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Cosmic-ray energy spectrum around the knee
Cosmic-ray energy spectrum around the knee
Contents
Contents
Tibet ASgamma experiment (50 TeV - 1017 eV)
Tibet ASgamma experiment (50 TeV - 1017 eV)
Tibet YAC
Tibet YAC
KASCADE experiment 40000 m2 1015-1017 eV
KASCADE experiment 40000 m2 1015-1017 eV
All particle spectrum
All particle spectrum
All-particle spectrum measured by Tibet ASgamma from 1014 ~1017eV (ApJ
All-particle spectrum measured by Tibet ASgamma from 1014 ~1017eV (ApJ
Energy spectrum around the knee measured by many experiments
Energy spectrum around the knee measured by many experiments
Normalized spectrum
Normalized spectrum
A sharp knee is clearly seen (ApJ 678, 1165-1179 (2008))
A sharp knee is clearly seen (ApJ 678, 1165-1179 (2008))
What is the origin of the sharp knee
What is the origin of the sharp knee
Nonlinear effect in DSA process
Nonlinear effect in DSA process
Composition measurement
Composition measurement
KASCADE QGSJET01
KASCADE QGSJET01
KASCADE SIBYLL
KASCADE SIBYLL
KASCADE P,He,CNO
KASCADE P,He,CNO
KASCADE Si, Fe
KASCADE Si, Fe
Proton and Helium by Tibet
Proton and Helium by Tibet
P+He spectrum
P+He spectrum
Model dependence
Model dependence
L3+C muon spectrum compared to MC model
L3+C muon spectrum compared to MC model
Interaction model dependence in Tibet ASgamma experiment (Some
Interaction model dependence in Tibet ASgamma experiment (Some
Comparison of event absolute intensities between Expt
Comparison of event absolute intensities between Expt
LHCf experiment
LHCf experiment
Primary (P+He) spectra obtained by (YAC1+Tibet-III)
Primary (P+He) spectra obtained by (YAC1+Tibet-III)
Our results agree well with direct experiment
Our results agree well with direct experiment
Common results between Tibet and KASCADE
Common results between Tibet and KASCADE
Direct observations
Direct observations
ATIC >200 GeV/n Hardening of the energy spectrum
ATIC >200 GeV/n Hardening of the energy spectrum
CREAM data: P&He spectra are not the same
CREAM data: P&He spectra are not the same
Heavy dominance toward the Knee (TeV spectra are harder than spectra <
Heavy dominance toward the Knee (TeV spectra are harder than spectra <
Spectrum of nuclei by CREAM as a function of energy/particle
Spectrum of nuclei by CREAM as a function of energy/particle
Extrapolation of CREAM data using broken power law cannot fit to the
Extrapolation of CREAM data using broken power law cannot fit to the
Possible knee scenario
Possible knee scenario
Primary electrons
Primary electrons
The ATIC Electron Results Exhibits a “Feature”
The ATIC Electron Results Exhibits a “Feature”
Anomalous positron abundance
Anomalous positron abundance
Fermi-LAT
Fermi-LAT
?
?
Summary
Summary
Tibet data and ATIC/CREAM spectra of nuclei suggests knee is dominated
Tibet data and ATIC/CREAM spectra of nuclei suggests knee is dominated
High Energy cosmic-Radiation Detection (HERD)
High Energy cosmic-Radiation Detection (HERD)
The New Tibet hybrid experiment (YAC+Tibet-III+MD)
The New Tibet hybrid experiment (YAC+Tibet-III+MD)
LHAASO
LHAASO
Thank you for your attention
Thank you for your attention
TRACER
TRACER
KASCADE all particle spectrum
KASCADE all particle spectrum
Highest energy data
Highest energy data
Electron and Positron from Dark Matter Decay
Electron and Positron from Dark Matter Decay
Discriminating scenario A and B
Discriminating scenario A and B

Презентация на тему: «На yac m 2013». Автор: User. Файл: «На yac m 2013.ppt». Размер zip-архива: 10546 КБ.

На yac m 2013

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1 Cosmic-ray energy spectrum around the knee

Cosmic-ray energy spectrum around the knee

J.Huang Institute of high energy physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences China, Beijing 100049.

The 2nd HERD international workshop ( 1-4 December 2013 , IHEP)

2 Contents

Contents

Global and fine structures seen in cosmic-ray energy spectrum Chemical composition of CRs Interaction model dependence in AS exp. Possible interpretation on the knee Enhancement of electron spectrum at several hundred GeV Summary

J.Huang (The 2nd HERD international workshop)

3 Tibet ASgamma experiment (50 TeV - 1017 eV)

Tibet ASgamma experiment (50 TeV - 1017 eV)

YAC

Merit of high altitude

AS array at high altitude (4300m a.s.l.) Tibet-III array:50000m2 with 789 scint. YAC array: 500m2 with 124 scint. MD array: 5000m2 with 5 pools of water Cherenkov muon D.s . Measure:energy spectrum around the knee and chemical composition using sensitivity of air showers to the primary nuclei through detection of high energy AS core.

The 2nd HERD international workshop

4 Tibet YAC

Tibet YAC

array (Yangbajing Air shower Core arary)

J.Huang (The 2nd HERD international workshop)

5 KASCADE experiment 40000 m2 1015-1017 eV

KASCADE experiment 40000 m2 1015-1017 eV

Measure electron and muon size at Karlsruhe, Germany (near sea level). Energy spectra of 5 primary mass groups are obtained from two dimensional Ne-N? spectrum by unfolding method (P,He,CNO,Si,Fe).

6 All particle spectrum

All particle spectrum

Knee at 4 PeV dJ/dE?E-? ?=2.65?3.1

The results agree well between Tibet and KASCADE.

J.Huang (The 2nd HERD international workshop)

7 All-particle spectrum measured by Tibet ASgamma from 1014 ~1017eV (ApJ

All-particle spectrum measured by Tibet ASgamma from 1014 ~1017eV (ApJ

678, 1165-1179 (2008))

J.Huang (The 2nd HERD international workshop)

4.0± 0.1

R1= -2.67± 0.01 R2= -3.10± 0.01

3.8± 0.1

R1= -2.65± 0.01 R2= -3.08± 0.01

4.0± 0.1

R1= -2.67± 0.01 R2= -3.12± 0.01

5/ 31

Model

Knee Position (PeV)

Index of spectrum

QGS.+HD

QGS.+PD

SIB.+HD

7

8 Energy spectrum around the knee measured by many experiments

Energy spectrum around the knee measured by many experiments

Tibet????????????KASCADE????????HEGRA

CASA/MIA????????BASJE???????????Akeno DICE

J. Huang (ISVHECRI2012, Berlin, Germany)

9 Normalized spectrum

Normalized spectrum

J.Huang (The 2nd HERD international workshop)

10 A sharp knee is clearly seen (ApJ 678, 1165-1179 (2008))

A sharp knee is clearly seen (ApJ 678, 1165-1179 (2008))

What is the origin of the sharp knee? There were many models: nearby source, new interaction threshold, etc. In the following, I would introduce our two analyses for the origin of the sharp knee.

J.Huang (The 2nd HERD international workshop)

6/ 31

10

11 What is the origin of the sharp knee

What is the origin of the sharp knee

Cannot be explained by propagation effect (diffusion during long confinement time in the galaxy) Additional component? Astrophysical scenario : nearby source Particle physics scenario : beyond STD model Acceleration mechanism? High acceleration efficiency in diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) leads hard source spectrum at the acceleration limit due to nonlinear effect.

J.Huang (The 2nd HERD international workshop)

12 Nonlinear effect in DSA process

Nonlinear effect in DSA process

Malkov, E. & Drury, L.O.C. 2001, Rep. Prog. Phys. 64, 429 Ptuskin, V.S., & Zirakashvili, V.N., 2006, Adv. Space Res., 37, 1898

Assume source spectrum as

J.Huang (The 2nd HERD international workshop)

Ref . (M.Shibata, J.Huang et al. ) ApJ,716,1076–1083 (2010)

13 Composition measurement

Composition measurement

Sensitivities to the primary chemical composition used in AS exp. are:

Ne-N? correlation -- ?rich showers are induced by heavy primary (traditional method) Detection of high energy core selects AS induced by light elements (P,He) -- Tibet Xmax -- fluorescence technique at VHE Model dependence comes from and .

J.Huang (The 2nd HERD international workshop)

14 KASCADE QGSJET01

KASCADE QGSJET01

J.Huang (The 2nd HERD international workshop)

15 KASCADE SIBYLL

KASCADE SIBYLL

16 KASCADE P,He,CNO

KASCADE P,He,CNO

compared with direct observations

J.Huang (The 2nd HERD international workshop)

17 KASCADE Si, Fe

KASCADE Si, Fe

compared with direct observations

J.Huang (The 2nd HERD international workshop)

18 Proton and Helium by Tibet

Proton and Helium by Tibet

QGSJET

All

All

P

He

SIBYLL

All

All

He

P

19 P+He spectrum

P+He spectrum

J.Huang (The 2nd HERD international workshop)

20 Model dependence

Model dependence

Tibet concludes : “Knee is dominated by nuclei heavier than helium.

Tibet?30%

All

All

He

P

KASCADE : QGSJET analysis : helium dominance SIBYLL analysis : CNO dominance

KASCADE?twice

All

All

P

He

21 L3+C muon spectrum compared to MC model

L3+C muon spectrum compared to MC model

22 Interaction model dependence in Tibet ASgamma experiment (Some

Interaction model dependence in Tibet ASgamma experiment (Some

preliminary results from YAC1 data samples)

1) The shape of the distributions of sumNb are consistent between the YAC-I data and simulation data in all four cases, indicating that form *10TeV to 1800 TeV, the particle production spectrum of QGSJET2 and SIBYLL2.1 may correctly reflect the reality within our experimental systematic uncertainty of a level about 10%.

J.Huang (The 2nd HERD international workshop)

23 Comparison of event absolute intensities between Expt

Comparison of event absolute intensities between Expt

and MC

J.Huang (The 2nd HERD international workshop)

24 LHCf experiment

LHCf experiment

25 Primary (P+He) spectra obtained by (YAC1+Tibet-III)

Primary (P+He) spectra obtained by (YAC1+Tibet-III)

Most new interaction models (EPOS-LHC, QGSJETII-04 ) has been used !

The interaction model dependence is less than 25% in absolute intensity, and the composition model dependence is less than 10% in absolute intensity.

(P+He) “ knee”: 400TeV

26 Our results agree well with direct experiment

Our results agree well with direct experiment

Preliminary

(P+He) “ knee”: 400TeV

27 Common results between Tibet and KASCADE

Common results between Tibet and KASCADE

Knee is located at 4 PeV. (?=2.65?3.1) Steep spectrum of protons at the knee (protons are not the majority). Fraction of heavy nuclei increases with increasing energy.

J.Huang (The 2nd HERD international workshop)

28 Direct observations

Direct observations

Cosmic ray energy spectrum below the knee has been considered to follow simple power law. Recently, hardening of the spectrum has been reported by ATIC and CREAM @ 200 GeV/n.

J.Huang (The 2nd HERD international workshop)

29 ATIC >200 GeV/n Hardening of the energy spectrum

ATIC >200 GeV/n Hardening of the energy spectrum

A.D.Panov et al., Arxiv:astro-ph/0612377v1 (2006)

J.Huang (The 2nd HERD international workshop)

30 CREAM data: P&He spectra are not the same

CREAM data: P&He spectra are not the same

CREAM suggests that: 1) Their fluxes are significantly higher than the extrapolation of a single-power law fit to the low energy spectra. 2) Different types of sources or acceleration mechanisms? (e.g., Biermann, P.L. A&A, 271, 649, 1993)

He ?He=2.58±0.02

P ?p= 2.66 ±0.02

H.S.Ahn et al., ( CREAM collaboration )ApJ, 714, L89, (2010)

31 Heavy dominance toward the Knee (TeV spectra are harder than spectra <

Heavy dominance toward the Knee (TeV spectra are harder than spectra <

200 GeV/n)

ATIC

CREAM

A.D.Panov et al., Arxiv:astro-ph/0612377v1 (2006)

H.S.Ahn et al., ApJ, 714, L93 (2009)

32 Spectrum of nuclei by CREAM as a function of energy/particle

Spectrum of nuclei by CREAM as a function of energy/particle

Simple extrapolation does not work to fit the knee energy region. Change of power index is required for all elements again.

J.Huang (The 2nd HERD international workshop)

33 Extrapolation of CREAM data using broken power law cannot fit to the

Extrapolation of CREAM data using broken power law cannot fit to the

sharp knee

Need extra component

Assumptions: Eb(p)=300 TeV, Rigidity dependence of break point for nuclei, Eb(Z)=Zx300 TeV ??=0.4

J.Huang (The 2nd HERD international workshop)

34 Possible knee scenario

Possible knee scenario

Scenario?A

Scenario?B

Nearby src?

J.Huang (The 2nd HERD international workshop)

Hard src spect?

35 Primary electrons

Primary electrons

High energy electrons cannot travel long distance due to their energy loss proportional to E2. The energy spectrum can show the contribution of nearby sources (say ~1kpc) or new physics such as dark matter decay or beyond STD model. ATIC, Pamela, Fermi-LAT, H.E.S.S.

J.Huang (The 2nd HERD international workshop)

36 The ATIC Electron Results Exhibits a “Feature”

The ATIC Electron Results Exhibits a “Feature”

J.Chang et al, Nature, 456,362,(2008)

Possible candidate local sources would include supernova remnants (SNR), pulsar wind nebulae (PWN) and micro-quasars.

J.Huang (The 2nd HERD international workshop)

37 Anomalous positron abundance

Anomalous positron abundance

V.Mikhailov et al.ESCR 2010, Turku, 3 August

O.Adriani et al., Nature, 458,607(2009)

38 Fermi-LAT

Fermi-LAT

39 ?

?

Relation between Fermi e± and extra component at the knee?

PeV nuclei + target ? ?10 TeV/n) ?0 ? ?100GeV e± This may be quite possible scenario.

J.Huang (The 2nd HERD international workshop)

(W.Bednarek and R.J.Protheroe ,2002,APh)

40 Summary

Summary

Knee is located at 4 PeV exhibiting sharp structure with ??=0.4±0.1 Disagreement of chemical composition between KASCADE and Tibet is due to strong interaction model dependence of Air Shower MC which is larger in KASCADE experiment. Extrapolation of CREAM data using simple broken power law formula cannot fit to the AS data at the knee.

J.Huang (The 2nd HERD international workshop)

41 Tibet data and ATIC/CREAM spectra of nuclei suggests knee is dominated

Tibet data and ATIC/CREAM spectra of nuclei suggests knee is dominated

by heavy nuclei, which can be attributed to nearby source dominated by heavy element (Pulsar?) or hard cosmic-ray source spectrum. Enhancement of electron spectrum at hundreds GeV range might be correlated with the structure of cosmic-ray spectrum. --- possible contribution of nearby sources? Further study of the chemical composition up to the knee and beyond is necessary to solve the problem. ? HERD plan and indirect observations (Tibet ASgamma, KASCADE-G, LHAASO, Grapes, TA-TAIL).

42 High Energy cosmic-Radiation Detection (HERD)

High Energy cosmic-Radiation Detection (HERD)

Proton

Helium

Expected HERD ( 2 yr) results :

C

(Please see Dr. Xu Ming’s talk)

Iron

43 The New Tibet hybrid experiment (YAC+Tibet-III+MD)

The New Tibet hybrid experiment (YAC+Tibet-III+MD)

44 LHAASO

LHAASO

(Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory)

45 Thank you for your attention

Thank you for your attention

46 TRACER

TRACER

M.Ave et al., ApJ, 678, 262 (2008)

47 KASCADE all particle spectrum

KASCADE all particle spectrum

48 Highest energy data

Highest energy data

49 Electron and Positron from Dark Matter Decay

Electron and Positron from Dark Matter Decay

Decay Mode: D.M. -> l+l-? Mass: MD.M.=2.5TeV Decay Time: ?D.M. = 2.1x1026 s

Observation in the trans-TeV region ?????Dark Matter signal

Expected e-+e+ energy spectrum by CALET observation

Expected e+/(e-+e+) ratio by a theory and the observed data

Ibarra et al. (2010)

July 21, 2010

49

50 Discriminating scenario A and B

Discriminating scenario A and B

A : Find candidate of nearby source. B : Does break point show rigidity dependence? Chemical composition after the knee: A : becomes lighter between 1016 and 1017 eV. KASCADE-GRANDE claimed second knee at 8x1016 eV. B : Heavy dominance up to the maximum energy of GCR.

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