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The direction of policy: refining the National Curriculum in England
The direction of policy: refining the National Curriculum in England
Background: the need for reform
Background: the need for reform
1989, 1995, 1999 continuous refinement  2009 KS3/4 dislocation A
1989, 1995, 1999 continuous refinement 2009 KS3/4 dislocation A
Why the concept of future curriculum is vital
Why the concept of future curriculum is vital
Policy potential: understanding the relative performance of different
Policy potential: understanding the relative performance of different
Evidence paper November 2010
Evidence paper November 2010
benefits
benefits
ills
ills
Background to the reforms: a fundamental shift in underpinning
Background to the reforms: a fundamental shift in underpinning
The National Curriculum 1995
The National Curriculum 1995
National Curriculum 2007
National Curriculum 2007
Where are we now and why
Where are we now and why
Policy potential: understanding the relative performance of different
Policy potential: understanding the relative performance of different
Curriculum coherence is crucial  a National Curriculum is one means
Curriculum coherence is crucial a National Curriculum is one means
Revised specifications in the Primary phase: English, Science and
Revised specifications in the Primary phase: English, Science and
NAHT n500 54% teach 12x12, long division 80% add subtract multiply and
NAHT n500 54% teach 12x12, long division 80% add subtract multiply and
Character and structure of the National Curriculum (size, focus,
Character and structure of the National Curriculum (size, focus,
Note on populations Singapore 4,839,400 (world bank) Finland 5,313,399
Note on populations Singapore 4,839,400 (world bank) Finland 5,313,399
Elements of comparison: expenditure
Elements of comparison: expenditure
Policy potential: understanding the relative performance of different
Policy potential: understanding the relative performance of different
Some overall comparisons
Some overall comparisons
Stand out element
Stand out element
The revised specifications available on DfE website http://www
The revised specifications available on DfE website http://www
Ability models and pedagogy
Ability models and pedagogy
Transnational analyses do NOT supply a judgement-free solution Using
Transnational analyses do NOT supply a judgement-free solution Using
Expert Panel recommendations importance of curriculum aims Yes
Expert Panel recommendations importance of curriculum aims Yes
Has statutory breath decreased
Has statutory breath decreased
Scheduling
Scheduling
The National Curriculum is important, but it is not the sole control
The National Curriculum is important, but it is not the sole control

: The direction of policy: refining the National Curriculum in England. : Lebus. : The direction of policy: refining the National Curriculum in England.ppt. zip-: 63 .

The direction of policy: refining the National Curriculum in England

The direction of policy: refining the National Curriculum in England.ppt
1 The direction of policy: refining the National Curriculum in England

The direction of policy: refining the National Curriculum in England

Tim Oates Chair of the Expert Panel advising on National Curriculum Review 2011 Group Director Assessment Research and Development Cambridge Assessment

2 Background: the need for reform

Background: the need for reform

The National Curriculum Review 2011

3 1989, 1995, 1999 continuous refinement  2009 KS3/4 dislocation A

1989, 1995, 1999 continuous refinement 2009 KS3/4 dislocation A

break with principles Buta failure of ideas? Schizophrenia of the State overprescribesbut if its not in the National Curriculum we wont teach it Models of ability progression Diversity in the system dampening of innovation Views of the aims of schooling and the status of knowledge

Fine-tuning or fundamental re-orientation

4 Why the concept of future curriculum is vital

Why the concept of future curriculum is vital

The undue pace of change, ripping capacity from the system The role of stability in monitoring and fine-tuning systems The need for principled change Attending to the precise form of knowledge in a National Curriculum The skills versus knowledge dichotomy; observation, mathematising Attending to true signals regarding important capitals; Bynner, Vignoles Importance of capitals for social cohesion and reduction of inequalities The powerful knowledge thesis, a radical shift in thinking QCA futures as future 2, proposed curriculum as future 3 A curriculum for 30 years? The pattern of the change cycle

5 Policy potential: understanding the relative performance of different

Policy potential: understanding the relative performance of different

national systems through control factors

1 curriculum content (nc specifications, support materials, etc) 2 assessment and qualifications 3 national framework for qualifications 4 inspection 5 pedagogy 6 professional development 7 institutional development 8 institutional forms and structures (eg size of schools, education phases) 9 allied social measures (linking social care, health care and education) 10 funding 11 governance (autonomy versus direct control) 12 accountability arrangements 13 labour market/professional licensing 14 allied market regulation (eg health and safety legislation; insurance regulation)

6 Evidence paper November 2010

Evidence paper November 2010

The tendency towards introspection Benefits and ills The importance of subjects Clarity in statutory elements Concepts, principles, fundamental operations and key knowledge The importance of transnational comparisons Coherence and curriculum control

7 benefits

benefits

1 The concept of entitlement has been highly effective in raising attainment (Chitty C 2004; Colwill I & Peacey N 2003) 2 Structure progression in the National Curriculum has reduced inappropriate repetition of content as children progress through education (Chitty C op cit; Evangelou et al 2008) 3 The rate and pattern of pupil progression has been enhanced (Chitty C op cit; Tymms P 2004; Whetton et al 2007) 4 Balanced coverage has emerged in the primary phase, particularly in respect of science (Harlen W 2008) 5 The common structure has supported more effective pupil transfer, which previously affected vulnerable groups of children in particular (Dobson J & Pooley CE 2004: Strand S 2002) 6 The curriculum entitlement has enhanced performance of girls in maths and science (Machin S & McNally S 2006) 7 The structured approach to content and assessment has led to identification of issues such as the Key Stage 3 dip (Powell R, Smith R, Jones G, Reakes A 2006; Doddington C, Flutter J & Rudduck J 1999) 8 The National Curriculum has led to higher expectations of young people (Barber M 2002; Hopkins D 2001; Tabberer R 1997)

8 ills

ills

However, problems have accumulated in respect of: 1 Acute overload, with resulting pressure on teachers to move with undue pace through material and encouraging a tick list approach to teaching (Black P & Wiliam D 1999; Alexander R (ed) 2010; Dearing R 1994; House of Commons Children, Schools and Families Committee 2008) 2 All groups clamouring to ensure that subject content which reflects their interest is included in the core content of the National Curriculum leading to a lack of clarity as to what should legitimately be included, or not included (Rawling E 2001) 3 Overbearing assessment with adverse impact on teaching and learning (Black & Wiliam op cit; Pollard A, Broadfoot P, Croll P, Osborn M & Abbott D 1994; ARG & TLRP 2009; Mansell W 2007), with specific problems emerging in relation to narrow drilling for tests (Pollard A, Broadfoot P, Croll P, Osborn M & Abbott D op cit; ARG & TLRP op cit; TES 2005) and a failure of the assessment to provide policymakers with robust information on national standards (Oates T 2005; Statistics Commission 2005; Tymms P 2007; Massey A, Green S, Dexter T & Hamnett L 2003).

9 Background to the reforms: a fundamental shift in underpinning

Background to the reforms: a fundamental shift in underpinning

principles

The National Curriculum 1995 and 2007

10 The National Curriculum 1995

The National Curriculum 1995

Science - key stage 3 Materials and properties

Chemical Reactions that when chemical reactions take place, mass is conserved; that virtually all materials, including those in living systems, are made through chemical reactions; to represent chemical reactions by word equations; that there are different types of reaction, including oxidation and thermal decomposition; that useful products can be made from chemical reactions, including the production of metals from metal oxides; about chemical reactions, e.g. corrosion of iron, spoiling of food, that are generally not useful; that energy transfers that accompany chemical reactions, including the burning of fuels, can be controlled and used; about possible effects of burning fossil fuels on the environment.

11 National Curriculum 2007

National Curriculum 2007

Chemical and Material Behaviour In their study of science, the following should be covered: chemical change takes place by the rearrangement of atoms in substances; there are patterns in the chemical reactions between substances; new materials are made from natural resources by chemical reactions; the properties of a material determine its uses.

12 Where are we now and why

Where are we now and why

Science in the National Curriculum ATs statements of attainment 1991 Original specification 4 KS3 96 KS4 139 1995 Dearing Revision 5 KS3 166 KS4 221 1999 QCA-led revision 4 KS3 121 KS4 189 2007 QCA-led revision 4 KS3 37 KS4 30 Dramatic contraction in 2007 Mysterious reappearance, in June 2009, of the 1999 National Curriculum Significant reduction in conceptual demand Upward drift in, and removal of, demanding material Decay of understanding of original purpose of National Curriculum Confusion between curriculum and National Curriculum Generic (imprecise) statements driven by a commitment to consensus Confusion regarding an up-to-date and motivating curriculum Confusion between context and concepts

13 Policy potential: understanding the relative performance of different

Policy potential: understanding the relative performance of different

national systems through control factors

1 curriculum content (nc specifications, support materials, etc) 2 assessment and qualifications 3 national framework for qualifications 4 inspection 5 pedagogy 6 professional development 7 institutional development 8 institutional forms and structures (eg size of schools, education phases) 9 allied social measures (linking social care, health care and education) 10 funding 11 governance (autonomy versus direct control) 12 accountability arrangements 13 labour market/professional licensing 14 allied market regulation (eg health and safety legislation; insurance regulation)

14 Curriculum coherence is crucial  a National Curriculum is one means

Curriculum coherence is crucial a National Curriculum is one means

of establishing this note the conundrum regarding textbooks Focus on concepts, principles and fundamental operations arranged in an age-related framework Stable, sparse listing Contextualisation should be controlled by teachers No slavish commitment to a common structure across subjects, bar attending to necessary links Rapid action allied to appropriate long-term direction

My conclusions regarding direction 2010 policy paper

15 Revised specifications in the Primary phase: English, Science and

Revised specifications in the Primary phase: English, Science and

Mathematics

The current review

16 NAHT n500 54% teach 12x12, long division 80% add subtract multiply and

NAHT n500 54% teach 12x12, long division 80% add subtract multiply and

divide fractions 66% algebra 44% taught subjunctive 88% learned names of planets in solar system 90% taught foreign language, 83% in yr3 If implemented in current form 13% help 38% hinder 30% make no difference 19% dont know Detail 26% About right 47% too much 5% not enough 22% dont know

Initial reactions NAHT survey summer 2012

17 Character and structure of the National Curriculum (size, focus,

Character and structure of the National Curriculum (size, focus,

underpinning theory, and design principles) Curriculum coherence content, pedagogy, assessment, support materials, drivers and incentives Teacher quality and teaching quality Demarcations between national requirement and school autonomy locus of control School ethos and balance between National Curriculum elements, taught elements and untaught elements Family culture and national social culture General attitude to innovation Investment in education

A responsible approach to transnational comparisons (note not identical to control factors)

18 Note on populations Singapore 4,839,400 (world bank) Finland 5,313,399

Note on populations Singapore 4,839,400 (world bank) Finland 5,313,399

(worldbank) Hong Kong 6,977,770 (worldbank) Mass 6,593,587 (uscensus) Alberta 2,974,807 (finance and enterprise Alberta) England 51,460,000 (office for national statistics) Korea 48,747,000 (worldbank)

Elements of comparisons.size

19 Elements of comparison: expenditure

Elements of comparison: expenditure

20 Policy potential: understanding the relative performance of different

Policy potential: understanding the relative performance of different

national systems through control factors

1 curriculum content (nc specifications, support materials, etc) 2 assessment and qualifications 3 national framework for qualifications 4 inspection 5 pedagogy 6 professional development 7 institutional development 8 institutional forms and structures (eg size of schools, education phases) 9 allied social measures (linking social care, health care and education) 10 funding 11 governance (autonomy versus direct control) 12 accountability arrangements 13 labour market/professional licensing 14 allied market regulation (eg health and safety legislation; insurance regulation)

21 Some overall comparisons

Some overall comparisons

Mathematics primary Basic structure similar to other nations Number curriculum narrower and less demanding Data handling broader and more demanding Visualization and transformational geometry unique to England Science primary Different structural division - greater disaggregation in some other nations Scientific enquiry shared - but this not a structural element in some other nations Physical processes narrower and less demanding than majority of other nations Life processes narrower but not less demanding overall Scientific enquiry and Materials level of demand similar to other nations Nfer study of Taipei, Hong Kong, Latvia, Netherlands, Ontario, Singapore, British Colombia, Sweden Rudduck G & Sainsbury M Comparison of the Core Primary Curriculum in England to those in other high performing Countries DfES 2008

22 Stand out element

Stand out element

In Primary, fewer things in greater depth Concentration on a small number of attainable goals, mostly of an academic variety or concerned with the individuals relationship to society, rather than a spread of effort across many academic, social, affective and moral goals Reynolds and Farrell 1996

23 The revised specifications available on DfE website http://www

The revised specifications available on DfE website http://www

education.gov.uk/schools/teachingandlearning/curriculum/nationalcurriculum/b0075667/national-curriculum-review-update

English Early acquisition, highly fluent reading by end KS2 and reading for enjoyment Structure and range in writing Development of spoken language Language of grammar, rules and exceptions Cognitive development through memorising writing and poetry Mathematics Developing proportional reasoning Working with decimals and fractions Secure understanding of key concepts Fluency and confidence in four operations Science Separate sciences, for conceptual clarity Classification Life processes, inheritance, evolution Forces, physical structure, properties, states of matter, sound and light Science through the lives of scientific figures Observation, safe tests, recording

24 Ability models and pedagogy

Ability models and pedagogy

Concentration on a small number of attainable goals, mostly of an academic variety or concerned with the individuals relationship to society, rather than a spread of effort across many academic, social, affective and moral goals. Mechanisms to ensure that things are taught properly the first time around, and that there is no trailing edge of children who have to be returned to later (an example from Taiwan is that children have to repeat in the homework books any exercises that they got wrong in their previous homework). The use of the same textbooks by all children, which permits teachers to channel their energy into classroom instruction and the marking of homework, rather than into the production of worksheets that is so much a feature of English teaching. Reynolds and Farrell 1996 p56

25 Transnational analyses do NOT supply a judgement-free solution Using

Transnational analyses do NOT supply a judgement-free solution Using

the control factors Understanding patterns of incentives The partial role of the National Curriculum Embedding the distinction between National Curriculum and School Curriculum Key elements Revision of inspection Review of EYFS Review of teacher supply Review of national assessment Examination of role of textboooks and materials Review of capacity in Primary phase Development of a broader range of performance metrics - including EB Prudent policy involves relaxing some factors and tightening others Recognising that control is a system characteristic, not a top down mechanism

Chasing the right demarcation between control and autonomy

26 Expert Panel recommendations importance of curriculum aims Yes

Expert Panel recommendations importance of curriculum aims Yes

standards emerging from transnational comparisons Yes considerable detail in key subjects Yes two-year block structure to content No reduced scope (crucial elements) but increased specificity (greater precision) Yes using the existing legal categories for the level of prescription in different subjects No change retain statutory breadth to 16 but with less prescription in specification No change - importance of curriculum coherence Yes - change to structure of key stages - KS2 in particular No change challenge of models of progression in primary phase Yes assessment which links to the specifics of the curriculum remove levels Yes importance of spoken language including rich pedagogy Yes emphasis on teaching quality, leadership and intelligent accountability Yes language learning in Primary Phase yr3-6 Yes additional requirements (2012) to publish year on year school curriculum

How much detail, in which areas of the National Curriculum?

27 Has statutory breath decreased

Has statutory breath decreased

No - and fl has been added at primary Have overall aims of the curriculum been neglected, including 'broader aims' of education regartding development of the child? No - they've been re-inforced Is it all about facts? No - the importance of powerful knowledge has been emphasised; deep conceptual learning is emphasised as well as 'joy of reading' 'understanding the wonder of the natural world' 'rich oral exchange' It is over prescriptive is increase in autonomy illusory? No - fewer things have been described with clarity and precisionm, making room for choice over high quality teaching and learning But what if all subjects are stated in the same level of detail as Eng Maths Sci in primary? They won't be - that's one way in which things are being freed up Does it prescribe what happens each week, each year? No - the legal requirement remains reaching a high standard at the end of each key stage - that's the existing law and it will stay that way - schools can depart from the precise year on year scheduling - the year on year specification is to bring greater clarity to expectations, not over-determine the shape of the school curriculum

The reality of the proposed changes

28 Scheduling

Scheduling

Originally: Phase 1 subjects English, mathematics, sciences, and PE Specifications in schools by Sept 2012 for first teaching in Sept 2013 Phase 2 subjects to be determined Specifications in schools by Sept 2013 for first teaching in Sept 2014 Now: Phase 1 and Phase 2 - now on same timetable Specifications in schools by Sept 2013 for first teaching in Sept 2014

29 The National Curriculum is important, but it is not the sole control

The National Curriculum is important, but it is not the sole control

factor the locus of control issues are not to be underestimated autonomy can deliver curriculum coherence but there is a lot to play for and a lot which can go wrong Quality of teaching is critical Focus on key concepts and secure learning The model of progression in primary seems to be vital Maintaining statutory breadth is challenging, and requires a subtle policy approach Continuing problems regarding MFL and classical languages Strong stereotypical participation in public examinations

Issues

The direction of policy: refining the National Curriculum in England
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