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The Power of Writing: The Importance of Writing in EFL
The Power of Writing: The Importance of Writing in EFL
Writing: The Neglected Skill in EFL
Writing: The Neglected Skill in EFL
Why Include Writing
Why Include Writing
Why Include Writing
Why Include Writing
Reading and Writing: Complementary Skills and Practices
Reading and Writing: Complementary Skills and Practices
Some Guiding Principles
Some Guiding Principles
Writing as a Thinking Process
Writing as a Thinking Process
Writing as Output
Writing as Output
Writing to Build Fluency
Writing to Build Fluency
Writing to Promote Accuracy Grammar, Vocabulary, Mechanics
Writing to Promote Accuracy Grammar, Vocabulary, Mechanics
Fluency or Accuracy: Not Both
Fluency or Accuracy: Not Both
Collaborative Writing
Collaborative Writing
Getting Started: Writing with Beginners
Getting Started: Writing with Beginners
A Photo-Autobiography
A Photo-Autobiography
Other Writing Activities for Beginners
Other Writing Activities for Beginners
Moving to More Complex Academic Writing
Moving to More Complex Academic Writing
Academic Writing: External Memory
Academic Writing: External Memory
Writing as External Memory
Writing as External Memory
CREATING EFFECTIVE WRITING TASKS: FAT-P
CREATING EFFECTIVE WRITING TASKS: FAT-P
Adapting Writing Adapting any part of FAT-P
Adapting Writing Adapting any part of FAT-P
Making Writing More Creative and Fun
Making Writing More Creative and Fun
Creative Learner Poetry
Creative Learner Poetry
The Role of Literature
The Role of Literature
Cultural Considerations
Cultural Considerations
Writing: Too Powerful to Ignore
Writing: Too Powerful to Ignore

Презентация на тему: «Ромео джульетта прокофьев сделать». Автор: Beverly Bickel. Файл: «Ромео джульетта прокофьев сделать.ppt». Размер zip-архива: 315 КБ.

Ромео джульетта прокофьев сделать

содержание презентации «Ромео джульетта прокофьев сделать.ppt»
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1 The Power of Writing: The Importance of Writing in EFL

The Power of Writing: The Importance of Writing in EFL

Dr. JoAnn (Jodi) Crandall University of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC) crandall@umbc.edu TESOL Arabia 2006

2 Writing: The Neglected Skill in EFL

Writing: The Neglected Skill in EFL

“My classes are too large.” “I don’t have enough time for writing.” “What can beginners write about?” “I’m not a good writer. How can I teach writing?”

3 Why Include Writing

Why Include Writing

Writing is: a form of output a means of building fluency a way of developing accuracy (in grammar, vocabulary, etc.)

4 Why Include Writing

Why Include Writing

Writing is: thinking made evident external memory a critical skill for academic or professional success a source of input - reading materials at the learners’ proficiency level

5 Reading and Writing: Complementary Skills and Practices

Reading and Writing: Complementary Skills and Practices

We learn to read by reading, and We learn to write by writing. But We also learn to read by writing, and We learn to write by reading.

6 Some Guiding Principles

Some Guiding Principles

Writing: is a way to demonstrate proficiency helps us discover what we do or do not know is a process (not everything needs to be graded) is more than a paragraph or essay conventions differ cross-culturally can be collaborative

7 Writing as a Thinking Process

Writing as a Thinking Process

Writing is thinking made evident. Writing allows us to analyze and expand on what we know. Writing promotes meta-cognition.

8 Writing as Output

Writing as Output

Demonstration of what we know, implicitly or explicitly Opportunity for negotiation of meaning through peer interaction – at every stage of the writing process

9 Writing to Build Fluency

Writing to Build Fluency

Low-risk way to draw upon implicit knowledge Journals or Logs Pen or Key Pals Free-writing or Quickwrites Informal Writing: emails, blogs, discussion boards

10 Writing to Promote Accuracy Grammar, Vocabulary, Mechanics

Writing to Promote Accuracy Grammar, Vocabulary, Mechanics

Writing & grammar Reading & vocabulary Opportunity for: Monitoring/Need for appropriate form Focus on form/Noticing gaps Contextualized instruction Targeted feedback

11 Fluency or Accuracy: Not Both

Fluency or Accuracy: Not Both

Important to focus on EITHER Fluency OR Accuracy Fluency: focus on meaning, use of implicit learning, risk-taking Accuracy: focus on form, use of explicit (monitored) learning, care Focus on Fluency AND Accuracy only after practice with both.

12 Collaborative Writing

Collaborative Writing

Writing does NOT need to be a solitary act. Any stage in the writing process can be collaborative (pre-writing, drafting, reviewing, revising, editing, publishing) Collaboration: Provides opportunity for meaningful communication Promotes meta-cognition and meta-discussion of writing (and language)

13 Getting Started: Writing with Beginners

Getting Started: Writing with Beginners

Using pictures that surprise, startle, etc. Labeling/Describing Captioning and headlining Narrating a story What led to picture? What happens next? Creating dialogue Explaining cause, comparing, etc.

14 A Photo-Autobiography

A Photo-Autobiography

Learner-generated autobiography Based on pictures learner takes Can be powerful source of reading material for other students With digital cameras and web pages, can be published electronically

15 Other Writing Activities for Beginners

Other Writing Activities for Beginners

Language experience “stories” Document literacy – practical writing Simple emails, letters, etc. Completion of frames (e.g. “About me”)

16 Moving to More Complex Academic Writing

Moving to More Complex Academic Writing

Focus is on final product(s) Group projects Homelessness project Task-based writing Letter to editor, academic poster, etc. Paragraphs, essays, reports

17 Academic Writing: External Memory

Academic Writing: External Memory

Note-taking Organizing information Completing Learning Logs Responding to readings Summarizing texts

18 Writing as External Memory

Writing as External Memory

“When I speak and I’m making a lot of mistakes … they’re gone. I can’t see it. But when I am writing and somebody corrects me, I can see my mistakes and I can learn from them. Usually, if I have a problem in grammar, I can learn from my mistakes. So that’s the moment to learn grammar, through the context.” (Jaime C.)

19 CREATING EFFECTIVE WRITING TASKS: FAT-P

CREATING EFFECTIVE WRITING TASKS: FAT-P

Any writing assignment needs to have: F – Form (letter, email, summary, report, etc.) A – Audience T – Topic P – Purpose (describe, explain, persuade, etc.)

20 Adapting Writing Adapting any part of FAT-P

Adapting Writing Adapting any part of FAT-P

Can decrease or increase language level/ complexity by changing any part of FAT-P: Audience: Romeo and Juliet for “our little brothers and sisters” Purpose: Cliff Notes version of a summary Form: E-mail directions for an assignment Topic: Give one reason why …

21 Making Writing More Creative and Fun

Making Writing More Creative and Fun

Poetry Learner English as “poetic” Creative violation of language expectations Poetry Frames Haiku, Cinquain, Diamantes Shape Poems

22 Creative Learner Poetry

Creative Learner Poetry

Many animals Are suffering by the man I think don’t do that

23 The Role of Literature

The Role of Literature

Stimulus for discussion and writing Model for writing Source of interesting and meaningful input/Reading-writing link Focus for meaningful output “Window” to culture

24 Cultural Considerations

Cultural Considerations

Intercultural differences in writing expectations Intercultural/contrastive rhetoric Reader- or writer-responsible prose Direct or indirect? Explicit or implied?

25 Writing: Too Powerful to Ignore

Writing: Too Powerful to Ignore

Even with large classes, limited time, students with limited language proficiency, insecurity about one’s own writing: It is still possible and critically important to include writing in EFL

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