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Sport in Society: Issues and Controversies
Sport in Society: Issues and Controversies
Characteristics of the Media
Characteristics of the Media
The Media Provide
The Media Provide
Media Content
Media Content
Media representations of sports are carefully edited to highlight
Media representations of sports are carefully edited to highlight
Media and Power
Media and Power
What If
What If
Characteristics of the Internet
Characteristics of the Internet
Video Games & Virtual Sports
Video Games & Virtual Sports
Fantasy Sports
Fantasy Sports
Video Games as Simulated Sports
Video Games as Simulated Sports
Sport in Society: Issues and Controversies
Sport in Society: Issues and Controversies
Video games as simulated sports
Video games as simulated sports
Do Sports Depend on the Media
Do Sports Depend on the Media
Sport in Society: Issues and Controversies
Sport in Society: Issues and Controversies
Sport in Society: Issues and Controversies
Sport in Society: Issues and Controversies
Have Sports Sold Out to the Media
Have Sports Sold Out to the Media
Do the Media Depend on Sports
Do the Media Depend on Sports
Trends in Televised Sports
Trends in Televised Sports
Sport in Society: Issues and Controversies
Sport in Society: Issues and Controversies
Global Economic Factors in the Sports-Media Relationship
Global Economic Factors in the Sports-Media Relationship
Figure 12
Figure 12
Alcohol & Tobacco Sponsorships
Alcohol & Tobacco Sponsorships
Corporate Sponsorships and Gender Ideology
Corporate Sponsorships and Gender Ideology
Images and Messages in Media Sports (I)
Images and Messages in Media Sports (I)
Images and Messages in Media Sports (II)
Images and Messages in Media Sports (II)
Images and Messages in Media Sports (III)
Images and Messages in Media Sports (III)
Media sports present real-life violence
Media sports present real-life violence
Media Impact on Sport-Related Behaviors
Media Impact on Sport-Related Behaviors
Audience Experiences With Media Sports
Audience Experiences With Media Sports
The Profession of Sports Journalism
The Profession of Sports Journalism
If it bleeds, it leads in the local news and in sports
If it bleeds, it leads in the local news and in sports
Sport in Society: Issues and Controversies
Sport in Society: Issues and Controversies
Comparison of Sportswriters and Announcers
Comparison of Sportswriters and Announcers
Comparison of Print and Broadcast Media
Comparison of Print and Broadcast Media

: Sport in Society: Issues and Controversies. : Jay Coakley. : Sport in Society: Issues and Controversies.ppt. zip-: 1299 .

Sport in Society: Issues and Controversies

Sport in Society: Issues and Controversies.ppt
1 Sport in Society: Issues and Controversies

Sport in Society: Issues and Controversies

Chapter 12 Sports and the Media: Could They Survive Without Each Other?

2 Characteristics of the Media

Characteristics of the Media

Print media: words & images on paper Newspapers, magazines & fanzines, books, catalogues, event programs, trading cards Electronic media: words, commentary, & images transmitted by audio and/or video devices and technologies Radio, television, film, video games, the Internet and online publications

3 The Media Provide

The Media Provide

Information Interpretation Entertainment

4 Media Content

Media Content

Media content is always edited and re-presented by those who control media organizations Editing decisions are based on one or more of these goals: Making profits Shaping values Providing a public service Building artistic and technical reputations Expressing self

5 Media representations of sports are carefully edited to highlight

Media representations of sports are carefully edited to highlight

dramatic action

Figure 12.1

6 Media and Power

Media and Power

The media often serve the interests of those with power and wealth in society As corporate control of media has become more concentrated, media content highlights Consumerism Individualism Competition Class inequality as natural and necessary in society

7 What If

What If

. .

All TV documentaries were sponsored by environmental groups, labor organizations womens groups? Wouldnt we ask questions about the content of those programs, and ask why we see what we see and why we hear what we hear? 99% of all sports programming in the media was sponsored by capitalist corporations? Shouldnt we ask questions about the content of that programming, whose interests it serves, and why we see and hear what we do?

8 Characteristics of the Internet

Characteristics of the Internet

The Internet Extends and radically changes (potentially) our connections with the world Is not limited to sequential programming Enables each of us to be the editors of our own media experiences, if we wish Gives us the potential to create our own sport realities and experiences as spectators and virtual athletes

9 Video Games & Virtual Sports

Video Games & Virtual Sports

Research is needed to help answer questions such as: What are the dynamics of playing video sport games and virtual sports, and how do they differ from other sport-related experiences? How are video sport game experiences linked with other sport experiences? What ideological themes are structured into the images and actions in video sport games? Will virtual sports compliment or replace sports as we know them today?

10 Fantasy Sports

Fantasy Sports

How has the emergence of fantasy football, baseball, etc. contributed to an increase in sport media consumption?

11 Video Games as Simulated Sports

Video Games as Simulated Sports

The graphics and images in video games now come close to matching images in televised sports TV producers now use special filters to make the action in televised games look like video games Some athletes use video sport games to train Some children today are introduced to sports through video games Being good at playing video sport games is a source of status among many young people Playing sport video games provides regular social occasions for many people, especially young males

12 Sport in Society: Issues and Controversies
13 Video games as simulated sports

Video games as simulated sports

The graphics and images in video games now come close to matching images in televised sports. TV producers now use special filters to make the action in televised games look like video games. Some athletes use video sport games to train. Some children today are introduced to sports through video games. Being good at playing video sport games is a source of status among many young people. Playing sport video games provides regular social occasions for many people, especially young males

14 Do Sports Depend on the Media

Do Sports Depend on the Media

No, not when they are organized by and for the players themselves Yes, when they are organized as forms of commercial entertainment Media coverage attracts attention to sports and provides news of results Television coverage remains a key factor in the growth and expansion of commercial sports

15 Sport in Society: Issues and Controversies
16 Sport in Society: Issues and Controversies
17 Have Sports Sold Out to the Media

Have Sports Sold Out to the Media

Probably not for two reasons: Sports are not shaped primarily by the media in general or TV in particular Sports are social constructions that emerge in connection with many social relationships The media, including TV, do not operate in a political and economic vacuum Media are regulated by government and market factors, which influence and set limits on media coverage & content

18 Do the Media Depend on Sports

Do the Media Depend on Sports

Most media do not depend on sports for content or sales Daily newspapers have depended on sports sections to increase circulation and advertising revenues Many television companies have depended on sports to fill programming schedules, attract male viewers and the sponsors that want to reach them Many sport events have media audiences with clearly identifiable demographics

19 Trends in Televised Sports

Trends in Televised Sports

Rights fees have escalated rapidly since the 1960s Sports programming has increased dramatically As more events are covered, ratings for some particular events have decreased Audience fragmentation has occurred Television companies use sports events to promote other programming Television companies are parts of conglomerates that now own teams, sport events, and other businesses

20 Sport in Society: Issues and Controversies
21 Global Economic Factors in the Sports-Media Relationship

Global Economic Factors in the Sports-Media Relationship

Global economic factors have intensified the sport-media relationship because transnational corporations need vehicles for developing Global name recognition Global cultural legitimacy Global product familiarity Global ideological support for a way of life based on consumption, competition, individual achievement, and a focus on social status and material possessions

22 Figure 12

Figure 12

3 Executives decisions in global media companies influence what sports we see and read about in the media

23 Alcohol & Tobacco Sponsorships

Alcohol & Tobacco Sponsorships

Corporations that sell alcohol and tobacco see sports as key vehicles for promoting their products in connection with activities that people define as healthy If these corporations cannot sponsor televised events, they put signage on people, equipment, and facilities that are viewed during television coverage.

24 Corporate Sponsorships and Gender Ideology

Corporate Sponsorships and Gender Ideology

Decision-making power in large media corporations rests with many male executives who love sports The values and experiences of men are deeply embedded in the cultures of these corporations When sports emphasize competition, domination, and achievement, many male executives feel that these are crucial factors in their companies This means they will pay large fees to hire coaches and athletes as motivational speakers in their companies

25 Images and Messages in Media Sports (I)

Images and Messages in Media Sports (I)

Media coverage is constructed around specific themes and messages: Success themes Emphasis on winners, losers, and final scores Emphasis on big plays, big hits, and sacrificing self for team success (continued)

26 Images and Messages in Media Sports (II)

Images and Messages in Media Sports (II)

Media coverage is constructed around specific themes and messages: Masculinity and femininity themes Coverage privileges men over women Heterosexuality is assumed; homosexuality is erased and ignored Coverage reproduces dominant ideas about manhood, but may challenge ideas about femininity (continued)

27 Images and Messages in Media Sports (III)

Images and Messages in Media Sports (III)

Race and ethnicity themes Racial ideology has influenced coverage of black athletes, especially males Whiteness is erased in coverage; it is assumed as the standard Nationalism is emphasized We - They distinctions are common Individualism is highlighted Aggression is glorified; athletes are presented as warriors

28 Media sports present real-life violence

Media sports present real-life violence

Should sport programs be rated for violence?

Figure 12.4

29 Media Impact on Sport-Related Behaviors

Media Impact on Sport-Related Behaviors

Active participation in sports Some negative, some positive effects Attendance at sport events Media generally increase attendance at elite events, but may decrease attendance at local events Gambling on sports Media are indirectly linked to gambling Internet may change this to direct link

30 Audience Experiences With Media Sports

Audience Experiences With Media Sports

Research shows that Watching television sports is not a major activity in the lives of most adults Football widows and men who just sit in front of the TV watching sports are not as common as many people think. Men and women who live together often share the experience of watching sports Most partners in couples accommodate each others viewing habits over time

31 The Profession of Sports Journalism

The Profession of Sports Journalism

The work of sports journalists does matter when it comes to cultural ideology and public consciousness Tensions between players and sportswriters has intensified as differences in their salaries and backgrounds have become more pronounced Ethical issues have become increasingly important in sports journalism because the stakes are so high for teams, athletes, coaches, owners, etc.

32 If it bleeds, it leads in the local news and in sports

If it bleeds, it leads in the local news and in sports

Figure 12.5

33 Sport in Society: Issues and Controversies
34 Comparison of Sportswriters and Announcers

Comparison of Sportswriters and Announcers

Sportswriters Work behind scenes Seldom recognized Low salaries; paid by publications Low regulation by sport management Job focuses on providing information

Announcers Celebrity status Public recognition High salaries; often paid by management Comments regulated by management Job focuses on selling the sport

35 Comparison of Print and Broadcast Media

Comparison of Print and Broadcast Media

Print Media News & information Summaries of past events Concrete information Success based on preserving credibility Highlights behind-the-scenes stories Provides more critical coverage

Broadcast Media Entertainment Play-by-play coverage Real-time action Success based on generating hype Highlights action and heroic displays Provides more supportive coverage

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