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Postcolonial Shakespeare
Postcolonial Shakespeare
Structure
Structure
Postcolonial Studies
Postcolonial Studies
Postcolonial Studies
Postcolonial Studies
Key Texts
Key Texts
1952
1952
Criticism
Criticism
Postcolonial Shakespeare
Postcolonial Shakespeare
Othello (1603)
Othello (1603)
Cyprus
Cyprus
Film versions
Film versions
Othello
Othello
Othello
Othello
Desdemona
Desdemona
Iago
Iago
The Tempest (1611)
The Tempest (1611)
Prospero
Prospero
Caliban
Caliban
Ariel
Ariel
Conclusion
Conclusion
Recommended Readings
Recommended Readings

: Postcolonial Shakespeare. : ?gnes. : Postcolonial Shakespeare.pptx. zip-: 554 .

Postcolonial Shakespeare

Postcolonial Shakespeare.pptx
1 Postcolonial Shakespeare

Postcolonial Shakespeare

Gy?rke ?gnes gyorke.agnes@arts.unideb.hu

2 Structure

Structure

What is postcolonialism? Why do we need to rethink Shakespeare from the perspective of postcolonial studies? A postcolonial reading of Othello A postcolonial reading of The Tempest

3 Postcolonial Studies

Postcolonial Studies

A critical approach that takes ideological, political and economical implications into account Its main assumption: literary works should not only be judged on the basis of their aesthetic value; their ideological implications should also be taken into account Literature does not simply reflect reality, it also produces what we assume to be real The term postcolonial: does not only refer to the period after colonialism, it is also a critical and theoretical framework? postcolonial readings of Dante, Shakespeare, etc. ? a theoretical approach that challenges the ideology of colonisation and the stereotypes produced by the colonial discourse

4 Postcolonial Studies

Postcolonial Studies

The idea of cultural superiortiy The colonised is imagined as an exotic and dangerous Other; the European Self is seen as culturally superior The idea of cultural superiority justified the civilising mission (the Other as barbarian, uneducated, etc. ? the antithesis of the Western Self ) The Tempest is one of the basic texts of postcolonial studies: Prospero makes the island his own? the allegory of colonisation

5 Key Texts

Key Texts

Octave Mannoni: Prospero and Caliban: The Psychology of Colonization. (1950)

6 1952

1952

Key Texts

1977

7 Criticism

Criticism

Emily Bartels (1997): postcolonial criticism emphasises the role of European domination and the exploitation to such an extent that we might assume that the very same inequalities existed in Shakespeares time

8 Postcolonial Shakespeare

Postcolonial Shakespeare

The age of discovery (a period of global exploration between the 15th and the 18th centuries) Colonisation of North America: Jameston, the first English colony, 14 May 1607. William Kelso (archeologist): Jamestown is where the British Empire began. The Tempest: 1611.

9 Othello (1603)

Othello (1603)

Setting? Historical background: Ottoman-Venetian war (1570-73) Source: Giraldi Cinthio, Gli Hecatommithi (1565) Richard Knolles, The History of the Turks (published in England in 1603) First performed: Kings Men, 1 November 1604

Shakespeare Theatre Company, rendezte Michael Kahn, 2005

10 Cyprus

Cyprus

11 Film versions

Film versions

1952, dir. Orson Welles (Othello: Orson Welles) 1995, dir. Oliver Parker (Othello: Laurence Fishburne) Opening scenes

12 Othello

Othello

Why is he called the Moor of Venice? Is his portrayal stereotypical? What does Brabantio accuse him of in act 1? How does the Duke of Venice relate to him? Is he also prejudiced?

Laurence Fishburne, 1995

13 Othello

Othello

In what sense is he an outsider in Venice? Do you see him as a selfish, irrational character, or is his rage justified? How is his jealousy portrayed? Do you see him as Iagos puppet? Can the reader/spectator forgive him the way Desdemona does at the end?

14 Desdemona

Desdemona

Irene Jacob, 1995

Does she embody the conventions of the Renaissance? Is she a submissive figure? How does she address her father in act 1, scene 3? How would you describe her relationship with Emilia?

15 Iago

Iago

Kenneth Branagh, 1995

What motivates him? Why does he hate Othello? How does he manage to achieve his aim? How does he make Othello vulnerable? Is he a stereotypical character? Can you forgive him? A satanic figure; influenced Salman Rushdies The Satanic Verses

16 The Tempest (1611)

The Tempest (1611)

John William Waterhouse, Miranda (1875)

Set on a nameless island Historical context: draws on travel literature, most notably the accounts of a tempest off the Bermudas that nearly wrecked a fleet of colonial ships sailing from Plymouth to Virginia. Yet the plot is original. Possibly: influenced by Montaignes essay Of the Cannibals (translated to English in 1603)

17 Prospero

Prospero

Earlier readings: Prospero embodies the ideals of Renaissance humanism Possesses a timeless, eternal truth Postcolonial reading: the allegory of colonisation Exercises power over Caliban and Ariel

Christopher Plummer, 2010 Stratford Shakespeare Festival

18 Caliban

Caliban

The Other, the barbarian, vs. the European humanist ideal Animalistic, sexually rapacious (tries to rape Miranda) His name: cannibal Yet: the victim of Prosperos oppression

Stratford Festival, Dion Johnstone

19 Ariel

Ariel

Also serves Prospero Less often analysed The French writer Aim? C?sarie portrays Ariel as a mulatto (A Tempest, 1969; adaptation, relies on the postcolonial perspective) Magic, exoticism? often appear as traits of The Other Comparative readings: while Caliban rebels Ariel seeks compromise

John Everett Millais, Ferdinand Lured by Ariel 1852

20 Conclusion

Conclusion

Postcolonial readings offer an insight into cultural stereotypes in literary works They challenge the opposition between pure high literature and ideologically inspired literature They make us reconsider our own position as readers/spectators

21 Recommended Readings

Recommended Readings

Loomba, Ania. Shakespeare, Race, and Colonialism. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2002. Loomba, Ania and Martin Orkin. Post-Colonial Shakespeares. London: Routledge, 1998. Roux, Daniel. Hybridity, Othello and the Postcolonial Critics. Shakespeare in Southern Africa 21. (2009): 23-29. Skura, Meredith Anne. Discourse and the Individual: The Case of Colonialism in The Tempest. Shakespeare Quarterly 40.1 (1989): 42-69. Willis, Deborah. Shakespeares Tempest and the Discourse of Colonialism. Studies in English Literature 1500-1900. 29.2 (1989): 277-289.

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