequence Diagram (continued)

Note carefully the UML conventions for the arrows and arrowheads.

© 2005 Prentice Hall

4-32

33 System Sequence Diagram (continued)

System Sequence Diagram (continued)

A system sequence diagram focuses on the content and structure of the system input. It should show whether any messages are repeated or are alternatives. A system sequence diagram is not the place to show the design of the detailed interaction between the user and the system.

© 2005 Prentice Hall

4-33

34 Creating a System Sequence Diagram

Creating a System Sequence Diagram

Draw a rectangle representing the system. Label the rectangle and draw a lifeline beneath it. At the left, draw a stick figure for each actor. Label it with the actor’s name and draw a lifeline beneath it.

© 2005 Prentice Hall

4-34

35 Creating a System Sequence Diagram (continued)

Creating a System Sequence Diagram (continued)

For each system input, draw a message arrow from the actor’s lifeline to the system’s lifeline. Label it with the message name and parameters. Confirm that the sequence of messages (from top to bottom) is correct.

© 2005 Prentice Hall

4-35

36 Message Formats in System Sequence Diagrams

Message Formats in System Sequence Diagrams

The UML format for a message consists of a message name followed (in parentheses) by a parameter list. All names begin with a lower-case letter. There are no spaces in a name. Upper-case letters separate the words within a name. Names in the parameter list are separated by commas.

© 2005 Prentice Hall

4-36

37 Outgoing Messages (System Outputs)

Outgoing Messages (System Outputs)

There are two types of outgoing messages: A response of the system which completes an event. A message from the system to an external system requesting action and a reply. Remember that every output must be derivable from the input to the use case combined with stored data.

© 2005 Prentice Hall

4-37

38 Summary

Summary

Step 2 of object-oriented systems analysis identifies the use cases and produces a use case diagram for the system. Step 3 of object-oriented systems analysis writes a use case narrative describing the system’s response to each business event. Step 4 of object-oriented systems analysis draws a system sequence diagram for each use case scenario.

© 2005 Prentice Hall

4-38

«Как сделать на флешку для 4 класса»
http://900igr.net/prezentacija/anglijskij-jazyk/kak-sdelat-na-fleshku-dlja-4-klassa-177469.html
cсылка на страницу

Английская грамматика

28 презентаций об английской грамматике
Урок

Английский язык

29 тем
Слайды