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Skills development in the study of history
Skills development in the study of history
The Atlantic slave trade exemplar National 3  Higher
The Atlantic slave trade exemplar National 3 Higher
The Atlantic slave trade exemplar National 3  Higher
The Atlantic slave trade exemplar National 3 Higher
Recording information
Recording information
Recording information
Recording information
Recording information
Recording information
Recording information
Recording information
List of activities
List of activities
Group or pair discussion: stimulus questions
Group or pair discussion: stimulus questions
Group or pair discussion: stimulus questions
Group or pair discussion: stimulus questions
Group or pair discussion: stimulus questions
Group or pair discussion: stimulus questions
Group or pair discussion: stimulus questions
Group or pair discussion: stimulus questions
Fish diagram
Fish diagram
Fish diagram
Fish diagram
Fish diagram
Fish diagram
Fish diagram
Fish diagram
Discussion questions with a report
Discussion questions with a report
Discussion questions with a report
Discussion questions with a report
Discussion questions with a report
Discussion questions with a report
Discussion questions with a report
Discussion questions with a report
Discussion questions with a report
Discussion questions with a report
Discussion questions with a report
Discussion questions with a report
Source analysis with a report
Source analysis with a report
Source analysis with a report
Source analysis with a report
Source analysis with a report
Source analysis with a report
Source questions with a report
Source questions with a report
Source analysis with a report
Source analysis with a report
Source questions with a report
Source questions with a report
Source questions with a report
Source questions with a report
Source questions with a report
Source questions with a report
Collage
Collage
Collage
Collage
Collage
Collage
Resistance
Resistance
Collage
Collage
Conversion
Conversion
Conversion
Conversion
Conversion
Conversion
Conversion
Conversion
Perfect answer
Perfect answer
Perfect answer
Perfect answer
Perfect answer
Perfect answer
Perfect answer
Perfect answer
Filling in the gaps
Filling in the gaps
Filling in the gaps
Filling in the gaps
Filling in the gaps
Filling in the gaps
Filling in the gaps
Filling in the gaps
Filling in the gaps
Filling in the gaps
Paraphrasing
Paraphrasing
Paraphrasing
Paraphrasing
Paraphrasing
Paraphrasing
Paraphrasing
Paraphrasing
Paraphrasing
Paraphrasing
Summarising
Summarising
Summarising
Summarising
Summarising
Summarising
Summarising
Summarising
Summarising
Summarising
Thinking skills grid
Thinking skills grid
Thinking skills grid
Thinking skills grid
Interesting response (What have I found interesting about this topic
Interesting response (What have I found interesting about this topic
Slaves were treated as cargo
Slaves were treated as cargo
Thinking skills grid
Thinking skills grid
Thinking skills grid
Thinking skills grid
Skimming
Skimming
Skimming
Skimming
Skimming
Skimming
Scanning
Scanning
Scanning
Scanning
Scanning
Scanning
Sequencing
Sequencing
Sequencing
Sequencing
Sequencing
Sequencing
Sequencing
Sequencing
Sequencing
Sequencing
Sequencing
Sequencing
Sequencing
Sequencing
Odd one out
Odd one out
Odd one out
Odd one out
Odd one out
Odd one out
Odd one out
Odd one out
Odd one out
Odd one out
Exchanging viewpoints
Exchanging viewpoints
Exchanging viewpoints
Exchanging viewpoints
Exchanging viewpoints
Exchanging viewpoints
Should the slave trade be made illegal
Should the slave trade be made illegal
Exchanging viewpoints
Exchanging viewpoints
Interrogation (also called hot seating)
Interrogation (also called hot seating)
Interrogation (also called hot seating)
Interrogation (also called hot seating)
Interrogation (also called hot seating)
Interrogation (also called hot seating)
Interrogation (also called hot seating)
Interrogation (also called hot seating)
Jigsaw
Jigsaw
Jigsaw
Jigsaw
Jigsaw
Jigsaw

: Skills development in the study of history. : Education Scotland. : Skills development in the study of history.ppt. zip-: 860 .

Skills development in the study of history

Skills development in the study of history.ppt
1 Skills development in the study of history

Skills development in the study of history

The Atlantic slave trade exemplar

Analysing and applying

The approaches contained within these materials are for exemplification purposes only. Practitioners should adapt these to suit the needs of their learners. Practitioners should refer to SQA documentation at all times. Practitioners are encouraged to share good practice by contacting Education Scotland through customer services.

2 The Atlantic slave trade exemplar National 3  Higher

The Atlantic slave trade exemplar National 3 Higher

This exemplar should be read in conjunction with Section 1: Introductory advice and guidance. These examples are adaptable and will help to stimulate further development of approaches to learning and teaching. None of the presentations included in this support are designed to be used with learners in their current form. The presentations provide advice, guidance and exemplars for practitioners to reflect on in their own planning for learning and teaching, and if used should be adapted to suit the learners and setting.

3 The Atlantic slave trade exemplar National 3  Higher

The Atlantic slave trade exemplar National 3 Higher

Practitioners should always refer to the relevant SQA documentation when creating materials so as to include material for all relevant skills and knowledge. As the approaches are transferable across the study of any historical unit due to the focus on the pathways to develop skills, this could be an opportunity for practitioners to share their skills with other practitioners in the delivery of history by leading CPD sessions for colleagues. Practitioners could also use this opportunity to share and develop skills in interdisciplinary and intersector contexts, eg through Glow Meets etc.

4 Recording information

Recording information

There are a number of traditional ways to record the information, such as jotters, diary entries, posters, postcards, collages etc. Where possible ICT can support the recording of information for most of the following activities in a number of new, interesting and exciting ways: Blogs Glowblogs offer an excellent way to record information. The learners could take turns updating the blog with information or they could each run their own blog. Wordpress may be an option for those without access to Glow. Podcasts Podcasts provide learners with a platform that can reach thousands. They can aid the development of literacy skills and provide feedback from people outwith the school environment. Audacity is an excellent piece of software for this purpose.

5 Recording information

Recording information

Emodo profile This secure social networking site for practitioners and learners offers a familiar-looking site for learners to update. Practitioners could ask learners to pretend to be someone highlighting the journey of a slave over a period of weeks. Emails Collaborating with another school, learners can exchange emails with details about the information they have learned. Different schools could research the story of different slaves and exchange their results at the end of every week, including interesting facts or stories about the slaves journey etc. Powerpoint, Prezi and smartboard presentations Learners will be familiar with PowerPoint. Creating their own requires planning and an understanding of the sequence of their information.

6 Recording information

Recording information

Twitter Practitioners may wish to explore the idea of learners writing in the style of a tweet. Twitters 140-character limit presents a challenge for learners. It is a good method for summarising learning. Practitioners should exercise professional judgement prior to engaging with any social media platform. Video Learners can film themselves role-playing a scene, as news reporters, characters from the period of study, modern historians evaluating the past etc. Talking heads Learners can record themselves acting as the talking head of a character, answering questions about the period they lived in. Infographics Infographics are also worth exploring. Piktochart is one of many online web applications that allows learners to create infographics easily.

7 Recording information

Recording information

Video games There are now many games that offer a level of creativity in exploring new ways to record information. Little Big Planet provides creative opportunities for interactive information presentation, and some excellent examples can be found on video-sharing websites. Minecraft This is another creative platform for learners to use to interact with history. It has been used by practitioners to build medieval villages (after lesson planning) and could be used to build plantations, a slave galley, recreations of the buildings the tobacco lords built and other scenes from the period. Photographs Digital cameras have made it easy to quickly take photos, and they offer a great opportunity for recording evidence in the classroom (and outside).

8 List of activities

List of activities

Group or pair discussion Fish diagram Discussion questions with a report Collage Conversion Perfect answer Filling in the gaps Paraphrasing Summarising Thinking skills grid Skimming Scanning Sequencing Odd one out Exchanging viewpoints Jigsaw

9 Group or pair discussion: stimulus questions

Group or pair discussion: stimulus questions

Overview This activity encourages learners to think about questions that may lead to a particular answer and share them with their peers. It has the potential to challenge learners, who may think creatively about possible alternative questions, and encourages thinking about different interpretations and understandings within the support of a peer group. Skills Remembering Understanding Applying

10 Group or pair discussion: stimulus questions

Group or pair discussion: stimulus questions

How it works Learners are given high-level open questions. Learners are encouraged to think of as many answers as possible. Learners then share their answers with their peers. Learners can discuss, with their peers, the answers they have come up with and justify how they arrived at a particular answer.

11 Group or pair discussion: stimulus questions

Group or pair discussion: stimulus questions

Questions Do you think racism increased or decreased with the widespread use of slavery? What were the humanitarian concerns over slavery? Why was widespread support for abolition of slavery slow in materialising? To what extent did religion play a part in the development of the slave trade? How did the trade affect Africa as a continent?

12 Group or pair discussion: stimulus questions

Group or pair discussion: stimulus questions

Recording information If practitioners maintain a Twitter account for learning and teaching purposes, they may wish to tweet learner responses. This could be one possible way to record information from this activity. Discussion around the questions could be recorded as a podcast.

13 Fish diagram

Fish diagram

Overview This activity encourages learners to think about the causes of questions. This offers learners the opportunity to investigate the reasons we have particular questions and offer alternative answers/approaches. It has the potential to challenge learners, who may think creatively about possible alternative questions, and encourages thinking about different interpretations and understandings. Skills Remembering Understanding Applying Creativity

14 Fish diagram

Fish diagram

How it works Learners use the fish diagram to add their reasons in the Reason 14 boxes along the fins. They then fill in any additional information about these reasons in the lines leading to the centre, for example they could write racist attitudes along the fins and then explain why people fear death on the Details lines.

15 Fish diagram

Fish diagram

What were the reasons behind the growth of the slave trade?

Believed Africans were inferior to Whites

Labour needed for New World development

eg David Hume Darwin also used

Christians believed Africans were heathens

Felt Africans needed 'saving'

Native Indians poor slaves; criminals had finite contracts

Slave factories set up

African tribes raided inland for slaves (to profit)

16 Fish diagram

Fish diagram

Recording information This activity could be recorded on a PowerPoint, a smartboard, a poster, a whiteboard or in a general paint program.

17 Discussion questions with a report

Discussion questions with a report

Overview This activity encourages learners to think about questions that may lead to a particular answer, share them with their peers and create a report for others to learn from. It has the potential to challenge learners, who may think creatively about possible alternative questions, and encourages thinking about different interpretations and understandings within the support of a peer group, with the ultimate focus being on the report. Skills Remembering Understanding Applying Creating

18 Discussion questions with a report

Discussion questions with a report

How it works Learners are given a series of leading questions which enable them to develop their understanding of a topic from simple observations to more high-level questioning and hopefully reflective learning. Learners produce a draft report for the class.

19 Discussion questions with a report

Discussion questions with a report

Consider the following questions, discuss your ideas with a partner/group and use this information to draft a report. Why did certain goods became more popular as a result of the slave trade? Who benefitted from the trading of these goods? In what ways did the sales of tobacco and sugar change Scotland? Draft a report on the question: 'From 1707 to 1766 fewer than 30 direct slave voyages left Scotland, therefore the economic impact of the slave trade on Scotland was minimal.' How accurate is this view?

20 Discussion questions with a report

Discussion questions with a report

Consider the following questions, discuss your ideas with a partner/group and use this information to draft a report. How did one race of people come to believe that it was right to enslave another and to profit from their unpaid labour? What effects did creating a racial slave system have on those who owned slaves? Why did those who were enslaved rarely use violence to resist their oppression? In what ways did slaves attempt to create families and their own cultures and societies in the face of such violent oppression? Draft a report on the question: What led many in British society to conclude that the slave trade was wrong?

21 Discussion questions with a report

Discussion questions with a report

Extension/alternative ideas Learners could create their own questions for discussing a wider topic, pinpointing areas that need to be studied to fully answer the question. These could be put to their peers. Learners could also, on completion of an essay, work backwards to provide the questions that they had to answer to reach their conclusions.

22 Discussion questions with a report

Discussion questions with a report

Recording information Using a Twitter-style 140-character limit to summarise answers to the initial questions can be effective, as can recording the discussion on tape or video. The report can be written and posted on a blog for learners to view each others different writing techniques and standards.

23 Source analysis with a report

Source analysis with a report

Overview This activity encourages learners to think about questions that relate to sources, share them with their peers and create a report for others to learn from. It has the potential to challenge learners, who may think creatively about possible alternative questions, and encourages thinking about different interpretations and understandings within the support of a peer group with the ultimate focus being on the report. Skills Remembering Understanding Applying Creating

24 Source analysis with a report

Source analysis with a report

How it works Learners are given a source to examine. They are then given a series of leading questions which enable them to develop their viewpoints on the source from simple observations to more high-level questioning and hopefully reflective learning. Sources should be differentiated for the different levels of ability in the class. Learners produce a draft report for the class.

25 Source analysis with a report

Source analysis with a report

Source A is a passage drawn from Jean Barbot, Barbot on Guinea: The Writings of Jean Barbot on West Africa 1678-1712. (This source was chosen by Simon Newman, Professor of American Studies at the University of Glasgow.) 'Among the Moors are persons engaged in various occupations, those at the coasts being mostly merchants, fishermen, goldsmiths, canoe-men, house-builders, salt-makers, roofers, farmers, potters, porters, etc. Each is engaged in his occupation in order to gain a livelihood and even to become rich, since nowadays, having studied us Europeans, they are as ambitious and greedy as formerly they were simple and content with the necessities of life, not even being acquainted with the use of clothes. Of all their occupations, that of the merchant is the most honourable. The agents and merchants usually come out to the ships in small, neat canoes paddled by two Moors, they themselves sitting in the middle on a little wooden stool and having beside [each of] them a cutlass, a pipe and a small reed basket to contain whatever they buy on the ship... Those who buy on their own account do not usually sell the goods again until the ships have left, in order to make more gain. They also make much profit on the goods they buy for others, since they hand over the goods to them at a much higher price than they gave for them, or else they hand over short weight... These Moorish merchants do not trade only in gold but also in slaves, whom they bring to the ships in fairly large numbers when there are wars. But in peacetime, as was the case on the whole Gold Coast in 1682, there is little trade in these and they are very dear... Hardly ever is ivory traded, because such ivory as they have there comes from far inland or from Quaqua or Congo, and because they use it for trumpets, bracelets, and other things they make and use, which means that ivory is dear there. Hardly any wax is available, since they employ it to make candles (whose use they have known for some time).'

26 Source questions with a report

Source questions with a report

What is this source describing? When was it written? Why do you think Jean Barbot wrote this book? What is Jean Barbots attitude towards Africans on the West Coast? How economically important is slavery for the average trader on the West Coast?

27 Source analysis with a report

Source analysis with a report

Source B is a passage drawn from William Smith, A New Voyage to Guinea: Describing The Customs, Manners, Soil, Climate, Habits, Buildings, Education, Manual Arts, Agriculture, Trade, Employments, Langauges, Ranks of Distinction, Habitations, Diversions, Marriages, and whatever else is memorable among the Inhabitants, 1745. (This source was chosen by Simon Newman, Professor of American Studies at the University of Glasgow.) 'The Negroe Town of Cape Coast [British trading headquarters] is very large and populous. The Inhabitants, tho Pagans, are a very civilizd Sort of People, for which they are beholding to their frequent Conversation with the Europeans. They are of a warlike Disposition, tho in time of Peace, their chief Employment is fishing, at which they are very dexterous, especially with a Cast-Net, wherewith they take all Sorts of Surface Fish, nor are they less acquainted with the Hook and Line for the Ground Fish. It is very pleasant to see a Fleet, consisting of Eighty or a Hundred Canoes, going out a Fishing from Cape Coast in a Morning, and returning in from Sea well freighted in the Evening, which may be seen every day during the dry Seasons, except Tuesday which is their Fittish Day, or Day of Rest. They frequently venture abroad in the Rains, tho they are sometimes drove in again, at the approach of a Turnadoe, before they have been two Hours abroad. The Grand Caboceroe [powerful intermediary between Europeans and local people] of this Town, is a Christian, namd Thomas Osiat. He was carried when young to Ireland, where his Master dying, left him in Care with a Widow, whome Name was Pennington, who kept the Crown or Faulcon Tavern near the Change in Cork. She took Care of his Education, and had him baptizd by the Reverend Dr. Maul, now Lord Bishop of Cloyne. After having obtaind his Freedom, in this Manner, he in Time returnd home to Cape Coast, where he now lives in very great Grandeur, and is of the utmost Service to the English, both for the carrying on their Trade in the Inland Country, and preserving Peace with all the neighbouring Powers, especially the Town of Elmina...'

28 Source questions with a report

Source questions with a report

What is this source describing? When was it written? Why do you think William Smith has written this book? What is William Smiths opinion of the Africans he describes? What bearing, if any, does Smiths religion have on his account? How does Smiths account compare with Barbots?

29 Source questions with a report

Source questions with a report

Extension/alternative ideas Learners could create their own questions for discussion beyond the sources, pinpointing areas that need to be explored further to fully answer the question. Different sources could be presented to different groups and instead of a report, learners could create a presentation on the source to the other groups.

30 Source questions with a report

Source questions with a report

Recording information Recording the discussion on tape or video can be effective. The report could be written and posted on a blog for learners to view each others different writing techniques and standards. If the learners are creating a presentation instead of a report, using PowerPoint or Prezi may be a good way to record the information.

31 Collage

Collage

Overview This activity asks learners to represent their views on an issue or concept in a visual, creative and engaging way. It encourages learners not only to communicate effectively, but also to develop their interpretation skills in considering other peoples work. Skills Understanding Applying Analysing

32 Collage

Collage

How it works Each group is given a relevant word, idea, issue or concept that they must represent using a range of provided materials. Such materials might include magazines, newspapers, sticky shapes, coloured card and paper, marker pens, scissors, glue and pens. Groups must discuss what their key term/concept means and record how they decide to represent this, with supporting reasons. The practitioner may wish to establish certain criteria for the collages in order to add a challenge aspect to the activity (this is an opportunity to involve learners in creating success criteria and for practitioners to ensure differentiation is effectively planned into learning so that all learners are fully involved, engaged and challenged).

33 Collage

Collage

How it works Learners are given a time limit to complete the task. Groups can present their work to others or groups can navigate around the room to consider the work of each group. Each group should discuss and take notes on the work of others. Discussion can take place about what each group felt the other groups were trying to represent and how they interpreted this.

34 Resistance

Resistance

Active resistance

Unhappy

Damaging property

Wants change

Mental

Physical

Arson

Running away

Working slowly

Passive resistance

35 Collage

Collage

Recording information Presenting the collage as a poster is the best traditional method for this activity, but allowing a group to create a poster on a computer is also a good approach. Little Big Planet could also be used as a way of creating collages.

36 Conversion

Conversion

Overview Being able to take information and convert it into another format demonstrates understanding and also develops analytical skills. This activity engages learners with source material from the area of study. It also provides learners with an opportunity to make a choice about how they want to develop their understanding. Skills Applying Analysing Evaluating Creating

37 Conversion

Conversion

How it works Learners are presented with an event, source or idea. Practitioners should ensure that the presented material is explained and that learners have the opportunity to discuss or ask questions about it. Learners are then given options about how they would like to convert the presented information.

38 Conversion

Conversion

Groups select from any of the following (found in Olaudah Equianos autobiography) Being taken from his home The Middle Passage Life as a slave On being freed Groups convert your chosen text into a new format, which they will present to the class. Possibilities include: a mind map a storyboard a play a creative story a diary entry a comic strip a poem a flow diagram a song Groups: explain/perform their piece to the whole class explain which source they chose and why explain the conversion it has gone through: why did they choose to present it in this form, what are the key elements of the text and how have they expressed and emphasised these?

39 Conversion

Conversion

Recording information The method of recording depends mainly on the way the learner converts the data. Needless to say most, if not all, of the recording suggestions would work here.

40 Perfect answer

Perfect answer

Overview This activity helps the learners to work as a group to develop 'perfect' answers to a question. It involves peer learning and the sharing of the learners knowledge on the subject. Skills Understanding Applying Evaluating

41 Perfect answer

Perfect answer

How it works Learners work in groups. Numbered questions are placed around the room. Each member of the group is given a number. In numerical order, learners take it in turns to go and find a question (these must be answered in numerical order: learner 1 finds question 1, then learner 2 finds question 2 and so on). Once the learner has found the question they return to the group and tell everyone what it is. The group develop as detailed an answer as possible. The learner who found the question takes the perfect answer to the practitioner. The practitioner can accept the answer, ask for an expansion or give a clue to take back to the group to discuss and find the perfect answer. The process is then repeated until the group has provided the perfect answer. The next learner then goes and finds the next question and the process begins again.

42 Perfect answer

Perfect answer

Importance of slave trade to British economy

Question 1 In what ways did profits from the slave trade shape cities like Glasgow and Liverpool?

Question 3 Why were tropical crops and the profits they provided important to the British economy?

Question 2 To what extent did the slave trade affect Britains maritime industry?

Question 4 Who profited from the slave trade and how did they maximise profits?

43 Perfect answer

Perfect answer

Recording information Blogs could be used to record the perfect answers, although they could also be recorded on tape. A poster provides an alternative way of recording the answers.

44 Filling in the gaps

Filling in the gaps

Overview This activity requires the learner to understand context and vocabulary in order to identify the correct words or type of words that belong in the deleted parts of a text. Words are deleted from a passage according to a word-count formula or various other criteria, eg all adjectives, all words that have a particular letter pattern. The passage is presented to learners, who insert the correct words in the gaps as they read to construct appropriate meaning from the text. Skills Understanding Applying Analysing

45 Filling in the gaps

Filling in the gaps

How it works 1. Words are deleted from a passage according to a word-count formula or various other criteria, eg all adjectives, all words that have a particular letter pattern. 2. The passage is presented to learners, who insert correct words in the gaps as they read to construct appropriate meaning from the text. 3. The missing words can be presented in a separate box, but for higher levels it is more constructive for the learners to come up with the words themselves.

46 Filling in the gaps

Filling in the gaps

The American Revolution had a _______ effect on trade, and tobacco investors _______. However, many _______ Glaswegians had _______ into trade with the West Indies, importing _______ and making rum, and by the end of the 18th century Glasgow had become Britains biggest _______ of sugar. Glasgow _______ as the second city of the British Empire during the 19th century, _______ wealth from heavy engineering, shipbuilding and _______ _______. This period saw _______ growth in the citys population and _______ size and it was _______ this era that Victorian Glasgow was _______.

47 Filling in the gaps

Filling in the gaps

Extension/alternative ideas Learners could be challenged to come up with their own fill in the gaps passages for other learners to complete.

48 Filling in the gaps

Filling in the gaps

Recording information This works well in jotters and on blogs, or practitioners could tweet learners interpretation of the missing words. Practitioners are also encouraged to explore Glow Blogs and Glow Wikis.

49 Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing

Overview Paraphrasing involves the learner putting a passage from source material into his/her own words. This activity requires the learner to understand context and have an accurate comprehension of the text. Skills Understanding Applying Analysing

50 Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing

How it works 1. Learners should use alternative wording to the authors throughout the paraphrase. 2. Explain that it is important that learners use their own words but they should make it clear that they are presenting someone elses ideas, eg According to Professor Tom Devine... 3. It is important that learners cite their sources.

51 Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing

Source A is from the 1837 printing of American Slavery as it is: Testimony of a Thousand Witnesses Slaves belonging to merchants and others in the city, often hire their own time, for which they pay various prices per week or month, according to the capacity of the slave. The females who thus hire their time, pursue various modes to procure the money; their masters making no inquiry how they get it, provided the money comes. If it is not regularly paid they are flogged. Some take in washing, some cook on board vessels, pick oakum, sell peanuts, &c., while others, younger and more comely, often resort to the vilest pursuits. I knew a man from the north who, though married to a respectable southern woman, kept two of these mulatto girls in an upper room at his store; his wife told some of her friends that he had not lodged at home for two weeks together, I have seen these two kept misses, as they are there called, at his store; he was afterwards stabbed in an attempt to arrest a runaway slave, and died in about ten days.

Source A is a slave owner describing how slaves pay their owners for time off. The cost is dependent on the skill of the slave, and how badly they are needed. If owners dont receive the money the slave gets flogged. The author alludes to the use of prostitution among female slaves to raise the money. Other women cook, clean, pick or sell. The author describes the situation of his friend, who kept two female slaves above his shop as mistresses/concubines.

52 Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing

Extension/alternative ideas Learners could be challenged to see who can come up with a paraphrase in the quickest time. They must recite their paraphrase without looking at the source. Other learners then assess how good it was. Working backwards, the practitioner could supply learners with a list of paraphrases and the learners match these to the correct sources.

53 Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing

Recording information Paraphrasing lends itself well to being recorded as a podcast or vodcast, while blogging could also useful here.

54 Summarising

Summarising

Overview Summarising involves the learner putting only the main idea(s) from the source material into his/her own words. As with paraphrasing, this activity requires the learner to understand context and have an accurate comprehension of the text. Skills Understanding Applying Analysing

55 Summarising

Summarising

How it works 1. Summarising involves the learner putting only the main idea(s) from the source material into his/her own words. This is a useful skill and works well with note-taking. 2. The lower the word limit, the harder the task becomes. 3. Learners can compare their summaries after the task for added comprehension.

56 Summarising

Summarising

Source A is from the 1837 printing of American Slavery as it is: Testimony of a Thousand Witnesses Slaves belonging to merchants and others in the city, often hire their own time, for which they pay various prices per week or month, according to the capacity of the slave. The females who thus hire their time, pursue various modes to procure the money; their masters making no inquiry how they get it, provided the money comes. If it is not regularly paid they are flogged. Some take in washing, some cook on board vessels, pick oakum, sell peanuts, &c., while others, younger and more comely, often resort to the vilest pursuits. I knew a man from the north who, though married to a respectable southern woman, kept two of these mulatto girls in an upper room at his store; his wife told some of her friends that he had not lodged at home for two weeks together, I have seen these two kept misses, as they are there called, at his store; he was afterwards stabbed in an attempt to arrest a runaway slave, and died in about ten days.

Some slaves had to pay their owners money for the time they werent working. Prices varied depending on the skill of the slave. Women afforded this by picking or selling food, or carrying out domestic duties like washing or cooking (on ships). Others, younger women, turned to prostitution. A friend of author kept two slaves as mistresses above his shop.

57 Summarising

Summarising

Extension/alternative ideas Learners could be challenged to see who can come up with a summary in the quickest time. They must recite the summary without looking at the source. Other learners then assess how good it was. Working backwards, the practitioner could supply learners with a list of summaries and the learners match these to the correct sources.

58 Summarising

Summarising

Recording information Summarising lends itself well to being recorded as a podcast. Practitioners may wish to explore setting a 50-word challenge where learners can only use a maximum of 50 words.

59 Thinking skills grid

Thinking skills grid

Overview This activity can help learners revision and understanding of subtopics within the larger topics and units. Skills Remembering Applying Analysing Creating

60 Thinking skills grid

Thinking skills grid

How it works 1. Learners draw six columns on an A4 (or larger) sheet of paper, landscape orientation. 2. Each column focuses on a different piece of knowledge they have learned throughout a subtopic. 3. As they are both processing the information and recording it in different ways, this activity caters to all types of learners. 4. Learners can compare their summaries after the task for added comprehension.

61 Interesting response (What have I found interesting about this topic

Interesting response (What have I found interesting about this topic

Emotional response (What do I love and hate about the topic?)

Negative response (The bad points about the topic)

Positive response (The good points about the topic)

Creative response (Draw pictures about the topic)

Overview response (What were the main points about the topic?)

62 Slaves were treated as cargo

Slaves were treated as cargo

Up to 50,000 a year were being transported in the late 1700s. The heat and awful conditions led to many slaves dying.

Over 400,000 slaves died on British ships during the Middle Passage. Ships could have a loose pack or a tight pack, eventually more ships went for tight pack as more slaves equalled more money.

Slaves were treated as cargo. Slaves had to lie on their backs in the hold, so more could be fitted in. Disease was rife. Discipline was strong to avoid any chance of rebelling floggings, torture and hangings.

Slaves would sometimes be brought up on deck for exercise. The crew had it in their best interests to keep the slaves alive as it meant more money. There were lots of Scottish doctors on ships to look after slaves.

I would hate to have been a slave (or doctor) on the Middle Passage ships. The cramped quarters, poor supplies and bad treatment from the sailors would have been awful. My friends and family could have died around me.

The Middle Passage

Interesting response (What have I found interesting about this topic?)

Emotional response (What do I love and hate about the topic?)

Negative response (The bad points about the topic)

Positive response (The good points about the topic)

Creative response (Draw pictures about the topic)

Overview response (What were the main points about the topic?)

63 Thinking skills grid

Thinking skills grid

Extension/alternative ideas Columns could be added or taken away. The learners choices could be discussed during the lesson to aid other learners and provoke debate. Examining the learners choices can provide insight into the practitioners own approach to the course, providing a good opportunity for reflective thinking .

64 Thinking skills grid

Thinking skills grid

Recording information This can be recorded as a PowerPoint or smartboard presentation, as a Prezi, an infographic, on a blog or as a poster. The drawing column could be created in a generic paint package on a computer.

65 Skimming

Skimming

Overview Introducing learners to skimming (and scanning) can help develop their engagement with texts and encourage them to approach their reading of texts and sources more analytically. Skills Understanding Analysing Evaluating

66 Skimming

Skimming

How it works 1. The learner 'skims' the text, looking for the gist of the piece. 2. This involves reading the title, subtitles, paragraph headings and any annotations, followed by the first and last paragraphs. 3. This provides the learner with a good idea of what the text is about before a deeper reading (or not, as the case may be).

67 Skimming

Skimming

1. The learner is given an article (or book) and told they have a strict 5 (10) minutes to find out what it is about. 2. After the time is up, they have 5 minutes to write down everything they have learned about the article or book without looking at it again. 3. Once the 5 minutes are up, they take it in turns with a partner to explain what the piece was about (without notes). 4. After this, the learners compare the notes they took and discuss their choices as well as the techniques they used. 5. New material is given out and the learners repeat the process.

68 Scanning

Scanning

Overview Introducing learners to scanning (and skimming) can help develop their engagement with texts and encourage them to approach their reading of texts and sources more analytically. Skills Understanding Analysing Evaluating

69 Scanning

Scanning

How it works 1. The learner 'scans' the text with rapid eye movements, looking only for the specific information they require, which the practitioner can define author, date written/published, information on a specific topic or key words. 2. The information can then be underlined, highlighted or noted down. 3. This method works best if only a particular part of the text is relevant to the learner, and saves reading the whole piece.

70 Scanning

Scanning

1. The learner is given an article (or book) and told they have a strict 5 minutes to find out a specific piece of information the practitioner defines. 2. After the time is up, the learners explain what techniques they used to find the information. 3. New material is given out and the process is repeated, with learners now aware of and implementing the successful methods of scanning. 4. Four different pieces of information could be given to groups and each learner asked to find one piece. The group is only finished when everyone has found their piece of information. 5. This could be used in a competition between different groups once the learners are confident in their scanning abilities.

71 Sequencing

Sequencing

Overview Introducing learners to sequencing can help them understand the importance of coherence and cohesion within a piece of text. Skills Understanding Applying Analysing

72 Sequencing

Sequencing

How it works 1. The learners reorganise the mixed-up pieces of text into a logical order. 2. Learners can do this by themselves, in pairs or in groups. 3. Sequencing can also be done on the smartboard using touch-screen software, with learners and dragging and dropping text into the right order. 4. Examples of text to sequence might be: essays (cut up into paragraphs) a text-based source (cut up into sentences) a transcript from a speech academic articles (cut up into paragraphs) 5. This is an excellent activity for raising awareness of how the learners own essay should be structured (ie beginning, middle, end).

73 Sequencing

Sequencing

Mixed up

Consequently, T.M. Devine has recently posed the far-from-rhetorical question Did slavery make Scotia great?.

Williams was heavily criticised, although his detractors underestimated the true extent of the overall relationship as they narrowly focused on the profits of the maritime trade in slaves.

Devine now argues that Scotland could provide more fertile ground for historians who seek to establish that slavery had a profound impact on Scottish industrialisation as it was a relatively poor society in 1750 which underwent rapid growth whilst dependent on slave economies for raw materials as well as external markets for exports, in addition to capital transfers to the burgeoning industries in manufacturing, mining and agriculture[D].

More recently, Joseph Inikori reinforced the view that slavery and overseas trade were the principal determinants of a commercial revolution in England.

For Inikori, commerce with slave-based economies in an Atlantic system dependant on chattel slavery had significant multiplier effects on English industrialisation as well as shipping and on the commercial and financial infrastructure[Y].

These issues have promoted vigorous academic debate since the publication of Eric Williamss pioneering text Capitalism and Slavery in 1944. Williams defined an exploitative global relationship in which the profits of the slave trade and commerce with the slave colonies were crucial to the industrial development of Great Britain[L].

The two most controversial questions regarding chattel slavery and Great Britain in the modern era are economic in nature: how profitable was the West India trade and how did slavery influence the industrial and agricultural development of the nation?

However, whilst there is a mature yet inconclusive historiography regarding the impact on England, the relationship between chattel slavery and Scotland remains obscure.

74 Sequencing

Sequencing

Correct order

The two most controversial questions regarding chattel slavery and Great Britain in the modern era are economic in nature: how profitable was the West India trade and how did slavery influence the industrial and agricultural development of the nation?

These issues have promoted vigorous academic debate since the publication of Eric Williamss pioneering text Capitalism and Slavery in 1944. Williams defined an exploitative global relationship in which the profits of the slave trade and commerce with the slave colonies were crucial to the industrial development of Great Britain[L].

Williams was heavily criticised, although his detractors underestimated the true extent of the overall relationship as they narrowly focused on the profits of the maritime trade in slaves.

More recently, Joseph Inikori reinforced the view that slavery and overseas trade were the principal determinants of a commercial revolution in England.

For Inikori, commerce with slave-based economies in an Atlantic system dependant on chattel slavery had significant multiplier effects on English industrialisation as well as shipping and on the commercial and financial infrastructure[Y].

However, whilst there is a mature yet inconclusive historiography regarding the impact on England, the relationship between chattel slavery and Scotland remains obscure.

Consequently, T.M. Devine has recently posed the far-from-rhetorical question Did slavery make Scotia great?.

Devine now argues that Scotland could provide more fertile ground for historians who seek to establish that slavery had a profound impact on Scottish industrialisation as it was a relatively poor society in 1750 which underwent rapid growth whilst dependent on slave economies for raw materials as well as external markets for exports, in addition to capital transfers to the burgeoning industries in manufacturing, mining and agriculture[D].

75 Sequencing

Sequencing

Mixed up

However, slavery was not hereditary, and the children of slaves were usually regarded as being free members of the household of their parents master.

People living in West Africa, both free and enslaved, did not see their lives as being shaped or dominated by trade with the Europeans and the transatlantic slave trade.

However, the massive size of the transatlantic slave trade meant that in wars and raids a very great number of West Africans were captured and sold to the Europeans.

Enslaved Africans who were sold to the Europeans and transported to the Americas would experience a very different form of slavery to those who were slaves in Africa.

Most stayed on or near the coast, and they knew little of the heavily populated African interior.

Slavery had been an important social institution in West Africa long before the arrival of the Europeans.

The transportation of over ten million African slaves to the Americas implies an absolute European dominance of West Africa that simply did not exist.

But those West Africans who were taken in chains to the New World suffered very different experiences.

In Africa slavery was predominantly a system of organising labour in a society with many people but limited opportunities for land ownership and economic survival.

West Africans controlled the trade in gold, ivory, spices and eventually slaves, and historians continue to debate whether West Africans should be regarded primarily as victims of or participants in the transatlantic slave trade.

In Europe land was the main form of wealth-producing property, but in much of West Africa rulers and the elite owned land, and slaves became an important form of wealth-producing property, enabling their owners to profit from the land they rented from local rulers.

Relatively few Europeans settled on the West African coast, and many of those who did were soon struck down by yellow fever, malaria and other diseases.

76 Sequencing

Sequencing

Correct order

The transportation of over ten million African slaves to the Americas implies an absolute European dominance of West Africa that simply did not exist.

Relatively few Europeans settled on the West African coast, and many of those who did were soon struck down by yellow fever, malaria and other diseases.

Most stayed on or near the coast, and they knew little of the heavily populated African interior.

West Africans controlled the trade in gold, ivory, spices and eventually slaves, and historians continue to debate whether West Africans should be regarded primarily as victims of or participants in the transatlantic slave trade.

Slavery had been an important social institution in West Africa long before the arrival of the Europeans.

In Europe land was the main form of wealth-producing property, but in much of West Africa rulers and the elite owned land, and slaves became an important form of wealth-producing property, enabling their owners to profit from the land they rented from local rulers.

However, slavery was not hereditary, and the children of slaves were usually regarded as being free members of the household of their parents master.

In Africa slavery was predominantly a system of organising labour in a society with many people but limited opportunities for land ownership and economic survival.

However, the massive size of the transatlantic slave trade meant that in wars and raids a very great number of West Africans were captured and sold to the Europeans.

Enslaved Africans who were sold to the Europeans and transported to the Americas would experience a very different form of slavery to those who were slaves in Africa.

People living in West Africa, both free and enslaved, did not see their lives as being shaped or dominated by trade with the Europeans and the transatlantic slave trade.

But those West Africans who were taken in chains to the New World suffered very different experiences.

77 Sequencing

Sequencing

Recording information Sequencing can be stuck into jotters or posted on blogs. The discussion over the right order of the pieces could be recorded as a vodcast or podcast.

78 Odd one out

Odd one out

How it works Odd one out is an activity that can be used as a springboard for initial exploration of the topic or as a tool to consolidate knowledge. Learners are encouraged to explore for themselves the similarities and differences between ideas and to foster an understanding relationship between them.

Overview Odd one out is an activity that can be used as a springboard for initial exploration of the topic or as a tool to consolidate knowledge. Learners are encouraged to explore for themselves the similarities and differences between ideas and to foster an understanding relationship between them. Skills Remembering Understanding Applying Analysing

79 Odd one out

Odd one out

How it works Learners are given a set of key words, ideas, places, events or people, depending on the learning area and topic. Learners must decide on the odd one out in each grid or list. Often there may be no right or wrong answers and any word might be the odd one out. Learners must therefore give a justified and valid response as to why they chose a particular word and the nature of the relationship between the other words on the list. A discussion afterwards might concentrate on how learners made the connections between the words, the processes involved and whether the group work has helped learners to see different connections which they otherwise might not have considered.

80 Odd one out

Odd one out

Possible answers A it is the only one set on the Middle Passage B it is the only one where black people are guarding the slaves C it is the only one to show the method of oppression D the only image that shows the slaves without their captors or means of incarceration

Source A: http://hitchcock.itc.virginia.edu/Slavery/detailsKeyword.php?keyword=e019&recordCount=1&theRecord=0

Source B: http://hitchcock.itc.virginia.edu/Slavery/detailsKeyword.php?keyword=c017&recordCount=2&theRecord=0

Source C: http://hitchcock.itc.virginia.edu/Slavery/detailsKeyword.php?keyword=JCB_01203-2&recordCount=3&theRecord=0

Source D: http://hitchcock.itc.virginia.edu/Slavery/detailsKeyword.php?keyword=hazard2&recordCount=1&theRecord=0

81 Odd one out

Odd one out

Extension/alternative ideas Learners could create their own odd one out boards, either by themselves or in groups, and have a discussion about the choices.

82 Odd one out

Odd one out

Recording information Recording this activity and the debate that ensues on video is perhaps the best method. Learners could also be presented with the pictures and asked to write a blog post describing which one is the odd one out.

83 Exchanging viewpoints

Exchanging viewpoints

Overview This activity can be used to develop learners understanding of different points of view regarding a debatable topic. Not only must they listen to others, but they have to describe the views of other learners. Skills Applying Analysing Evaluating Creating

84 Exchanging viewpoints

Exchanging viewpoints

How it works Each learner will need a name tag that can be easily swapped with a partner. A question which provokes debate should be posed to the class. This might be a new topic or one that learners have already studied if using the task for revision. Learners are given a short amount of time to consider their answer to the question and instructed that they will have to describe their view to another learner. A time limit is set during which learners must describe their view and at least one reason why they have this view. Learners exchange their name tags so that they are wearing each others.

85 Exchanging viewpoints

Exchanging viewpoints

How it works Learners must then find a new partner and instead of describing their own view, they describe the view of the person whose name tag they are wearing. Once the time is up, they again swap name tags, find a new partner and describe the view of the person whose tag they are wearing. This can be done as few or as many times as required, depending on the time available. Learners write down as many of the different views as they can remember. After a period of time the learners are asked to place their name tags on a large piece of paper and to express and explain the view of the learner named. The learner named can then add further points of clarification or correct any errors.

86 Should the slave trade be made illegal

Should the slave trade be made illegal

Rory Slave owner Absolutely not. Slaves have a limited period of use seven years is the best we can get out of them. What will we do if we cant replace them?

Kirsten Ship owner Most of my business involves trading slaves and goods to Africa. If we make it illegal Ill lose thousands of pounds.

Marco Slave Yes, it has ruined millions of African lives. I was taken from my family when I was five, and my sister and my brother were taken ten years earlier.

Josh Anti-abolitionist No! They are uncivilised and do not deserve freedom! They were made to work.

Amy Pro-abolitionist It has to be! It is a deplorable act and distinctly un-Christian.

87 Exchanging viewpoints

Exchanging viewpoints

Recording information Recording on video is a great medium for this activity, although each group recording themselves is also a good approach. Learners might record themselves as talking heads, defending their viewpoint. Alternatively, each learner could make notes.

88 Interrogation (also called hot seating)

Interrogation (also called hot seating)

Overview This activity calls on the practitioner, or a learner or group of learners, to play the role of a character from the period of time being studied. Skills Understanding Remembering Evaluating

89 Interrogation (also called hot seating)

Interrogation (also called hot seating)

How it works The practitioner, learner or groups of learners pose as a character from the period of study (eg an anti-abolitionist). This can be a famous character, an anonymous person or a group of people. The remaining learners can question and interrogate the character(s) on any aspect of the history period they are studying. The actor(s) must stay in role throughout the interrogation, sticking to what should be his/her opinions (for example defending the slave trade). It can work well if participants are given an opportunity to revise the topic/the characters stance, as questions and answers can then be prepared.

90 Interrogation (also called hot seating)

Interrogation (also called hot seating)

Characters could be:

A tobacco lord

A plantation slave

A ships captain

A member of parliament

William Wilberforce

An African tribesman

Olaudah Equiano

A slave owner

A child born into slavery

91 Interrogation (also called hot seating)

Interrogation (also called hot seating)

Recording information Recording on video or tape is a good approach for this activity. The podcast can be revisited at a later date for learners to evaluate and reflect on their questions and answers.

92 Jigsaw

Jigsaw

Overview For more complex work, this activity provides learners with the opportunity to develop expertise in one area of a subject and then return to their group with 'experts' from the other areas to tackle the whole subject. Skills Understanding Applying Analysing

93 Jigsaw

Jigsaw

How it works The learners are in groups of four (or however many pieces of evidence you want to provide). They are split up and move to four different stations, where they spend 10 minutes learning about one area of the problem. After the time limit, everyone returns to their original group, which now has four experts on the four different areas of the subject. Working together, the learners use the information they have learnt to tackle the task on the subject.

94 Jigsaw

Jigsaw

Recording information Poster work is a good method for recording information in this activity, as are blog posts. A podcast from each group on their findings can also prove interesting.

Skills development in the study of history
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