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ELEC 5200-001/6200-001 Computer Architecture and Design Spring 2015
ELEC 5200-001/6200-001 Computer Architecture and Design Spring 2015
Historic Events
Historic Events
Z3
Z3
Historic Events
Historic Events
The Atanasoff Story
The Atanasoff Story
National Medal of Technology 1990
National Medal of Technology 1990
Most Influential Document
Most Influential Document
History Continues
History Continues
First General-Purpose Computer
First General-Purpose Computer
Univac: Election, Nov
Univac: Election, Nov
First-Generation Computers
First-Generation Computers
The Organization of IAS Computer
The Organization of IAS Computer
IAS Computer Machine Language
IAS Computer Machine Language
IAS Data Transfer Instructions (7)
IAS Data Transfer Instructions (7)
IAS Unconditional Branch Instructions (2)
IAS Unconditional Branch Instructions (2)
IAS Conditional Branch Instructions (2)
IAS Conditional Branch Instructions (2)
IAS Arithmetic Instructions (8)
IAS Arithmetic Instructions (8)
IAS Address Modify Instructions (2)
IAS Address Modify Instructions (2)
How IAS Computer Adds Two Numbers
How IAS Computer Adds Two Numbers
IAS Computer Machine Code
IAS Computer Machine Code
Save Program in Memory
Save Program in Memory
Executing the Program
Executing the Program
IAS Instruction Cycles
IAS Instruction Cycles
IAS Instruction Cycles (Cont
IAS Instruction Cycles (Cont
Hardware Contains
Hardware Contains
Registers in IAS
Registers in IAS
Register Transfer
Register Transfer
Communication Bus
Communication Bus
Control Circuit – Finite State Machine
Control Circuit – Finite State Machine
Von Neumann Bottleneck
Von Neumann Bottleneck
John von Neumann (1903-1957)
John von Neumann (1903-1957)
Second Generation Computers
Second Generation Computers
Third Generation Computers
Third Generation Computers
C Programming Language and UNIX Operating System
C Programming Language and UNIX Operating System
Theory of Computing
Theory of Computing
Turing Machine
Turing Machine
Turing Machine
Turing Machine
Example
Example
Turing Test
Turing Test
Turing Test in 2014
Turing Test in 2014
Movie: The Imitation Game
Movie: The Imitation Game
Incompleteness Theorem
Incompleteness Theorem
The Barber Paradox By Linda Shaver (An Example of Undecidability)
The Barber Paradox By Linda Shaver (An Example of Undecidability)
The Now Generation
The Now Generation
Useful Reading
Useful Reading
A Question
A Question
Top 10 Prog
Top 10 Prog
Next: The MIPS ISA
Next: The MIPS ISA

Презентация на тему: «Владимира полежаева смотреть». Автор: Vishwani Agrawal. Файл: «Владимира полежаева смотреть.ppt». Размер zip-архива: 2907 КБ.

Владимира полежаева смотреть

содержание презентации «Владимира полежаева смотреть.ppt»
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1 ELEC 5200-001/6200-001 Computer Architecture and Design Spring 2015

ELEC 5200-001/6200-001 Computer Architecture and Design Spring 2015

History of Computers (Chapter 1)

Vishwani D. Agrawal James J. Danaher Professor Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 http://www.eng.auburn.edu/~vagrawal vagrawal@eng.auburn.edu

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2 Historic Events

Historic Events

1623, 1642: Wilhelm Schickard (1592-1635) and Blaise Pascal (1623-1662) built mechanical counters with carry. 1823-34: Charles Babbage designed a difference engine. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0anIyVGeWOI&feature=related 1941: Conrad Zuse (1910-1995) built Z3, the first working programmable computer, built in Germany.

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3 Z3

Z3

Conrad Zuse Z1 (1938) Z2 (1939) Z3 (1941) ? ? ?

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4 Historic Events

Historic Events

1942: Vincent Atanasoff (professor) and Clifford Barry (graduate assistant) built the first electronic computer (ABC) at Iowa State College. 1943-44: John Mauchly (professor) and J. Presper Eckert (graduate student) built ENIAC at U. Pennsylvania, 1623. 1944: Howard Aiken used “separate data and program memories” in MARK I – IV computers – Harvard Architecture. 1945-52: John von Neumann proposed a “stored program computer” EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer) – Von Neumann Architecture – use the same memory for program and data.

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5 The Atanasoff Story

The Atanasoff Story

The First Electronic Computer, the Atanasoff Story, by Alice R. Burks and Arthur W. Burks, Ann Arbor, Michigan: The University of Michigan Press, 1991. The Man Who Invented the Computer: The Biography of John Atanasoff, Digital Pioneer, by Jane Smiley, 256 pages, Doubleday, $25.95.

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6 National Medal of Technology 1990

National Medal of Technology 1990

John Vincent Atanasoff (1903–1995)

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7 Most Influential Document

Most Influential Document

“Preliminary Discussion of the Logical Design of an Electronic Computing Instrument,” 1946 report by A. W. Burks, H. H. Holdstine and J. von Neumann. Appears in Papers of John von Neumann, W. Aspray and A. Burks (editors), MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1987, pp. 97-146.

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8 History Continues

History Continues

1946-52: Von Neumann built the IAS computer at the Institute of Advanced Studies, Princeton – A prototype for most future computers. 1947-50: Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corp. built UNIVAC I (Universal Automatic Computer), used in the 1950 census. 1949: Maurice Wilkes built EDSAC (Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator), the first stored-program computer.

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9 First General-Purpose Computer

First General-Purpose Computer

Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator (ENIAC) built in World War II was the first general purpose computer Used for computing artillery firing tables 80 feet long, 8.5 feet high and several feet wide Twenty 10 digit registers, each 2 feet long Used 18,000 vacuum tubes 5,000 additions/second Weight: 30 tons Power consumption: 140kW

© 2004 Morgan Kaufman Publishers

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10 Univac: Election, Nov

Univac: Election, Nov

4, 1952

Candidate

Candidate

Electoral votes

Electoral votes

Univac prediction

Actual count

Eisenhower

438

442

Stevenson

93

89

Harold Sweeney, operator J. Presper Eckert, co-inventor Walter Cronkite, CBS USA TODAY, Oct 27, 2004, p. B.3

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11 First-Generation Computers

First-Generation Computers

Late 1940s and 1950s Stored-program computers Programmed in assembly language Used magnetic devices and earlier forms of memories Examples: IAS, ENIAC, EDVAC, UNIVAC, Mark I, IBM 701

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12 The Organization of IAS Computer

The Organization of IAS Computer

DATAPATH

CONTROL UNIT

Accumulator (AC)

Multiplier/Quotient (MQ)

Input/ Output Equipment

Arithmetic Logic Circuits

Memory Buffer Register (MBR)

Instr. Buffer (IBR)

Program Counter (PC)

Main Memory (M) 212 x 40 bit words

Instruction Register (IR)

Memory Address Reg. (MAR)

Control Circuit

Control Signals

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13 IAS Computer Machine Language

IAS Computer Machine Language

40-bit word, two machine instructions per word.

Left instruction

Right instruction

bit 0

7 8

19 20

27 28

39

8-bit opcode

12-bit memory address (operand)

Ref: J. P. Hayes, Computer Architecture and Organization, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1978.

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14 IAS Data Transfer Instructions (7)

IAS Data Transfer Instructions (7)

Instruction Opcode Description LOAD MQ 00001010 AC ? MQ LOAD MQ, M(X) 00001001 MQ ? M(X) STOR M(X) 00100001 M(X) ? AC LOAD M(X) 00000001 AC ? M(X) LOAD – M(X) 00000010 AC ? – M(X) LOAD |M(X)| 00000011 AC ? |M(X)| LOAD – |M(X)| 00000100 AC ? – |M(X)|

Ref. W. Stallings, Computer Organization & Architecture, Sixth Edition, Prentice-Hall, 2003, page 23.

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15 IAS Unconditional Branch Instructions (2)

IAS Unconditional Branch Instructions (2)

Instruction Opcode Description JUMP M(X,0:19) 00001101 next instruction M(X,0:19) JUMP M(X,20:39) 00001110 next instruction M(X,20:39)

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16 IAS Conditional Branch Instructions (2)

IAS Conditional Branch Instructions (2)

Instruction Opcode Description JUMP +M(X,0:19) 00001111 IF AC ? 0, then next instruction M(X,0:19) JUMP +M(X,20:39) 00010000 IF AC ? 0, then next instruction M(X,20:39)

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17 IAS Arithmetic Instructions (8)

IAS Arithmetic Instructions (8)

Instruction Opcode Description ADD M(X) 00000101 AC ? AC + M(X) ADD |M(X)| 00000111 AC ? AC + |M(X)| SUB M(X) 00000110 AC ? AC ? M(X) SUB |M(X)| 00001000 AC ? AC ? |M(X)| MUL M(X) 00001011 AC, MQ ? MQ?M(X) DIV M(X) 00001100 MQ, AC ? MQ/M(X) LSH 00010100 AC ? AC x 2 RSH 00010101 AC ? AC / 2

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18 IAS Address Modify Instructions (2)

IAS Address Modify Instructions (2)

Instruction Opcode Description STOR M(X,8:19) 00010010 M(X,8:19) ? AC(28:39) STOR M(X,28:39) 00010011 M(X,28:39) ? AC(28:39)

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19 How IAS Computer Adds Two Numbers

How IAS Computer Adds Two Numbers

Suppose the numbers are stored in memory locations 100 and 101, and The sum is to be saved in memory location 102 Instruction Opcode Description LOAD M(100) 00000001 AC ? M(100) ADD M(101) 00000101 AC ? AC + M(101) STOR M(102) 00100001 M(102) ? AC

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20 IAS Computer Machine Code

IAS Computer Machine Code

00100001 000001100110 00000000 000000000000

00000001 000001100100 00000101 000001100101

Load 100 Add 101

Stor 102 Stop

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21 Save Program in Memory

Save Program in Memory

Memory

Address 0

First program word

Second program word

Address

Load program Counter, PC

Word 100 Word 101 Word 102

Address max

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22 Executing the Program

Executing the Program

DATAPATH

CONTROL UNIT

Accumulator (AC)

Multiplier/Quotient (MQ)

Input/ Output Equipment

Arithmetic Logic Circuits

Memory Buffer Register (MBR)

Instr. Buffer (IBR)

Program Counter (PC)

Main Memory (M) 212 x 40 bit words

Instruction Register (IR)

Memory Address Reg. (MAR)

Control Circuit

Control Signals

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23 IAS Instruction Cycles

IAS Instruction Cycles

Store machine code in contiguous words of memory. Place starting address in program counter (PC). Start program: MAR ? PC Read memory: IBR ? MBR ? M(MAR), fetch Place left instruction (Load) in IR and operand (address) 100 in MAR, decode Read memory: AC ? M(100), execute Place right instruction (Add) in IR and operand (address) 101 in MAR, decode Read memory and add: AC ? AC + M(101), execute PC ? PC + 1

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24 IAS Instruction Cycles (Cont

IAS Instruction Cycles (Cont

MAR ? PC Read memory: IBR ? MBR ? M(MAR), fetch Place left instruction (Stor) in IR and operand (address) 102 in MAR, decode MBR ? AC, execute Write memory Place right instruction (Stop) in IR and operand 000 in MAR, decode Stop, execute

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25 Hardware Contains

Hardware Contains

Data storage devices Memory Registers Instruction decoding and execution devices Execution unit (arithmetic logic unit, ALU) Data transfer buses Control unit

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26 Registers in IAS

Registers in IAS

Register

Size(bits)

Function

Program counter (PC)

12

Holds mem. address of next instruction

Accumulator (AC)

40

Temporary data storage

Multiplier quotient (MQ)

40

Temporary data storage

Memory buffer (MBR)

40

Memory read / write data

Instruction buffer (IBR)

20

Holds right instr. (bits 20-39)

Instruction register (IR)

8

Holds opcode part of instruction

Memory address (MAR)

12

Holds mem. address part of instruction

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27 Register Transfer

Register Transfer

Transfer data synchronously with clock Register to register Register to register through ALU logic Registers to register through memory (write) Register to register through memory (read) Data transfer through communication bus Source register writes on bus Destination register reads from bus Control circuit provides read / write signals for bus and memory

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28 Communication Bus

Communication Bus

A device writing on bus outputs inputs

A device neither writing on nor reading from bus outputs inputs

1 0

0 0

Bus

0 1

Control signals

Control circuit

outputs inputs A device reading from bus

Control signals

Opcode

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29 Control Circuit – Finite State Machine

Control Circuit – Finite State Machine

Start

MAR ? PC PC ? PC+1

Read memory

Decode left instruction

Fetch Instruction

Execute

Decode right instruction

Execute

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30 Von Neumann Bottleneck

Von Neumann Bottleneck

Von Neumann architecture uses the same memory for instructions (program) and data. The time spent in memory accesses can limit the performance. This phenomenon is referred to as von Neumann bottleneck. To avoid the bottleneck, later architectures restrict most operands to registers (temporary storage in processor).

Ref.: D. E. Comer, Essentials of Computer Architecture, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice-Hall, 2005, p. 87.

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31 John von Neumann (1903-1957)

John von Neumann (1903-1957)

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32 Second Generation Computers

Second Generation Computers

1955 to 1964 Transistor replaced vacuum tubes Magnetic core memories Floating-point arithmetic High-level languages used: ALGOL, COBOL and FORTRAN System software: compilers, subroutine libraries, batch processing Example: IBM 7094

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33 Third Generation Computers

Third Generation Computers

Beyond 1965 Integrated circuit (IC) technology Semiconductor memories Memory hierarchy, virtual memories and caches Time-sharing Parallel processing and pipelining Microprogramming Examples: IBM 360 and 370, CYBER, ILLIAC IV, DEC PDP and VAX, Amdahl 470

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34 C Programming Language and UNIX Operating System

C Programming Language and UNIX Operating System

Now

1972

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35 Theory of Computing

Theory of Computing

Alan Turing (1912-1954) gave a model of computing in 1936 – Turing Machine. Original paper: A. M. Turing, “On Computable Numbers with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem*,” Proc. Royal Math. Soc., ser. 2, vol. 42, pp. 230-265, 1936. Recent book: David Leavitt, The Man Who Knew Too Much: Alan Turing and the Invention of the Computer (Great Discoveries), W. W. Norton & Co., 2005. * The question of decidability, posed by mathematician Hilbert.

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36 Turing Machine

Turing Machine

ti

Machine instruction: sh ti oj sk

Processor P

Read-write head

Infinite memory tape (data)

Present state of processor Symbol on tape Operation Next state of processor

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ELEC 5200-001/6200-001 Lecture 2

37 Turing Machine

Turing Machine

Four operations: oj = tj, replace present symbol ti by tj oj = R, move head one position to right oj = L, move head one position to left oj = H, halt the computation Universal Turing Machine: small instruction set, #symbols ? #states < 30; can perform any possible (computable) computation. Computable means that Turing machine halts in finite number of steps. Real computers have finite memory – they find certain problems intractable.

Ref: J. P. Hayes, Computer Architecture and Organization, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1978.

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ELEC 5200-001/6200-001 Lecture 2

38 Example

Example

Start with a blank tape and create a pattern 0b1b0b1b . . . Define symbols: b (blank), 0, 1

Present state

Symbol on tape

Operation

Next state

S0 (begin)

blank

Write 0 and move right

S1

S1

blank

Move right

S2

S2

blank

Write 1 and move right

S3

S3

blank

Move right

S0

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turing_machine_examples

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ELEC 5200-001/6200-001 Lecture 2

39 Turing Test

Turing Test

Can a computer think? (Turing, 1950). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computing_Machinery_and_Intelligence#cite_note-1 A. P. Saygin, I. Cicekli and V. Akman, “Turing Test: 50 Years Later,” Minds and Machines, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 463-518, 2000.

Watson vs. humans: http://www.engadget.com/2011/01/13/ibms-watson-supercomputer-destroys-all-humans-in-jeopardy-pract/

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ELEC 5200-001/6200-001 Lecture 2

40 Turing Test in 2014

Turing Test in 2014

June 8, 2014, The 65 year-old Turing Test was passed for the very first time by computer program Eugene Goostman during Turing Test 2014 held at the renowned Royal Society in London on Saturday. 'Eugene' simulates a 13 year old boy and was developed in Saint Petersburg, Russia. The development team includes Vladimir Veselov and Eugene Demchenko. A program wins the Turing Test if it is mistaken for a human more than 30% of the time. http://www.reading.ac.uk/news-and-events/releases/PR583836.aspx

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41 Movie: The Imitation Game

Movie: The Imitation Game

About English mathematician and logician, Alan Turing, helps crack the Enigma code during World War II. Screenplay: Graham Moore Cast: Benedict Cumberbatch, Keira Knightley, Matthew Goode Trailer: http://www.imdb.com/title/tt2084970/?ref_=nv_sr_1 Release date: November 2014

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ELEC 5200-001/6200-001 Lecture 2

42 Incompleteness Theorem

Incompleteness Theorem

In 1931, the Czech-born mathematician Kurt G?del (1906-1978) demonstrated that within any given branch of mathematics, there would always be some propositions that couldn't be proven either true or false using the rules and axioms. G?del's Theorem has been used to argue that a computer can never be as smart as a human being because the extent of its knowledge is limited by a fixed set of axioms, whereas people can discover unexpected truths. See http://www.miskatonic.org/godel.html and other websites.

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ELEC 5200-001/6200-001 Lecture 2

43 The Barber Paradox By Linda Shaver (An Example of Undecidability)

The Barber Paradox By Linda Shaver (An Example of Undecidability)

In a particular town, there’s a particular barbershop with a peculiar sign in the window that reads: “This barber shaves all and only those men of the town who do not shave themselves.” Question: According to the sign in the window, does the barber shave himself?

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43

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44 The Now Generation

The Now Generation

Personal computers Laptops and Palmtops Networking and wireless SOC and MEMS technology And the future! Biological computing Molecular computing Nanotechnology Optical computing Quantum computing See articles listed on the next slide and available at E7700: Advanced VLSI Design course site, http://www.eng.auburn.edu/~vagrawal/COURSE/E7770_Spr12/course.html

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ELEC 5200-001/6200-001 Lecture 2

45 Useful Reading

Useful Reading

R. I. Bahar, D. Hammerstrom, J. Harlow, W. H. Joyner Jr., C. Lau, D. Marculescu, A. Orailoglu and M. Pedram, “Architectures for Silicon Nanoelectronics and Beyond,” Computer, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 25-33, January 2007. T. Munakata, “Beyond Silicon: New Computing Paradigms, “Comm. ACM, vol. 50, no. 9, pp. 30-34, Sept. 2007. W. Robinett, G. S. Snider, P. J. Kuekes and S. Williams, “Computing with a Trillion Crummy Components,” Comm. ACM, vol. 50, no. 9, pp. 35-39, Sept. 2007. J. Kong, “Computation with Carbon Nanotube Devices,” Comm. ACM, vol. 50, no. 9, pp. 40-42, Sept. 2007. R. Stadler, “Molecular, Chemical and Organic Computing,” Comm. ACM, vol. 50, no. 9, pp. 43-45, Sept. 2007. M. T. Bohr, R. S. Chau, T. Ghani and K. Mistry, "The High-k Solution," IEEE Spectrum, vol. 44, no. 10, pp. 29-35, October 2007. J. H. Reif and T. H. Labean, “Autonomous Programmable Biomolecular Devices using Self-Assembled DNA Nanostructures,” Comm. ACM, vol. 50, no. 9, pp. 46-53, Sept. 2007. D. Bacon and D. Leung, “Toward a World with Quantum Computers,” Comm. ACM, vol. 50, no. 9, pp. 55-59, Sept. 2007. H. Abdeldayem and D. A. Frazier, “Optical Computing: Need and Challenge,” Comm. ACM, vol. 50, no. 9, pp. 60-62, Sept. 2007. D. W. M. Marr and T. Munakata, “Micro/Nanofluidic Computing,” Comm. ACM, vol. 50, no. 9, pp. 64-68, Sept. 2007. M. Aono, M. Hara and K. Aihara, “Amoeba-Based Neurocomputing with Chaotic Dynamics,” Comm. ACM, vol. 50, no. 9, pp. 69-72, Sept. 2007. C. C. Lo and J. J. L. Morton, “Silicon’s Second Act, Can this semiconductor workhorse take computing tnto the quantum era?” IEEE Spectrum, vol. 51, no. 8, pp. 36-43, Aug. 2014.

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46 A Question

A Question

Which is the most popular programming language today? A: http://spectrum.ieee.org/static/interactive-the-top-programming-languages

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47 Top 10 Prog

Top 10 Prog

Languages

W: Web M: Mobile D: Desktop/Enterprise E: Embedded Scores are normalized so that the top-ranked language’s score is set to 100. Source: IEEE Spectrum July 2014

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48 Next: The MIPS ISA

Next: The MIPS ISA

MIPS (Microprocessor without Interlocked Pipeline Stages) is a reduced instruction set architecture.

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ELEC 5200-001/6200-001 Lecture 2

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